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  • 1.
    Bagge, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Enochsson, Ola
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lundmark, Tore
    Ramböll Sverige AB, Luleå.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Protecting a five span prestressed bridge against ground deformations2015In: IABSE Conference Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges, Geneva: International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering, 2015, p. 255-262Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A 55 year-old, 121.5 m long, five span prestressed bridge was situated in the deformation zone close to a mine in Kiruna in northern Sweden. There was a risk for uneven ground deformations so the bridge was analyzed and monitored. Results and measures taken to ascertain the robustness of the bridge are presented.The analysis resulted in an estimate that the bridge could sustain 24 mm in uneven horizontal and 83 mm in uneven vertical displacement of the two supports of a span. To be able to sustain larger deformations, the columns of the bridge were provided with joints, where shims could be inserted to counteract the settlements. To accomplish this, each one of the 18 columns of the bridge was unloaded by help of provisional steel supports. The column was then cut and a new foot was mounted to it. This made it possible to lift each individual column with two jacks, when needed, and to adjust its height by inserting or taking away shim plates.The deformations of the bridge and the surrounding ground were monitored. The eigenmodes of the bridge were studied with accelerometers and by analysis with finite elements (FE) models. Comparison indicated good agreement between the model and the actual bridge, with calculated eigenfrequencies of 2.17, 4.15 and 4.67 Hz, for the first transversal, vertical and torsional modes, respectively. Measurements during winter resulted in higher values due to increased stiffness caused by frozen materials.

  • 2.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Häggström, Jens
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilimaa, Jonny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Paulsson, Björn
    UIC, Trafikverket.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Test to failure of a steel truss bridge: Calibration of assessment methods2014In: Bridge Maintenance, Safety, Management and Life Extension: proceedings of the Seventh International Conference of Bridge Maintenance, Safety and Management, 7-11 July 2014, Shanghai, China / [ed] Airong Chen; Dan M. Frangopol; Xin Ruan, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2014, p. 1076-1081Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The steel truss railway bridge at Åby River was built in 1957 with a span of 32 m (105 feet). In 2012 it was replaced by a new steel beam bridge and the old bridge was placed beside the river. It was tested to failure to study its remaining load-carrying capacity in September 2013. The test was carried out by Luleå University of Technology by commission from Trafikverket as a part of the European Research Project MAINLINE (www.mainline-project.eu). In this paper some preliminary results are given. Two hydraulic jacks, anchored by cables to the bedrock, pulled the bridge downwards. The bridge remained elastic up to about three times the original design load and the load could then be almost doubled with substantial yielding deformations before a buckling failure appeared in the top girders for a load of ca. 11 MN (1000 short tons) for a midpoint deflection of ca. 0, 2 m (8 inches). No brittle or fatigue failure in any of the joints appeared and the bridge proved to behave in a ductile way with a substantial hidden capacity.

  • 3.
    Duvnjak, Ivan
    et al.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Damjanović, Domagoj
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Damage Detection in Structures – Examples2019In: IABSE Symposium 2019: Towards a Resilent Built Environment - Risk and Asset Management, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Damage assessment of structures includes estimation of location and severity of damage. Quite often it is done by using changes of dynamic properties, such as natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios, determined on undamaged and damaged structures. The basic principle is to use dynamic properties of a structure as indicators of any change of its stiffness and/or mass. In this paper, two new methods for damage detection are presented and compared. The first method is based on comparison of normalised modal shape vectors determined before and after damage. The second method uses so-called 𝑙1-norm regularized finite element model updating. Some important properties of these methods are demonstrated using simulations on a Kirchhoff plate. The pros and cons of the two methods are discussed. Unique aspects of the methods are highlighted.

  • 4.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Signal processing in modal analysis of bridges2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5. Enochsson, Ola
    et al.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Gruvvägsbron I Kiruna: Deformationskapacitet2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En bedömning har gjorts av hur stora deformationer Gruvvägsbron i Kiruna kan klara med bibehållen bärförmåga. I projektet har mätningar av brons beteende vid statisk och dynamisk belastning utförts under vinter- respektive sommarförhållanden. Mätningarna har utvärderats och analyserats med FEMprogram för att kunna bedöma brons styvhet och deformationskapacitet. Syftet har varit att undersöka hur mycket bron klarar av i stödförändringar på grund av gruvdriften. Preliminära gränsvärden för stödförändringar har tagits fram.Brons statiska funktionssätt är tillfredsställande. Enligt hittillsvarande mätningar (t o m dec 2010) har endast små markrörelser ägt rum vilket inte nämnvärt påverkar brons funktion.Brons dynamiska funktionssätt är också tillfredsställande. Uppmätta egenmoder och egenfrekvenser är normala för denna typ av förspänd balkbro. Bron är förhållandevis styv och de analytiska och numeriska beräkningar(FEM-analyser) som gjorts tyder på att den har förhållandevis begränsad deformationskapacitet. Vi bedömer att bron klarar följande lokala deformationsskillnad mellan två närliggande pelare: (a) i horisontalled ca 40mm och (b) i vertikalled ca 80 mm. Om tillåtna värden sätts till hälften av de möjliga erhålls:Tillåten differens för rörelse(a) i tvärled mellan en pelares över- och underkant till = ca 20 mm(b) i höjdled mellan två intilliggande stöd till = ca 40 mmVärdena kan komma att revideras (förfinas) i samband med att resultat blir tillgängliga från fortsatta mätningar och observationer av brons beteende.Några markrörelser av betydelse inträffade inte mellan november 2006 och 2008, men under 2009 och 2010 har rörelser skett med några mm. Brons längdändring på grund av temperaturvariationer är dock betydligt större. Bronär ca 3 – 4 cm längre på sommaren än på vintern. Eftersom markrörelserna förväntas bli betydligt större i samband med att gruvans brytningsfront närmar sig bron försågs brons pelare under sommaren2010 med en anordning rdning så att deras läge kan justeras om markrörelserna blirojämna.

  • 6.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Non-iterative calibration for accelerometers with three non-orthogonal axes and cross-axis interference2012Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Forsberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Non-iterative calibration for accelerometers with three non-orthogonal axes, reliable measurement setups and simple supplementary equipment2013In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 24, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The input-output relationship of an accelerometer depends on parameters that are sensitive to temperature and air humidity. High accuracy field measurements therefore require simple in-field estimation of these parameters.We present an extension of a simple non-iterative six-parameter calibration method for triaxial accelerometers with orthogonal input axes to a nine-parameter method that also handles non-orthogonal axes and cross-axis interference.We derive necessary and sufficient conditions on the accelerometer output that guarantee that the nine parameters can be uniquely determined from the calibration measurements in an idealized scenario with no noise or quantization errors. The method is based on measurements of the Earth gravity with the accelerometer placed at rest in at least nine different orientations.The choice of orientations is important for measurement accuracy. We compare two different setups, one called A090-45, which is based on 90 and 45 degree rotations of the accelerometer and one called A0max sep that has maximized smallest angle between any two of the orientations. For the A090-45 setup we have constructed a simple test equipment for quick positionings of the accelerometer. For the A0max sep setup, a similar equipment is more complicated to construct, but equally simple to use.We have done Monte Carlo simulations with accelerometer orientations deviating at most D degrees from the desired A090-45 or A0max sep and with D ranging from 1◦ to 30◦. For real-world noisy environments and D up to 18◦, our simulations showed slightly smaller errors for the A0max sep than for the A090-45 setup. For noise standard deviation typical for our field measurements, the measurement errors after nine-parameter calibration were about 100 times smaller than those for six-parameter calibration both for the A0max sep setup and, as long as D ≤ 13◦ for the A090-45 setup. For the A090-45 setup, however, we found that combinations of large noise levels and/or large D can makesix-parameter calibration the better choice.

  • 8.
    Grip, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simple non-iterative calibration for triaxial accelerometers2011Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Grip, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Simple non-iterative calibration for triaxial accelerometers2011In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 22, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For high precision measurements, accelerometers need recalibration between different measurement occasions. In this paper we derive a simple calibration method for triaxial accelerometers with orthogonal axes. Just like previously proposed iterative methods, we compute the calibration parameters (biases and gains) from measurements of the Earth gravity for six different unknown orientations of the accelerometer. However, our method is non-iterative, so there are no complicated convergence issues depending on input parameters, round-off errors etc.The main advantages of our method are that only from the accelerometer output voltages it gives a complete knowledge of whether it is possible, with any method, to recover the accelerometer biases and gains from the output voltages, and when this is possible, we have a simple explicit formula for computing them with a smaller number of arithmetic operations than previous iterative approaches. Moreover, we show that such successful recovery is guaranteed if the six calibration measurements deviate with angles smaller than some upper bound from a natural setup with two horizontal axes. We provide an estimate from below of this upper bound that, for instance, allows 5 degree deviations in arbitrary directions for the Colibrys SF3000L accelerometers in our lab.

  • 10.
    Grip, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Sensitivity-based model updating for structural damage identification using total variation regularization2017In: Mechanical systems and signal processing, ISSN 0888-3270, E-ISSN 1096-1216, Vol. 84, no A, p. 365-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensitivity-based Finite Element Model Updating (FEMU) is one of the widely accepted techniques used for damage identification in structures. FEMU can be formulated as a numerical optimization problem and solved iteratively making automatic updating of the unknown model parameters by minimizing the difference between measured and analytical structural properties. However, in the presence of noise in the measurements, the updating results are usually prone to errors. This is mathematically described as instability of the damage identification as an inverse problem. One way to resolve this problem is by using regularization. In this paper, we compare a well established interpolation-based regularization method against methods based on the minimization of the total variation of the unknown model parameters. These are new regularization methods for structural damage identification. We investigate how using Huber and pseudo Huber functions in the definition of total variation affects important properties of the methods. For instance, for well-localized damages the results show a clear advantage of the total variation based regularization in terms of the identified location and severity of damage compared with the interpolation-based solution.For a practical test of the proposed method we use a reinforced concrete plate. Measurements and analysis were performed first on an undamaged plate, and then repeated after applying four different degrees of damage.

  • 11.
    Grip, Niklas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Southeast University, Nanjing.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Vibrationsanalys för tillståndsbedömning av byggkonstruktioner: Tillämpningsexempel : (Main results and summary in Swedish. Detailed results in English Appendices.)2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the project,methods are presented and appliedfor assessment ofdifferent types ofbuilding structures with and without damages.The assessmentis done withhelp ofvibration analysis.Detection of defects of different types and sizes are discussed. The influence of boundary conditions isstudied in order to get agreement between predicted and measured Eigen modes and Eigen frequencies.With the program that has been developed,is it now possible to detect cracks in simple concrete structures with help of measurements of vibrations. For more advanced structures there is a potentialto further develop the program. Measurements and analyses have been made for fivestructures:(1) A concrete slab–Cracks have been detected based on vibrationmeasurementsand a successivelyupdated Finite Element Model (FEM).(2) Aconcrete archbridge at Långforsen in Kalix River-Unknown boundary conditions havebeen possible todetermine with help of vibration measurementsregarding for example foundation properties. Detection of specific damages hasnot yet been possible.(3) A steel truss bridge over Åby River–Some detection of damages hasbeen possible to carry outwith Finite Element Model updatingregarding corrosion and mechanical damages.. (4) A prestressed concrete bridge to the mine in Kiruna-Several models of theundamaged and damagedbridgehave been established and they have been calibrated to measured vibration propertieswith good results.(5) A nine storey concrete building in Luleå–A FEM model has been developedfor the serviceability limit stateand results from it has been compared to measured vibrationswith good results.A general presentation is given ofthe developedmethods and resultsin the main text. Detailed descriptions are provided in Appendices.A program is presented with ready-to-use models for the studied structures. The program may be downloaded and is presented in detail in an Appendix.

  • 12.
    Huang, Zheng
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yong-Ming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Modelling of Damage and its Use in Assessment of a Prestressed Bridge2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A 55 years old and 121.5 m long ve-span prestressed bridge has been subjected toshear failure test in Kiruna, Sweden. This in-situ test is a desirable test to validate andcalibrate the existing nonlinear nite element program for predicting the shear behaviorof reinforced and prestressed concrete structures.Two 3D nite element (FE) models of the Kiruna Bridge are built in commercial soft-ware Abaqus, one using shell-elements and one using a combination of shell and beam ele-ments. Predictions obtained from these two models are well consistent with mode shapesand eigenfrequencies computed from acceleration measurements on the bridge before andafter loading it to failure. Shear-failure test of this bridge performed by Lulea Universityof Technology (LTU) is also simulated using the built-in concrete damage plasticity (CDP)model in Abaqus. The predicted load-displacement curve is in good agreement with themeasurement. Verication of the CDP model is conducted at element and member levelwith two dierent damage parameter evolutions. According to the verication, it indi-cates the damage parameter will aect the predicted shear behavior of reinforced concretestructures and it is not reliable to adopt the CDP model to simulate the shear behaviorof reinforced concrete structures based on the present research.A long term goal is to use use the measured mode shapes, eigenfrequencies and FEmodels for evaluating methods for damage identication. Such methods are important formaintenance of dierent structures, for extending their life span and for better knowledgeof their load carrying capacity. We describe how so-called sparse regularization niteelement method updating (FEMU) methods can be used. We then demonstrate someimportant properties of such methods with simulations on a Kirchho plate. For instance,the simulations suggest that both eigenfrequencies and mode shapes should be used forprecise localization of the damage.

  • 13.
    Huang, Zheng
    et al.
    Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Tu, Yong-Ming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Bagge, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Modelling of Damage and its use in Assessment of a PrestressedConcrete Bridge2016In: IABSE CONGRESS, STOCKHOLM, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovativeand Sustainable Built Environment / [ed] Lennart Elfgren, Johan Jonsson, Mats Karlsson, Lahja Rydberg-Forssbeck and Britt Sigfrid, CH - 8093 Zürich, Switzerland, 2016, p. 2093-2108Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A five-span prestressed concrete bridge has been subjected to a loading test up to failure in Kiruna, Sweden. The bridge was 55 years old and had a length of 121.5 m. The test has been used to validate and calibrate existing nonlinear finite element programs for predicting the shear behavior of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures. Two 3D finite element (FE) models of the Kiruna Bridge are built in commercial software Abaqus, one using shell-elements and one using a combination of shell and beam elements. Predictions obtained from these two models are well consistent with mode shapes and eigenfrequencies computed from acceleration measurements on the bridge before and after loading it to failure.The shear failure of the bridge is also simulated using the built-in concrete damage plasticity (CDP)model in Abaqus. The predicted load-displacement curve is in good agreement with the measurements. Verification of the CDP model is conducted at element and member level with two different damage parameter evolutions. The verification indicates that the damage parameter will affect the predicted shear behavior. It does not seem to be reliable to adopt the CDP model to simulate the shear behavior in the present research. A long term goal is to use use the measured mode shapes, eigenfrequencies and FE models for evaluating methods for damage identification. Such methods are important for maintenance of different structures, for extending their life span and for better knowledge of their load carrying capacity. The use is described of so-called sparse regularized finite element method updating (FEMU) methods. Some important properties of such methods are demonstrated using simulations on a Kirchhoff plate. For instance, the simulations suggest that both eigenfrequencies and mode shapes should be used for precise localization of the damage.

  • 14.
    Maligranda, Lech
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    On Clarkson's inequality in the real case2007In: Mathematische Nachrichten, ISSN 0025-584X, E-ISSN 1522-2616, Vol. 280, no 12, p. 1363-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The best constant in a generalized complex Clarkson inequality is Cp,q () = max {21-1/p , 21/q , 21/q -1/p +1/2} which differs moderately from the best constant in the real case Cp,q () = max {21-1/p , 21/q ,Bp,q }, where . For 1 < q < 2 < p < the constant Cp,q () is equal to Bp,q and these numbers are difficult to calculate in general. As applications of the generalized Clarkson inequalities the (p, q)-Clarkson inequalities in Lebesgue spaces, in mixed norm spaces and in normed spaces are presented.

  • 15.
    Maligranda, Lech
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Real and complex operator norms between quasi-banach Lp -L q spaces2011In: Mathematical Inequalities & Applications, ISSN 1331-4343, E-ISSN 1848-9966, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 247-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations between the norms of an operator and its complexification as a mapping from Lp to Lq has been recognized as a serious problem in analysis after the publication of Marcel Riesz's work on convexity and bilinear forms in 1926. We summarize here what it is known about these relations in the case of normed Legesgue spaces and investigate the quasinormed case, i. e. we consider all 0 < p,q ≤ 8 . In particular, in the lower triangle, that is, for 0< p≤q≤∞ these norms are the same. In the upper triangle and the normed case, that is, when 1 ≤ q < p ≤ ∞ the norm of the complexification of a real operator is obviously not bigger than 2 times its real norm. In 1977 Krivine proved that the constant 2 can be replaced by √2 . On the other hand, it was suspected that in the case of quasi-normed Lebesgue spaces (0 < q < p ≤ ∞ ) the corresponding constant could be arbitrarily large, but as we will see this is not the case. More precisely, we prove that this constant for quasi-normed Lebesgue spaces is between 1 and 2. Some additional properties and estimates of this constant with some results about the relation between complex and real norms of operators, including those between two-dimensional Orlicz spaces are presented in the first four chapters. Finally, in Chapter 5, we use the results on the estimates of the norms in the proof of the real Riesz-Thorin interpolation theorem valid in the first quadrant

  • 16.
    Qin, Xiao-Chuan
    et al.
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University.
    Meng, Shao-Ping
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University.
    Cao, Da-Fu
    School of Civil Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University.
    Tu, Yong-Ming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Evaluation of freeze-thaw damage on concrete material and prestressed concrete specimens2016In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 125, p. 892-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pore structure of the hardened concrete and the microscopic changes of a few selected pores throughout the freeze-thaw test were investigated by a method combining RapidAir and digital metalloscope. Traditional tests were also performed to evaluate the macroscopic change caused by freeze-thaw cycles (FTCs). The investigation shows that the concrete material, of which the spacing factor is 0.405 mm and the air content is 2.38%, can still withstand more than 300 FTCs. Severe microscopic damages occurred after approximately 200 FTCs and the freeze-thaw damage were gradually aggravated afterwards. Prestress forces have a remarkable impact on the failure pattern under FTCs. It was further found that the compressive strength as an indicator is more reliable than the relative dynamic modulus of elasticity in evaluating the freeze-thaw damage on concrete material. In addition, the test and analysis show that the measured prestress losses of bonded specimen are larger than that of unbounded specimen under the attack of FTCs due to the duct grouting effect. The ultimate freeze-thaw prestress loss is about 5% of σconσcon for both the bonded and unbonded specimens because the grouting cement paste will eventually be completely destroyed.

  • 17.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Real and complex operator norms2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Any bounded linear operator between real (quasi-)Banach spaces T : X ® Y has a natural bounded complex linear extension TC : XC ® YC defined by the formula TC(x+iy)=Tx+iTy for x,yÎX, where XC and YC are so called reasonable complexifications of X and Y, respectively. We are interested in the exact relation between the norms of the operators TC and T. This relation can be expressed in terms of the constant gX,Y appearing in the inequality||TC|| £ gX,Y ||T|| considered for all bounded linear operators T : X®Y between (quasi-)Banach spaces. The work on the constant gLp,Lq for 0 < p,q £ ¥, or shortly gp,q, is traced back to M. Riesz, Thorin, Marcinkiewicz, Zygmund, Verbitckii, Krivine, Gasch, Maligranda, Defant and others. In this thesis we try to summarize the results of these authors. We also present some new estimates for gp,q in the case when at least one of the spaces is quasi-Banach as well as in the case when the spaces are supplied with discrete measures. For example, we get that gp,q £ 2 for all 0 < p,q £ ¥. Furthermore we obtain some new results concerning the relation between complex and real norms of the operators between spaces of functions of bounded p-variation and between mixed norm Lebesgue spaces. Looking for the criteria of the equality of real and complex norms of operators from a Banach lattice into the same Banach lattice we find a number of examples of two dimensional Orlicz spaces different from Lebesgue spaces and a simple operator between them with non-equal real and complex norms. We also consider in detail the Clarkson inequality which can be interpreted in terms of a certain operator norm inequality appearing as an example in many parts of the thesis. It turns out that complex norm of this operator can be easily obtained but to find the real one is not so trivial. With the help of the Clarkson inequality we construct an operator between Lebesgue spaces with non-atomic measures which has different real and complex norms. Finally, we consider both complex and real versions of the Riesz-Thorin interpolation theorem in the first quadrant and by using numbers gp,q find, for example, that the real Riesz constant is bounded by 2 for all 0 < p,q £ ¥.

  • 18.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    School of Civil Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Duvnjak, Ivan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Damjanović, Domagoj
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Detection of Sparse Damages in Structures2019In: IABSE Symposium 2019: Towards a Resilent Built Environment - Risk and Asset Management, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural damage is often a spatially sparse phenomenon, i.e. it occurs only in a small part of the structure. This property of damage has not been utilized in the field of structural damage identification until quite recently, when the sparsity-based regularization developed in the compressed sensing found its application in this field.

    In this paper we consider classical sensitivity-based finite element model updating combined with a regularization technique appropriate for the expected type of sparse damage. Traditionally (1) 𝑙2-norm regularization was used to solve the ill-posed inverse problems, such as damage identification. However, using (2) already well established 𝑙1-norm regularization or (3) our proposed 𝑙1-norm total variation regularization and (4) general dictionary-based regularization allows us to find damages with special spatial properties quite precisely using much fewer measurement locations than the number of possibly damaged elements of the structure. The validity of the proposed methods is demonstrated using simulations on a Kirchhoff plate model. The pros and cons of these methods are discussed.

  • 19.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Puurula, Arto
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Enochsson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Carolin, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Thun, Håkan
    The railway concrete arch bridge over Kalix river: dynamic properties and load carrying capacity2012In: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community: proceedings of the International FIB Symposium 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, 11 - 14 June 2012 / [ed] Dirch H Bager; Johan Silfwerbrand, Stockholm: Swedish Concrete Association , 2012, p. 609-612Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Wang, Chao
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Southeast University, Nanjing, China.
    Enochsson, Ola
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Boden Kommun.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Ohlsson, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Railway Concrete Arch Bridge over Kalix River at Långforsen: Dynamic Properties and Load-Carrying Capacity2019Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concrete arch bridge over Kalix River at Långforsen was built in 1960 and has a mid-span of 89,5 m and a height of 13,7 m. The bridge owner, Trafikverket, wanted to increase its allowable axle load from 225 to 300 kN. Field tests were carried out under service condition and with ambient vibrations. The test results were used to update and validate Finite Element Models. At last, the refined models were used to check the possibility to increase the axle load.

     

    According to earlier assessments, most parts of the bridge is capable of carrying an axle load of 330 kN. The only critical sections are located in the beams carrying the rail on top of the arch in the section where the beams are united with the arch. Here the stresses in the longitudinal bottom reinforcement are slightly too high.

     

    These sections have been studied in a FEM model for different loads and results show maximum strains of about 50·10-6 corresponding to stresses of only about 10 MPa in the reinforcement in the critical sections. Live load vertical deflections of the crown of the arch is of the order of only ± 6 mm. Dynamic studies have also been made showing that fatigue is no issue. Altogether the studies show that the bridge is able to carry an increased axle load of 300 kN without problems.

  • 21.
    Wang, Chao
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. South East University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhang, JIwen
    South East University, Nanjing, China.
    Tu, Yongming
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. South East University, Nanjing, China.
    Sabourova, Natalia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Grip, Niklas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mathematical Science.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Fatigue Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Railway Bridge based on a Coupled Dynamic System2020In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a fatigue damage assessment methodology of a reinforced concrete bridge based on a train bridge coupled dynamic analysis system. This coupling system is composed of a vehicle a ballasted track and a bridge structure to realize a coupled vibration analysis during train passages. This methodology adopts the Palmgren Miner rule to linearly accumulate fatigue damage, and accomplishes fatigue assessment based on recommended SN relationships for reinforced concrete from various criteria. In this paper, the dynamic performances of a bridge structure are analyzed with two different vehicle models, a moving load model (and a moving spring mass damper model). Calculated dynamic stresses areused to evaluate the fatigue damage of critical positions in a reinforced concrete bridge. A case study is carried out of a railway arch bridge with a span of 89 m, Långforsen Bridge. It runs over Kalix River on the railway between Kalix and Morjärv in northern Sweden The fatigue assessment is made by combining the presented methodology with measurements. Furthermore, the effects of train speed and axle load on fatigue damage are investigated. The results indicate that good estimations of the fatigue damage assessment are made for four measured cases based on a train-bridge coupled dynamic analysis. For low speeds and light loads no difference could be seen in the cumulative fatigue damage for the two vehicle models. But high speeds and/or heavy load ssignificantly affect the fatigue damage.

1 - 21 of 21
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