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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Blom, Åsa
    Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, Faculty of Technology, Linnaeus University.
    Effect of oil impregnation on water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility of thermally-modified European aspen and downy birch wood2017Inngår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 74-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional chemical wood preservatives have been banned or restricted in some applications due to human and animal toxicity and their adverse impact on the surrounding environment. New, low-environmental-impact wood treatments that still provide effective protection systems are needed to protect wood. Thermal modification of wood could reduce hygroscopicity, improve dimensional stability and enhance resistance to mold attack. The aim of this study is to investigate if these properties enhanced in thermally-modified (TM) wood through treatments with oils. In this study, TM European aspen (Populus tremula) and downy birch (Betula pubescens) wood were impregnated with three different types of oil: water-miscible commercial Elit Träskydd (Beckers oil with propiconazole and 3-iodo-2-propynyl butylcarbamate, IPBC), a pine tar formulation and 100% tung oil. The properties of oil-impregnated wood investigated were water repellency, dimensional stability and mold susceptibility. The treated wood especially with pine tar and tung oil, showed an increase in water repellency and dimensional stability. However, Beckers oil which contains biocides like propiconazole and IPBC, showed better protection against mold compared with pine tar and tung oil. To enhance the dimensional stability of the wood, pine tar and tung oil can be used, but these oil treatments did not significantly improve mold resistance rather sometimes enhanced the mold growth. Whereas, a significant anti-mold effect was observed on Beckers oil treated samples.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Evaluation of preservative distribution in thermally modified European aspen and birch boards using computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy2013Inngår i: Journal of Wood Science, ISSN 1435-0211, E-ISSN 1611-4663, Vol. 59, nr 1, s. 57-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this experiment was to impregnate thermally modified wood using an easy and cost-effective method. Industrially processed thermally modified European aspen (Populus tremula L.) and birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were collected and secondarily treated at the laboratory scale with the preservatives tung oil, pine tar and Elit Träskydd (Beckers) using a simple and effective method. Preservative uptake and distribution in sample boards were evaluated using computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Preservative uptake and treatability in terms of void volume filled were found the highest in Beckers and the lowest in tung oil-treated samples. Thermally modified samples had lower treatability than their counterpart control samples. More structural changes after thermal modification, especially in birch, significantly reduced the preservative uptake and distribution. The differences of preservatives uptake near the end grain were high and then decreased near the mid position of the samples length as compared with similar type of wood sample. Non-destructive evaluation by CT scanning provided a very useful method to locate the preservative gradients throughout the sample length. SEM analysis enabled the visualization of the preservative deposits in wood cells at the microstructural level.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Uneven distribution of preservative in kiln-dried sapwood lumber of Scots pine: Impact of wood structure and resin allocation2012Inngår i: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 66, nr 2, s. 251-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood lumber was collected after kiln drying and preservative treatment with Celcure AC 800 (a copper-amine wood preservative). Distribution of the preservative throughout the lumber was visually examined. Not all, but some samples showed specific localized areas without any preservative distribution throughout their entire length. Those samples were assessed further for anatomical properties, specifically in impregnated and unimpregnated areas. Additional study was conducted on the morphological nature and redistribution of lipophilic extractives using three different histochemical staining methods. Intrinsic wood properties – especially the frequency of axial resin canals and the percentage of canals blocked – were found to be responsible for the irregular distribution of the preservative. Furthermore, the inability to create continuous and frequent interstitial spaces due to the collapse of thin-walled ray cells throughout the lumber resulted in uneven distribution of preservatives. Staining techniques were useful to localize places with more or less abundance of extractives (e.g., fats) in impregnated and unimpregnated wood, which varied considerably. Histochemical observations revealed information pertaining to the kiln dry specific distribution and redistribution of extractives between the areas. Moreover, resin reallocation and modification in ray parenchyma and resin canals induced by kiln drying would be another reason for the impregnation anomalies.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Development of a new rapid method for mould testing in a climate chamber: Preliminary tests2013Inngår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 451-461Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop fast, simple and robust solid wood mould testing methods for the use in small-scale laboratory tests. The objective was to investigate mould susceptibility of different wood materials within the batches. The proposed method is based on natural contamination of non-sterile surfaces in climates conducive to mould growth. For this purpose, a climate chamber with regulated temperature and relative humidity was used. The conditioning chamber was divided into upper and lower chamber by a thin layer of stainless steel placed horizontally above the fan to minimise air circulation to the sample in the upper compartment. Mould-infected samples from outdoor tests were used as a source of mould inocula, and test trials were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood. Samples were suspended from the top of the upper chamber, and the chamber was exposed to different temperature and humidity levels. Severe mould infestation was observed after 12-14 days of incubation. Visual mould rating was then performed. Regardless of some constraints, this test method was very simple, fast, and effective. More importantly, unlike other test methods, it closely models mould infestation as it would occur under natural condition.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Mould susceptibility of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood: Impact of drying, thermal modification, and copper-based preservative2013Inngår i: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 85, s. 284-288Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of mould on wood surfaces depends on several factors. Although mould does not affect the mechanical properties of wood, it greatly reduces the aesthetic value of wood like the sapwood of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), which is very prone to mould. In addition, adverse health effects of mould on humans are also a great concern. Different types of dried and treated wood were used to observe whether they had enhanced durability against mould following an accelerated laboratory test method in a climate chamber. Samples were green, air-dried, industrially thermally-modified, treated with copper-based preservative, and kiln-dried wood, which were tested within a single test run. The test produced the following main results: the thermal modification increased the durability of the wood, and the protective effectiveness of alternative treatments was comparable to that of commercially available copper-based treatment. However, the initial moisture content of the samples during mould exposure had a great influence on the onset of mould growth. The risk of mould susceptibility of industrial kiln-dried lumber can be reduced by drying using the double-layering technique which likely forced the nutrients to deposit near the evaporation surfaces followed by planing off the nutrient enriched edges.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Sheikh Ali
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Yang, Qian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Accelerated mold test on dried pine sapwood boards: Impact of contact heat treatment2013Inngår i: Journal of wood chemistry and technology, ISSN 0277-3813, E-ISSN 1532-2319, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 174-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We test the hypothesis that the combination of kiln drying of double-stacked boards and contact heat treatment will reduce the susceptibility of treated boards to colonization by mold fungi. Winter-felled Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood boards were double-stacked in an industrial kiln in ‘‘sapwood out’’ and ‘‘sapwood in’’ positions. Dried samples were then contact heat-treated using a hot press at three different temperatures (140°C, 170°C, and 200°C) for three different periods (1, 3, and 10 min). Accelerated mold test was performed in a climate chamber where naturally mold infected samples were used as a source of mold inocula. Contact heat treatment degraded the saccharides which accumulated at dried surfaces, and reduced the mold growth. The threshold temperature and time for inhibiting mold growth was 170°C for 10 min. But, for industrial application, the most feasible combination of temperature and time would be 200°C for 3 min. We concluded that double stacking/contact heat treatment used is an environmentally friendly alternative to chemicals for reducing mold on Scots pine sapwood boards.

  • 7.
    Buck, Dietrich
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Wallentén, Petter
    Division of Building Physics, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Impregnation of Wood / End Grain Treatment2021Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents the findings of a study conducted by Luleå University of Technology (LTU) and Lund University (LTH) on the effect of edge treatment on the end grain of cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements. The objective of the study was to identify whether edge treatment influences the moisture performance and mould risk of CLT.The investigation was conducted through controlled laboratory studies, utilising standardised procedures. Specifically, the end grain of the CLT specimens was exposed to moisture by placing them in contact with a free water surface for 96 hours. Following this exposure, the specimens were dried under controlled conditions. X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning was used to estimate the moisture content of the specimens and provide detailed spatial information about the moisture distribution within the wood.To further evaluate the effectiveness of edge treatment, the experimental moisture content assessments were compared to values by WUFI simulations. Additionally, annual data for the simulations were conducted using climate data from three different locations: Lund, Stockholm, and Borlänge. These simulations assessed the theoretical impact of edge treatment on mould risk under different climatic conditions.Results revealed that edge treatment has potential to reduce moisture content and mitigate mould risk in CLT elements. Experimentally assessed moisture content values were consistently lower in edge-treated specimens compared to untreated specimens. The calculations and simulations supported these findings, showing a distinct reduction in moisture accumulation and mould risk in edge-treated CLT elements.This study provides insights into the effect of edge treatment on the moisture performance and mould risk in CLT elements. The findings suggest that implementing appropriate edge treatment techniques can enhance the durability of CLT structures, particularly for worksites in regions where climatic conditions fluctuate over the course of construction. Further research and testing are warranted to explore additional factors influencing the effectiveness of edge treatment in CLT applications.

  • 8.
    Buck, Dietrich
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Wallentén, Petter
    Division of Building Physics, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Moisture- and mould-resistance: multi-modal modelling leveraging X-ray tomography in edge-sealed cross-laminated timber2023Inngår i: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 230, artikkel-id 111967Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Edge-sealing, which involves treating the edges of wood products, improves water resistance. This study investigated the feasibility of edge-sealed cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels to reduce capillary water uptake, thereby resisting mould formation. The water and vapour permeabilities of ten characteristically different single-layer sealant coating systems were systematically determined. Multi-modal assessment leveraged by computed tomography (CT) scanning methodology was used to enhance detection of material characteristics beyond the standard coating permeability assessment. Moisture content was observed to change during the specimens’ absorption and desorption depending on the sealant system applied. The results revealed different characteristics of coatings during the water absorption and desorption stages. Findings from this study were used to develop recommendations regarding the water resistance of coating systems, curing time, susceptibility to mould formation, and industrial applicability. Results suggest that edge-sealed CLT could minimise the risk of mould formation, which can occur at worksites with minimal weather protection. The method developed in this study provides a basis to evaluate new coating systems and determine which use case is the best for a particular coating type. This study also incorporates insights from industry to identify future research orientations, which may pave the way for new designs and assessment techniques.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    CT-studies during the Conditioning phase of the Wood Drying Process2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Computed tomography (CT) during drying of sawn timber is an excellent non-destructivetechnique to study the moisture flux as a function of drying time. In this study, a climatechamber combined with a medical CT- scanner has been used for non-destructive studies ofdensity changes in sawn timber during drying and conditioning.Green sawn timber contains large amounts of water and has to be dried before it can befurther processed and used in various building applications. The most common dryingmethod is convective air-circulation drying in large industrial kilns, where the relativehumidity (RH) of the hot circulating air is gradually reduced until the timber reaches thetarget moisture content (MC).Drying of sawn timber is driven by the existence of a difference in MC between the coreand the surface, so that moisture moves from the wet inner region towards the drier outerregion. During the early capillary stages of drying, the drying rate is high while, at the laterstages when all liquid water has evaporated, the drying rate is slow and diffusioncontrolled.At the end of the drying process, the timber surface is always drier than its core.In addition to this moisture gradient, internal stresses develop within the cross section withcompression stresses in the timber surface and tension in the inner regions. To avoidunwanted distortions, both these stresses and the moisture gradient, need to be eliminatedbefore the timber is further processed. This is achieved in a final conditioning stage withinthe drying process by moistening the circulating air through steaming or water spraying.The aim of the present work was to optimize the conditioning stage by developing amethod for studying of moisture gradients, deformations and internal and externaldimensional changes in sawn timber during the conditioning phase by using a CT-scannercombined with a drying unit for in-situ measurements of moisture flow.The results show that it is possible to detect the moisture gradient between the surface andcore of the timber with satisfactory reliability, but not the internal and external dimensionalchanges. However, this method creates a potential for increasing the knowledge andunderstanding of the conditioning phase and makes it possible to optimize and develop thisstep in the drying process to improve the yield and ensure a higher quality of the sawntimber.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The use of X-ray computed tomography in timber construction research2016Inngår i: New Horizons for the Forest Products Industry: 70th Forest Products Society International Convention, June 26-29, Portland, Oregon, USA, Madison: Forest Products Society, 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray computed tomography (CT), which was introduced in the medical field in the early 1970s, is also a powerful tool for the non-destructive measurement of dynamic processes in wood. For more than 20 years, CT has been used in wood research at Luleå University of Technology. The uniqueness of the CT equipment means that processes such as drying, modification, water absorption, internal and external cracking and material deformation can be studied in temperature- and humidity-controlled environments. The data recorded by the CT during the process is converted into two- or three-dimensional images that for instance can show dynamic moisture behavior in wood drying.This paper gives an overview of the possibilities of using CT in timber construction research, and shows examples of applications and results which can be particularly difficult to achieve using other methods. A specific focus is on studies on wood products for construction, and how to deal with different material combinations such as wood and metal.The practical application of the result is that CT-scanning, combined with image processing, can be used for non-destructive and non-contact 3-D studies of exterior constructions elements during water sorption and desorption, to study swelling and shrinking behaviour, delamination phenomena, crack development, etc.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Department of Ocean Operations and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Ålesund, Norway.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The conditioning regime in industrial drying of Scots pine sawn timber studied by X-ray computed tomography: a case-study2020Inngår i: European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, ISSN 0018-3768, E-ISSN 1436-736X, Vol. 78, nr 4, s. 673-682Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial drying of sawn timber is a process driven by a difference in moisture content (MC) between the core and the surface as moisture moves from the wet inner region towards the drier surface. After drying, the timber surface is always drier than its core, and stresses have developed within the wood volume. If the timber is to be further processed, these stresses and the moisture gradient need to be reduced to avoid unwanted distortion, i.e. the timber needs to be conditioned. Conditioning is usually accomplished by exposing the timber to a hot and humid climate after the drying regime. The conditioning regime is essential for timber quality, and it is energy and time consuming; therefore of interest for optimisation. This research was a case study where for the first time the MC during conditioning was studied in an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanner. The aim was to test a previously developed algorithm and investigate the influence of MC and heartwood-sapwood proportion on the effectivity of the moisture equalisation in 30 mm thick Scots pine boards. The MC was estimated from CT data acquired during the drying and conditioning of the boards in a lab-scale kiln adapted to a medical CT scanner. Results show that the algorithm can provide relevant data of internal MC distribution of sawn timber at the pixel level. Furthermore, for the drying schedules studied, the conditioning at low MC (8%) does not need to be longer than 3 h, while higher MC (18%) requires a longer conditioning.

  • 12.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    X-ray computed tomography studies of moisture-content distribution in spruce boards exposed to liquid water.2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2020 Society of Wood Science and Technology International Convention: “Renewable Resources for a Sustainable and Healthy Future” / [ed] Susan LeVan Green, USA: Society of Wood Science and Technology (SWST) , 2020, s. 356-357Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a construction material for high-rise timber buildings has increased in the recent years especially in Europe and North America; a trend that is expected to continue. The CLT-elements will often be finished with an impermeable layer, whether it is walls, floors and, especially, roof. In Sweden, often no weather protection is used during the construction of the building, allowing the wood to be exposed to liquid water and relaying on later atmospheric conditions to dry the timber prior to finishing. The Swedish building regulations require a maximum surface moisture content (MC) of 18% before assembly of the elements and a maximum surface MC of 16% before the wood is covered. This could drive to high levels of MC within the CLT while the surface is already dry, which is a highly possible scenario in the case of high buildings where sun and wind create good conditions for a fast surface drying. At the same time, the regulation requires control of MC to be made with an electrical pin-type MC-meter, which is problematic because its reliability lays in part on the device reaching a certain penetration into the wood. The measurement of surface MC could thus be erroneous and the risk for mould development would be high even if the regulations are strictly followed. If a CLT with a too high moisture level are covered with an impermeable surface layer, the moisture is trapped within the CLT and may cause microbiological degradation that could be problematic to correct later on.An update in the regulation requirements is recommended, but such update must be based on a proper understanding of how moisture can be distributed in CLT and other wood-based building material during outdoor construction.

    This project aims to establish amethod to study (1) the effect of liquid-water-exposure time on the MC distribution of Spruce timber boards, but that could potentially be used in other wood-based building materials as well, and (2) the drying process under emulated outdoor conditions. The focus is set on those elements that are laid horizontally or with a very low inclination, such as floors and roofs. Sections of methacrylate are glued to the internal side of 43 x 200 mm planed spruce timber, allowing the wood to be exposed to standing water under a period of several days. CT images of different cross sections are taken periodically so that the evolution of MC profile can be monitored. The hypothesis is that the suction of liquid water will not be large and that it can dry quickly once the exposure to liquid water ends, but also that a MC gradient will develop beneath the surface which, under drying, may create regions of high MC that may be unnoticed by measuring with pin-type MC-meters.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Couceiro, José
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Kapillärt vattenupptag tvärs fibrerna i KL‐trä – Studier i CT: Slutrapport2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The project aimed to study capillary water and moisture absorption through diffusion in spruce boards across fiber direction when exposed to liquid water for 168 h, as well as the drying after that. The study was driven by the necessity of fulfilling the HusAMA YSC.122 rule that states that the surface MC of the wood must not be above 18 % when it is built in and above 16 % if surface treatment will be done. CT scanning was used to study changing MC levels in 2.25 mm layers from the wood surface as average values for each layer. The layers are named after the deepest section of the layer i.e. layer 4.5 is between 2.25 mm and 4.5 mm.

    Water uptake: Results of the studies show that liquid water can penetrate down to 4.5 mm (MC >30%), even though in most cases it does not penetrate beyond 2.25 mm (surface layer). Local pockets or higher MC may nevertheless occur. None of the specimens shows liquid water penetration beyond the surface layer within the first 72 h of liquid water exposure. Neither density nor board side exposed (pith‐side or sapwood‐side) have an influence in the rate of liquid water/moisture absorption. Regarding the 18% limit established by HusAMA YSC.122, it can be reached within the first 24 hours of exposure, but its penetration is limited to around 6.75 mm of depth. Regarding the 16 % limit, a more heterogeneous behavior among specimens can be seen, with penetrations that go from 13.5 mm to 20.25 mm after 24 h of exposure.

    Drying: Drying took place by samples kept in room climate in the lab with no climate control or air‐velocity regulation. The conditions were equivalent to EMC of 6 %. All layers of the wood specimens are below 18 % within 48 h when water is removed after 168 h of exposure. The 16 % limit can take from 48 to up to 140 h to be reached by all layers in the atmospheric conditions of the lab, which at the moment of the experiment were extremely dry. This factor must be taken into account when interpreting results of this experiment not only during drying, but also during water uptake. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14. Johansson, Dennis
    et al.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Effect of heat treatment on capillary water absorption of heat-treated pine, spruce and birch2006Inngår i: Wood structure and properties '06: [proceedings of the 5th IUFRO Symposium Wood Structure and Properties '06 held on September 3-6, 2006 in Sliač - Sielnica, Slovakia] / [ed] R. Lagana; S. Kurjatko; J. Kudela, Zvolen, Slovakia: Arbora Publishers , 2006, s. 251-255Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Longitudinal absorption of water in matched heat-treated and untreated boards was studied. The boards are from three different species. Scots pine (Pious sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and birch (Betula pubescens). The heat treatment was performed according to the Thermowood process at two different temperature levels (170 degrees C and 200 degrees C) for all three species. Computer tomography (CT) scanning was used to intermittently monitor the ascent of the water front. The use of CT scanning enables a study of the liquid water ascent in three dimensions over time. This means that it is possible to determine the influence of different treatment temperatures and species as well as the difference between heartwood and sapwood on capillary action.The results show that longitudinal water absorption in pine sapwood was substantially lamer when heat-treated at 170 degrees C compared to untreated pine sapwood. In pine heartwood, the ascent of water was low in heat-treated as well as in untreated boards. Spruce boards showed low water absorption in sap- and heartwood in heat-treated as well as in untreated boards. Birch showed a decreasing uptake of water with increasing treatment temperature

  • 15.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Multivariate modeling of mould growth in relation to extractives in dried Scots pine sapwood2017Inngår i: Proceedings IRG Annual Meetin, 2017, artikkel-id 17-20629Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of extractives on mould growth on Scots pine sapwood dried in air or in kiln was studied. Boards were sprayed with water mixtures of spores of the fungal species Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Mucor sp., Paecilomyces sp., Trichoderma sp., treated at a temperature of 22ºC at 90% RH, classified into a percentage of covered area. Acetone and water extracts were isolated and analyzed for sugars, nitrogen, ash, resin/fatty acids, glycerol, and phenols. A multivariate Orthogonal Partial Least Squares (OPLS) regression model was developed to study relations between the extent of mould coverage of boards and chemical content. The model describes 51% variability in X and 69% in Y with prediction power of 55%. The results indicated that total acetone soluble extractives and sugars like glucose contributed to increased mould growth whereas fatty acids prevent mould growth.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    IRG/WP 17-20629
  • 16.
    Karlsson, Olov
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Yang, Qian
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Heat treatments of high temperature dried norway spruce boards: Saccharides and furfurals in sapwood surfaces2012Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 2284-2299Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbohydrates that migrate to wood surfaces in sapwood during drying might influence properties such as mould susceptibility and colour. Sugars on the surface of Norway spruce boards during various heat treatments were studied. Samples (350mm×125mm×25mm) were double-stacked, facing sapwood-side outwards, and dried at 110°C to a target moisture content (MC) of 40%. Dried sub-samples (80 mm × 125 mm × 25 mm) were stacked in a similar way and further heated at 110°C and at 130°C for 12, 24, and 36 hours, respectively. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose as well as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural in the sapwood surface layer of treated wood were analysed using HPLC (RI- and UV-detectors). Carbohydrates degraded to a lower extent at 110°C than at 130°C. Furfural and to a larger extent HMF increased with treatment period and temperature. Heat treatment led to a decrease in lightness and hue of the sapwood surface of sub-samples, while chroma increased somewhat. Furthermore, considerably faster degradation (within a few minutes) of the carbohydrates on the surface of the dried spruce boards was observed when single sub-samples were conductively hot pressed at 200°C. Treatment period and initial MC influenced the presence of the carbohydrates in wood surface as well as colour change (ΔE ab) of the hot pressed sub-samples.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Morén, Tom
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Larsson, Robert ()
    Virkestorkningens grunder: en bok för personer verksamma inom träindustrin samt för områdets utbildningar2007Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 18.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Analys av olika metoder för utformning av hörnskarv av tätningslist1983Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Creep formation of the surface layer of timber boards during air circulation drying1992Inngår i: Understanding the wood drying process: a synthesis of theory and practice ; [proceedings of the] 3rd IUFRO conference on wood drying, August 18-21, 1992, Vienna, Austria, Wien: IUFRO , 1992Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Cupping of center boards during drying due to anisotropic shrinkage1992Inngår i: Understanding the wood drying process: a synthesis of theory and practice : [proceedings of the] 3rd IUFRO conference on wood drying, August 18-21, 1992, Vienna, Austria, Wien: IUFRO , 1992Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Desorptionsisoterm för furu och gran vid 20° och 50° C1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Draghållfasthet och E-modul: nordsvensk furu och gran i området för artificiell torkning1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Formförändringar hos virke: Torkning av granreglar från klentimmer2001Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Två delstudier har gjorts med syfte att studera träreglars formbeständighet vid industriell produktion av granreglar sågat från klentimmer. Delstudie I omfattar studier av virkesegenskapers, och då främst fibervinkelns inverkan på virkesdeformation men även processparametrar som virkeslängd, paketläggning samt belastning under torkning ingår. Delstudie II omfattar en liknande undersökning med processvariabler som ströavstånd och inverkan av konditioneringssteg på virkesdeformationer. Även högtemperaturtorkning i LTU:s labtork ingår för jämförelse.

  • 24.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Heat and Mass Transfer during Sapwood Drying above the FSP: Consequences for Kiln Drying2000Inngår i: 6th international IUFRO wood drying conference on wood drying research and technology for sustainable forestry beyond 2000., Marcel Dekker Incorporated , 2000Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Högtemperaturtorkning av byggnadsvirke1990Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Konditionering av furuvirke i samband med artificiell torkning1987Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 27.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Vidaretorkning av furu: analys av torkningsskador1989Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 10, Gran, modell 2, våttemperatur 50oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 11, Gran, modell 3, våttemperatur 40oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 12, Gran, modell 3, våttemperatur 45oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 13, Gran, modell 3, våttemperatur 50oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 2, Furu, modell 2, våttemperatur 40°C1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 3, Furu, modell 2, våttemperatur 45°C1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 4, Furu, modell 2, våttemperatur 50° C1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 5, Furu, modell 3, våttemperatur 40°C1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 6, Furu, modell 3, våttemperatur 45°C1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 7, Furu, modell 3, våttemperatur 50oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 8, Gran, modell 2, våttemperatur 40oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: D. 9, Gran, modell 2, våttemperatur 45oC1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Malmqvist, Lars
    Torkningsschema: Del 1 Teori, BASIC-program1984Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Morén, Tom
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Winberg, Pär
    Virkestorkningens grunder2004 (oppl. 2.)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 42.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Distribution of low-molecular lipophilic extractives beneath the surface of air- and kiln-dried Scots pine sapwood boards2018Inngår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 10, artikkel-id e0204212Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During industrial wood drying, extractives migrate towards the wood surfaces and make the material more susceptible to photo/biodegradation. The present work provides information about the distribution, quantity and nature of lipophilic substances beneath the surface in air- and kiln-dried Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) sapwood boards. Samples were taken from knot-free sapwood surfaces and the composition of lipophilic extractives, phenols and low-molecular fatty/resin acids layers at different nominal depths below the surface was studied gravimetrically, by UV-spectrometry and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The concentration of total extractives was significantly higher in kiln-dried than in air-dried samples and was higher close to the surface than in the layers beneath. The scatter in the values for the lipophilic extractives was high in both drying types, being highest for linoleic acid and slightly lower for palmitic, oleic and stearic acids. The amount of fatty acids was low in kiln-dried boards, probably due to a stronger degradation due to the high temperature employed. The most abundant resin acid was dehydroabietic acid followed by pimaric, isopimaric, and abietic acids in both drying types. It is concluded that during kiln-drying a migration front is created at a depth of 0.25 mm with a thickness of about 0.5 mm.

  • 43.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Öhman, Micael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Portable microNIR sensor for the evaluation of mould contamination on wooden surfaces2019Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2019 Society of Wood Science and Technology International Convention: Convention Theme: Renewable Materials and the Wood-based Bioeconomy / [ed] Susan LeVan-Green, Society of Wood Science and Technology (SWST) , 2019, s. 120-125Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional assessment of mould growth is sometimes subjective and can differ from person to person. By applying spectroscopic tools, it is possible to create an individual fingerprint of a wooden material and create databases for obtaining more objective information related to the chemical and biological composition. Side-boards (the flat-sawn sapwood part of the log) of Scots pine were single stacked on stickers and naturally dried indoors at 20°C to an average moisture content (MC) of 4.6%. Another ten side-boards were dried in a small-scale laboratory air-circulation kiln to an average MC of 14%. Another group of side-boards were double-stacked with the bark-side surfaces of each pair turned outwards in order to get a high extractive concentration on these surfaces, and less concentration on opposite surfaces. The different flat-side surfaces were planed according to a planing-depth scheme : 0 mm (unplanned), 0.25, 0.75, and 1.75 mm depth from the surface, and the residual wood particles were collected for further analysis. The planned surfaces were exposed to a mould test, performed by spraying a spore suspension of five mould fungi on the wood surfaces followed by incubation at the temperature of 24°C and 95±3%RH for 35 days. Thereafter, the surfaces were graded according to mould growth. A portable microNIR sensor (wave-length range 900-1670 nm, step 6 nm) was used for NIRspectra detection on the surfaces after mould test, and a data matrix was created. Multivariate analysis of obtained spectra was performed. The results show that the principal component analysis (PCA) can describe and predict 99.7% of the spectroscopic data obtained. No influence of the drying method or planned depth was discovered during classification. Two mould-classes could, however, be clearly separated; no mould, and with mould growth respectively, and the separation could be detected on a 93.4% level.

    The study demonstrates that mould growth on the wooden surface could be evaluated by portable MicroNIR spectrometer, which is sensitive enough to detect chemical differences caused by fungal contamination.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 44.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Martinsons Byggsystem AB.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The Influence of Four Commercial Wood-surface Treatments on Mould-fungi Growth in a Pure Culture2020Inngår i: Integrating sustainability and health in buildings through renewable materials: InnoRenew CoE International Conference 2020, InnoRenew CoE , 2020, s. 19-19Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased concern regarding mould on wood-based building materials has raised a demand for sustainable biocidal treatments to protect early contamination during the construction stage of timber buildings. By providing surface protection for all type of wood-based construction elements already at the construction site will reduce the mould-associated risk for not only the construction elements but also for the indoor climate and dwellers at the use-stage of the building. The purpose was to test the protective effect of commercial water-based treatments containing different biocides on single mould fungi growth in pure culture.

    Small specimens of Scots pine sapwood and heartwood, and Norway spruce were treated with four treatments, and a fungal test performed in 90 mm Petri plates. Two samples (treated and untreated control) placed on the plate with a distance between each other, and between, a fungal inoculum placed. Five pure cultures of fungi species used in the study: Aureobasidium sp., Trichoderma sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp. The specimens exposed at the temperature of 24°C and relative humidity of 90%.

    The treatments contained biocides, i.e.: treatment 1: tetramethylol acetylenediurea and iodopropynyl butyl carbamate (IPBC), treatment 2: mixture of several biocides (IPBC, benzisothiazolinone (BIT), methylisothiazolinone (MIT) and 5-chloro-2-methyl-1,2-thiazol-3-one (CMIT)/MIT mixture), treatment 3: IPBC; and treatment 4: mixture of propiconazole and IPBC.

    The fungal growth observed in the untreated samples after four days of incubation, the specimens with treatment 4 attacked after eight days, when treatment 1 and 3 had free from fungal mycelia inhibition zone after 22 days of incubation. The moisture content after the test was similar for treated samples in plates with Aureobasidium sp., Aspergillus sp., Cladosporium sp., Penicillium sp., but was significantly higher for Trichoderma sp. The type of wood did not influence fungal growth in comparison to the type of treatment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Poohphajai, Faksawat
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik. innoReNew, Slovenia.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Junge, Helmut
    ABiTEP GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Application of GRAS Compounds for the Control of Mould Growth on Scots Pine Sapwood Surfaces: Multivariate Modelling of Mould Grade2019Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikkel-id 714Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Highlights: In this study, the Generally Recognised as Safe (GRAS) compounds were applied in order to study mould-fungi growth on dried Scots pine sapwood. Background and Objectives: The transition to the use of more sustainable wood-material may be possible by applying GRAS compounds that can control and prevent contamination by primary colonising mould fungi. Materials and Methods: Kiln-dried sawn timber was treated with three different GRAS compounds, and different fungal inoculation methods applied in order to investigate differences in the development of fungal communities. Results: Substances based on potassium silicate significantly reduced fungal growth and mould contamination on the studied wood surfaces. By combining wood-surface treatments with GRAS compounds, fungal-area size as predictors and mould grade as response, a partial least squares (PLS) model that makes it possible to predict mould grade on wood surfaces was developed. The PLS model is a key component in the development of a smart grading-systems equipped by e.g. high-speed digital cameras for the early detection of fungal attack on wood surfaces in different applications. However, the measurements based on chemical characterisation should be the next step to take in order significantly to enhance the model and increase the range of robust applications. In the current study, a multivariate model describing the influence of each fungal-covering area on mould grade was presented for the first time.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Myronycheva, Olena S.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Martinsons Byggsystem AB.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    The Influence of Four Commercial Wood-surface Treatments on Mould-fungi Growth in a Pure Culture2020Inngår i: Integrating sustainability and health in buildings through renewable materials: InnoRenew CoE International Conference 2020, Izola, Slovenia: InnoRenew CoE , 2020, s. 19-19Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Growth of mold and rot fungi on copper-impregnated Scots pine sapwood: Influence of planing depth and inoculation pattern.2018Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, E-ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 8787-8801Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The biocidal properties of an industrially used copper-based preservative were evaluated at different planing depths on exposure of pine wood to mold fungi in direct and indirect contamination methods, with simultaneous verification of white rot fungi virulence on wood. The preservative was an aqueous solution of copper carbonate, 2-aminoethanol, and quaternary ammonium compounds. Full cell preservative impregnation efficiency against visual mold fungi growth was tested on sapwood surfaces planed to different depths before impregnation. The virulence of two white rot fungal strains of Trametes versicolor (441 and JPEI) against the dried non-impregnated and impregnated wood samples was also tested. The unplaned surface of impregnated timber was occupied by air-borne contaminants, such as Paecilomyces variottiand Aspergillus niger up to 30%, and, even after impregnation it was necessary to process the surface to avoid micro-fungi settlement. The virulence of the tested rot fungi strains was confirmed by the aggressive degradation of non-impregnated wood with a mass loss of over 40%. Both Trametes sp. strains degraded the preservative-impregnated wood with a mass loss of 3.1% to 4.8%, but degradation by the JPEI strain was more intensive and more dependent on planing depth than the other strain (441).

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  • 48.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sekan, Alona
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Kim, Injeong
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Jacobsson, Peter
    Martinsons Byggsystem AB, Skellefteå, Sweden.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Spectroscopic characterisation of wood treated by different coatings after weathering in subarctic conditions2020Inngår i: Proceedings of the 2020 Society of Wood Science and Technology International Convention: “Renewable Resources for a Sustainable and Healthy Future” / [ed] Susan LeVan-Green, Society of Wood Science and Technology (SWST) , 2020, s. 57-64Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Weathering of wood is a complex natural phenomenon that is influenced by factors both in macro and micro-scale. The degradation by weathering constitutes of complex physical-chemical changes influenced by environmental factors such as moisture, sunlight, temperature, chemical compounds, wind, and biological organisms and their related agents. The aim of our study was the evaluation of MIR and NIR spectroscopic technique for characterisation of wood treated by commercial coatings contained different biocidal treatments after weathering in subarctic conditions. Tangential and radial surfaces of the Scots pine and Norway spruce were treated with coatings containing various biocides. Treatment was in the form of fairly transparent wood oil (T), while the two others were coatings that had more of a non-transparent character (H and P). Treatedspecimens and control were placed in various directions on racks outdoor for natural weathering. The measurement of the NIR spectra of specimens that were not exposed, after weathering and dried after weathering, was done by the point-based microNIR portable sensor. Multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) showed that data from types of exposure contributed to less compared to surface treatments in the 3D principal component analysis model (PCA). Grouping pattern around treatments H and P could be obtained as the two individual groups more or less fully separated. From the treatment T and non-treated specimens, no individual grouping behaviour could be observed, however, more intense exposed seemed to be clustered in a different way than mildly exposed ones. A more extensive weather exposure gave also a more degraded surface for T-treated specimens. The NIR portable spectrometer may be used for assessment of the extent of weathering, but the treatment P followed by treatment H had minimal changes. Coefficients Plot in the PLSDA model for different types of exposure for those treatments showed the influence of the NIRwavelengths in classes related to exposure type. The changes caused by weathering phenomenon was evaluated by using multivariate methods in which resulting multivariate model parameters for prediction of the changes were determined. Analysis of the chemical structure of coatings after weathering analysed by mid-infrared spectroscopy gave support to the lower stability of T-treatmentduring weathering.

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  • 49.
    Myronycheva, Olena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sidorova, Ekaterina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hagman, Olle
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Karlsson, Olov
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknik.
    Hyperspectral Imaging Surface Analysis for Dried and Thermally Modified Wood: An Exploratory Study2018Inngår i: Journal of Spectroscopy, ISSN 2314-4920, E-ISSN 2314-4939, artikkel-id 7423501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Naturally seasoned, kiln-dried, and thermally modified wood has been studied by hyperspectral near-infrared imaging between 980 and 2500 nm in order to obtain spatial chemical information. Evince software was used to explore, preprocess, and analyse spectral data from image pixels and link these data to chemical information via spectral wavelength assignment. A PCA model showed that regions with high absorbance were related to extractives with phenolic groups and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The sharp wavelength band at 2135 nm was found by multivariate analysis to be useful for multivariate calibration. This peak represents the largest variation that characterizes the knot area and can be related to areas in wood rich in hydrocarbons and phenol, and it can perhaps be used for future calibration of other wood surfaces. The discriminant analysis of thermally treated wood showed the strongest differentiation between the planed and rip-cut wood surfaces and a fairly clear discrimination between the two thermal processes. The wavelength band at 2100 nm showed the greatest difference and may correspond to stretching of C=O-O of polymeric acetyl groups, but this requires confirmation by chemical analysis.

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    fulltext
  • 50.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Träteknologi.
    Colour responses to heat-treatment of extractives and sap from pine and spruce2003Inngår i: Proceedings of the 8th IUFRO International Wood Drying Conference: Improvement and innovation in wood drying : a major issue for a renewable material : 24-29 August 2003, Brasov, Romania / [ed] Mihai Ispas; Sergiu T Chiriacescu, Brasov: Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Wood Industry , 2003, s. 459-464Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Scandinavian sawmills have over the last 20 years adopted ever-higher temperatures in the dry kilns. The reason for this has been improvements in drying quality and kiln capacity. However, some problems relate to this strategy, mainly discolorations and extensive resin flow from knots and heartwood in pine. In this study, underlying factors for changing wood colour were investigated for spruce and pine. From the sapwood portions of wood, sap was extruded by mechanical compression, put in glass bottles and heat-treated at different temperature levels ranging from 60 °C to 95 °C during 1 to 5 days. Then the colour of the sap was measured using a standard colorimeter. Extractives from pine heartwood were also heat-treated and analysed in the same way. From these experiments it was concluded that much of the colour change in solid wood emanated from colour changes in constituents of the sap and extractives. Pine sap was more susceptible to colour change than sap from spruce. Also, an accelerated colour change was noticed above 70 °C for pine sap. Finally, it was observed that extracted wood that was soaked in water and then heat-treated still underwent some colour change, probably due to secondary hydrolysis of hemicelluloses.

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