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  • 1.
    Chen, Guanghui
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Li, Xibing
    School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dong, Longjun
    School of Resource and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan.
    Optimization of tunnel support parameters with consideration of seismic wave radiation pattern in the fault-slip burst2017In: Journal of Mining and Safety Engineering, ISSN 1673-3363, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 715-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the underground mining extends gradually towards depth, more and more seismic events induced by fault slip occur and cause great damages, which have become a severe potential threat to mining safety. In view of the plane strain problems, through the three dimensional discrete model established, comparison and analysis was carried out between the equivalent calculation of plane strain in 3D model and a 2D discrete model. The results have shown that the research model developed to simulate the propagation of seismic wave in 3D is feasible and applicable. The study of the effect of radiation pattern on seismic propagation revealed and tested the direction of P-and S-wave propagation, which presents high consistency to double couple model of the fault slip. On this basis, the comparison with the design scaling law formulas proposed by Kaiser and associates finds that the existing design scaling law does not totally satisfy the demand of practical engineering. Numerical calculation and analysis with the three dimensional discrete model can further optimize the support parameters, provide better service for system design of mining support, and ensure the safety and high efficiency in mining.

  • 2.
    Eitzenberger, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Numerical simulation of train-induced vibrations in rock masses2012In: Harmonising rock engineering and the environment: proceedings of the 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Beijing, October 18 - 21, 2011 / [ed] Qihu Qian; Yingxin Zhou, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema , 2012, p. 1189-1194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vibrations generated by a moving train in a tunnel will radiate into the surrounding ground which, in densely populated areas, will reach nearby buildings and its residents. Analyses are commonly made where the aim is to estimate the ground-borne noise and vibrations levels that may occur in nearby buildings. A common assumption is to treat the rock mass as an isotropic, homogeneous, and linear elastic material. Thus, the influence of discontinuities on the propagation of waves is not considered in the analyses. Within this study, numerical simulations were performed to study the propagation of low-frequency waves through a rock mass near a tunnel. A single period sinusoidal wave was applied as dynamic source on the floor of the tunnel. Observation points were located on the ground surface and around the tunnel. The influence on wave propagation from overburden, position of a discontinuity in relation to the tunnel, and normal and shear stiffness of the discontinuity, was studied by using the Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC). The results show that increasing overburden reduces the vibration levels on the ground surface. Furthermore, the influence of the normal and shear stiffness of discontinuities depends on where the horizontal discontinuity is positioned in relation to the tunnel. If the horizontal discontinuity is positioned above the dynamic source (e.g. above tunnel or in the tunnel wall) the vibration levels on the ground surface will be reduced but if the horizontal discontinuity is located below the dynamic source (e.g. below the tunnel) the vibration levels on the ground surface will be enhanced. In our analyses, discontinuities only have an impact on the wave propagation if the normal and shear stiffness of is ≤10 GPa/m

  • 3.
    Nordlund, Erling
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Saiang, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Westblom, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Marklund, P-I
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Sandström, D.
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Samverkan mellan bergförstärkningssystem och bergmassa2011In: Bergmekanikdag 2011: Föredrag, Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo , 2011, p. 19-28Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Nordlund, Erling
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Saiang, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Basarir, Hakan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shirzaegan, S.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Westblom, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Marklund, P-I
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Nordqvist, A.
    LKAB.
    Sandström, D.
    Boliden Mineral AB.
    Rock support system in interaction with the rock2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Nordlund, Erling
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dineva, Savka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Saiang, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mainali, Ganesh
    Impact of fire on the stability of hard rock tunnels in Sweden2015Report (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Sayahi, Faez
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Numerical simulation of the response of an underground opening at different locations under fault-slip induced seismic wave2013In: The Second Nordic Rock Mechanics Symposium, Stockholm: Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo , 2013, p. 199-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing mining depth and thus higher stress environments, rockbursts are becoming an increasing problem world-wide. Much research has been directed toward establishing a rockburst hazard assessment method by relating seismic source intensity to the peak ground motion characteristics at an opening and further by involving some empirical indices (e.g. excavation vulnerability potential). However, the interaction between seismic waves and the excavation surfaces is not taken into account. In this paper the influence of fault-slip induced seismic waves on openings has been investigated. The effect of the location and orientation with respect to the hypocenter of the seismic event has been investigated. Openings located at the same distance from the source but at eight different orientations were numerically analyzed using the discontinuum code UDEC. The results show that the opening’s location plays a significant role for the Peak Particle Velocity (PPV) on their boundaries. It was found that the PPV is highly influenced by the P-wave and S-wave radiation patterns. The amplitude and direction of the PPV show anisotropic behavior, even when the distance from the target to the seismic source is the same. The anisotropic behavior of the PPV becomes more pronounced with increasing distance to the seismic source. The study shows that the magnitude-distance-PPV method used in support design and rockburst hazard assessment needs to be reconsidered in order to take the effect of wave radiation pattern into account.

  • 7.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Rock support subjected to dynamic loading: Field testing of ground support using simulated rockburst2011In: Harmonising rock engineering and the environment: proceedings of the 12th ISRM International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Beijing, October 18 - 21, 2011 / [ed] Qihu Qian; Yingxin Zhou, Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema , 2011, p. 1269-1273Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the mining depth at LKABs Kiirunavaara mine located in the northern part of Sweden is leading to higher stress magnitudes, resulting in increased seismic activity and more rockburst damage. The effectiveness of various ground support systems under dynamic loading conditions has therefore become of prime interest to LKAB for successful and safe mining at deep levels. Therefore, a series of rockburst simulations will be conducted, using explosives to generate the dynamic load, on a number of support systems. This paper covers the results from the first trial test called Zero test-1. The test included ground motion measurements with a number of accelerometers, fracture investigation, ground and support motion imaging, as well as the deformation measurements. The methodology used to simulate rockbursts is discussed and the issues met in these tests are also addressed for further improvement.

  • 8.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Development of a methodology for in-situ dynamic testing of ground support2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of seven large scale dynamic tests were conducted at LKAB Kiruna mine using explosives in the vicinity of cross-cuts to generate dynamic load on the support system. The aim was to develop an in-situ testing method for rock support, i.e., to determine the dynamic load that causes failure to the test wall and/or support system. The methodology used to design Tests 1 to 7 is discussed in this paper and the level of damage to the test wall and support system in each test is described. Comparison of results in different test designs indicated that increasing burden and number of blasthole at the same time, increases the possibilities of obtaining more planar waves and decreases the destructive effect of detonation gases.

  • 9.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    In-situ dynamic testing of rock support at LKAB Kiirunavaara mine2016In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction / [ed] E . Nordlund, T.H. Jones and A. Eitzenberger (eds), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of large scale dynamic tests were conducted at the LKAB Kiirunavaara mine using explosives to generate the dynamic load on the support system. This was done with the aim of developing a testing methodology for in-situ testing of ground support. Furthermore, the response of the installed rock support system to strong dynamic loading was evaluated. The results of the Tests 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 indicated that the relation between the burden and the used amount of explosive had a vital role in either reducing or involving the effect of the detonation gases in the test results. Higher peak particle velocities were measured compared to those of similar large scale tests carried out in other countries. However, the level of induced damage in Tests 1 and 2 was limited to a fractured zone behind the support system while in Tests 4 and 5 the burden was unexpectedly destroyed. Based on the test results and preliminary numerical analysis, a modified test (Test 6) was designed at the same mine. The aim was to avoid the unexpected damage of burden as was observed in earlier tests, and to modify the dynamic loading leading to increase the depth of fractured zone and if possible pushing the support system beyond its limit. Results indicated that a larger fractured zone compare to earlier tests was developed behind the support system while the installed support system was still functional. Evidence from the damage to the tested cross-cuts in Test 6 indicated a reduction of radial cracks that provide access for the gas expansion. The results indicated that the installed support system, designed for dynamic conditions, performed well under the loading conditions which can cause ejection

  • 10.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Large scale dynamic testing of rock support at Kiirunavaara: Improved test design2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 59, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the test results and preliminary numerical analysis of four large scale dynamic testing of rock support (Tests 1, 2, 4, and 5), a modified test (Test 6) was designed at LKAB Kiirunavaara underground mine. The aim of the modified design was to avoid the unexpected damage of burden as was observed in earlier tests, and to modify the dynamic loading leading to increase the depth of fractured zone and if possible pushing the support system beyond its limit. In this test, ground motion measurements were conducted using accelerometers, fracture investigations were made using an inspection borehole camera, and ground motion imaging and laser scanning were performed before and after blast. In Test 6, the columns of explosive were located in the middle of a pillar between two cross-cuts one supported by a rock support for seismic conditions, and the other supported by only plain shotcrete. Results indicated that a larger fractured zone compare to earlier tests was developed behind the support system while the installed support system was still functional. In cross-cut without support system, the ejection of blocks of rock from the test wall was observed. Evidence from two cross-cuts indicated a reduction of radial cracks that provide access for the gas expansion. Furthermore, the performance of the rock support was investigated by comparing with the results from the unsupported cross-cut. The results indicated that the installed support system, designed for dynamic conditions, performed well under the loading conditions which can cause ejection.

  • 11.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Large Scale Dynamic Testing of Rock Support System at Kiirunavaara Underground Mine2016In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 49, no 7, p. 2773-2794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of five large scale dynamic tests were conducted at the LKAB Kiirunavaara mine using explosives to generate the dynamic load on the support system. This was done with the aim of developing a testing methodology for in situ testing of ground support. Furthermore, the response of the installed rock support system to strong dynamic loading was evaluated. The tests included ground motion measurements, fracture investigation, ground and support motion imaging, as well as deformation measurements. The results indicated that the relation between the burden and the used amount of explosive had a vital role in either reducing or involving the effect of the detonation gases in the test results. In addition, the type of explosive which was used in the tests had a great impact on minimising the gas expansion effects. Higher peak particle velocities were measured compared to those of similar large scale tests carried out in other countries. However, the level of induced damage was limited to a fractured zone behind the support system and propagation of cracks in the shotcrete. Measured peak particle velocities were used to calculate the kinetic energy transmitted to the fractured zone of the test wall. The energy absorption by the Swellex, reinforced shotcrete and weld mesh was estimated by measuring the elongation/deflection of the support elements and relating these measurements to previously conducted laboratory tests. The comparison of maximum estimated energy absorbed by support system with the maximum estimated kinetic energy indicated that as the support system is still functional, the energy is partly reflected back to the surrounding rock. The results of the measurements in Tests 1, 2, 4 and 5 are presented in this paper and the methodology used to design the tests is discussed.

  • 12.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Nordqvist, Anders
    LKAB.
    Andersson, Ulf Bertil
    LKAB.
    Large-scale dynamic testing of ground support system at the Kiirunavaara underground mine: Test 12013Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    LKAB Research and Development.
    Nordqvist, Anders
    LKAB.
    Andersson, Ulf Bertil
    LKAB.
    Large-scale dynamic testing of ground support system at the Kiirunavaara underground mine: Tests 4 & 52013Report (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Nordqvist, Anders
    LKAB.
    Andersson, Ulf Bertil
    LKAB.
    Large-scale dynamic testing of rock support system at the Kiirunavaara underground mine: Tests 2 & 32013Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Töyrä, Jimmy
    LKAB.
    Nordqvist, Anders
    Andersson, Ulf Bertil
    LKAB.
    Large-scale dynamic testing of ground support system at the Kiirunavaara underground mine: Tests 6&72013Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Taleghani, Pouria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Thermal spalling and fracturing around cylindrical opening in rock under biaxial loading condition: observations and analysis2013In: The Second Nordic Rock Mechanics Symposium, Stockholm: Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo , 2013, p. 107-120Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to experimentally investigate the effect of the initial compressive stress and a circular opening boundary on thermal spalling and determine the mechanism causing thermal damage (spalling and fracturing) in rock observed in laboratory experiments. This was done by testing seven blocks of oven-dried and water-stored granite, gabbro and schist. The rock blocks had the dimensions 600 mm  500 mm  300 mm and a 75 mm borehole was drilled through the centre of each block to resemble a tunnel. The blocks were heated up approximately following a hydrocarbon fire curve. During the tests, both temperature and acoustic emissions were recorded.It is concluded that the tested rocks presented fairly different behaviours during fire due to different mineralization and thermal expansion coefficients. The granite suffered explosive spalling under confined conditions for both oven-dried and water-stored samples. The spalling was a continuous process and was repeated as long as the conditions were met. The gabbro suffered only relative small damage as small pieces flew off the fire exposed surface. Since the layers of the schist were located perpendicular to borehole axis, no obvious spalling was observed but the layers separated after testing due to expansion along the borehole axis. Compared to oven-dried samples, water-stored samples displayed more thermal spalling on granite and gabbro. The tests also showed that the initial compressive stress has facilitated spalling by means of reducing tensile stresses within the rock block and increasing the compressive stress concentration near the opening boundary.

  • 17.
    Wu, Cheng
    et al.
    Hunan University.
    Zhang, Ping
    Analysis of numerical simulation methods for excavation failure zone of deep underground opening in hard rocks with high geostress2012In: Hydrogeology & Engineering Geology, ISSN 1000-3665, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 35-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the construction of deep underground openings, the formation of excavation failure zone and its prediction have become a focus of rock mechanics in deep underground excavation both in China and abroad. Based on the analysis of mechanical properties of hard rocks during their failure process, the conventional continuum models and the cohesion weakening-friction strengthening(CWFS)model were compared. Numerical analysis of a circular test tunnel in a Mine-by Experiment at the URL in Canada was carried out by using FLAC with elastic-perfectly plastic, elastic brittle, strain softening and CWFS constitutive models respectively. The results of comparison of stress distribution, principal stress values at key points and plastic region among different models show that CWFS model can simulate the stress transfer and stress concentration to a deep area, which is the real situation when stress-induced failure occurs; the stress distribution calculated from CWFS model is much closer to that when the excavation failure zone is deleted. Compared to other models, the extent and depth of excavation failure zone calculated by CWFS are larger and they are in agreement with the field measurement. Finally, the CWFS model was used to investigate the failure zone in another case, the Kobbskaret road tunnel in Norway. The depth and extent of the excavation failure zone were predicted rather well and it again proves the rationality of using CWFS model in predicting the excavation failure zone of hard rocks in deep tunnels.

  • 18.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Lu, Wenbo
    Rock Mechanics in Hydraulic Structural Engineering, Ministry of Education.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Effect of imperfect interface on the dynamic response of a circular lined tunnel impacted by plane P-waves2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A theoretical method for studying the dynamic response of a circular lined tunnel with an imperfectly bonded interface subjected to plane P-waves is presented in the paper. The wave function expansion method was used and the imperfect interface was modeled with a spring model. Two cases were discussed in the paper. In the first case rock is harder than the lining and vice-versa in the second case. The results indicated that the variation in the stiffness of the interface has much influence on the distribution of dynamic stress concentration factors (DSCF) in the rock and the lining. The imperfection of the interface has a more noticeable influence on the DSCF in the rock mass and the lining at high frequency incident wave's scenario than low frequency incident wave's scenario. The resonance scattering phenomena can be observed when the bond is extremely weak. Limiting cases were considered and a good agreement with the solutions available in the literature was obtained.

  • 19.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dynamic analysis for a circular lined tunnel with an imperfectly bonded interface impacted by plane SH-waves2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Johansson, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dynamic response of a circular lined tunnel with an imperfect interface subjected to cylindrical P-waves2014In: Computers and geotechnics, ISSN 0266-352X, E-ISSN 1873-7633, Vol. 44, p. 165-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analytic solutions for the dynamic response of a circular lined tunnel with an imperfect interface subjected to a cylindrical P-wave were presented in the paper. The wave function expansion method was used and the imperfect interface was modeled with a spring model. The interface separating the liner from the surrounding rock was considered to be homogeneous imperfect. The dynamic stress concentration factors (DSCF) of the rock and liner were evaluated and discussed. The effects of incident wave’s frequency, bonding conditions and distance between the wave source and the tunnel were examined. The results showed that the low-frequency incident wave leads to a higher DSCF than the high-frequency incident wave. The bonding conditions have a great effect on the dynamic response of the lined tunnel. When the bond is extremely weak, the resonance scattering phenomenon can be observed. When the distance between the wave source and the tunnel, depending on frequency of the incident wave, is considered as large, the cylindrical wave can be treated as a plane wave. Limiting cases were considered and good agreement with the solutions available in the literature was obtained.

  • 21.
    Yi, Changping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Numerical modelling of dynamic response of underground openings under blasting based on field tests2016In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction / [ed] E. Nordlund, T.H. Jones and A. Eitzenberger (eds), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the capacity of ground support systems when subjected to dynamic loading, simulated rockburst tests by using blasting have been conducted at LKAB Kiirunavaara underground mine. In this paper, a numerical simulation for one of the field tests is conducted using LS-DYNA code to numerically investigate the effect of the different aspects of the charge design including the initiation point and the geometry on the test results. In the simulation, an explosive material model is used to model the detonation of explosive used in field tests and the Riedel-Hiermaier -Thoma (RHT) material model is used to model the dynamic response of the rock mass. The decoupling effect between the explosive and the wall of borehole is also taken into account in the model. The numerical results show a similar particle vibration pattern and a crack pattern to those of the field measurment. The effects of the position of the initiation point and the charge structure on the dynamic response of rock mass are also discussed. The results can be a reference for blast design for future field tests.

  • 22.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    A 3DEC numerical analysis of the interaction between uneven rock surface and shotcrete lining: Validation of physical model and evaluation of influence of unevenness on the support effect of shotcrete2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although shotcrete (sprayed concrete) has been widely used as rock support in mines and in civil engineering projects, the complex interaction between shotcrete and rock has not been studied well. The main reason is that the performance of shotcrete is influenced by a number of important parameters.Experiences from previous research and past projects show that the unevenness of rock surface has a large impact on the number of failures at the interface and in the lining. Furthermore, the behaviour of the lining is sensitive to small amplitudes of the surface roughness. Although people have done some experimental and numerical analysis, the influence of the complex unevenness of three dimensional shaped surfaces on the shotcrete – rock interaction has not been well studied.The project here focuses on the influence of the surface unevenness of a circular opening on the support effect of shotcrete. The work was done by using a 3D numerical simulation (3DEC) and was conducted in two stages. In stage 1, the numerical model was validated by comparing with physical model tests by Chang (1994). In stage 2, based on the well validated numerical model, the influence of unevenness on the support effect of shotcrete was further investigated.

  • 23.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Dineva, Savka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Hansen-Haug, Jouni
    Lundin Mining.
    Woldemedhin, Biruk
    LKAB.
    Töyrä, Jimmy
    LKAB.
    Boskovic, Mirjana
    LKAB.
    Nyström, Anders
    Boliden.
    Marklund, Per-Ivar
    Boliden.
    Mozaffari, Shahram
    Boliden.
    Establishment of experimental sites in three Swedish mines to monitor the in-situ performance of ground support systems associated with mining-induced seismicity2016In: Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction / [ed] E . N ordlund, T.H. Jones and A. Eitzenberger (eds), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the performance of ground support components and systems when subjected to seismic activity and strong ground motion, Luleå University of Technology together with three Swedish mining companies (Lundin Mining, LKAB and Boliden) started a three year research project in September 2014. The aim of the project is to develop new methods for evaluating the rock support performance in-situ that use all available information about i) the source of the seismic event (obtained from the seismic network in the mine and additional seismic sensors), ii) seismic loading (ground motion) recorded by temporary local seismic networks, and iii) the consequences of the seismic loading in terms of damage to the underground excavations and the rock support.The sites with high potential of seismic damage were defined after the historical damaging seismic events were reviewed and the mining-induced stress disturbance was investigated with 3D numerical models. As of 31 December 2015, four sites in three different mines have been instrumented. Geophones (in depth and at surface), multi-points extensometers and instrumented bolts were installed to monitor the ground motion, the deformation of the rock mass and the elongation of the bolts. Observation boreholes were drilled to investigate the rock lithology, structures as well as fracture distribution and development. The data from locally installed geophones will be integrated with seismic data recorded by the mine-wide network. For each monitoring point, all of the instruments and observation boreholes were located at very close area within 0.5-1 m distance from each other. These results will be used to establish the relationship between the dynamic loading and the response of rock mass and rock bolts. Additionally, laser scanning is used to measure the surface deformation of the whole volume of instrumented sites with time. Two damaging seismic events occurred near the instrumented sites after the instruments were installed and the results of site investigation show that installed instruments have captured the response of the rock mass and bolts due to production blasting and seismic events.

  • 24. Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Li, Ning
    Xi'an University of Technology.
    Li, Xibing
    School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Compressive failure model for brittle rocks by shear faulting and its evolution of strength components2009In: International Journal of Rock Mechanics And Mining Sciences, ISSN 1365-1609, E-ISSN 1873-4545, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 830-841Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A physical theory for brittle failure is presented that aims to explain both the phenomenological and micro-structural observations. The objective of this model is to capture the important attributes inferred from micro-structural experiments so as to arrive at constitutive relations that describe macroscopic failure behaviour. Based on experimental results, the micromechanical failure character- isation is summarised first. The localised failure process of rock will experience two stages: the brittle breakage stage (bond rupture of rock bridge) and the sliding stage (frictional resistance of failure plane mobilisation). A physical model is developed by dividing the sample into elastic and localised shear zones. Furthermore, the deformation process of the localised shear zone is divided into bond loss and frictional resistance mobilisation in two stages. To combine the micro-characteristics with the macromechanical properties, the chain models in localised shear zone, and the homogenisation method are adopted. The model is validated against the experimental data of Yumlu and Ozbay's. Subsequently, the localised progressive failure characteristics of rock are analysed by changing the model's parameters. The intrinsic effects and influential factors such as geometrical effects (size effect, shape effect), the strain softening phenomenon and Class II stress-strain curves are revealed. Finally, in order to be used easily by engineers, the simplified description of rock failure process and its evolution of strength components are given based on the model.

  • 25.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mikromechanical modeling of fire-induced thermal damae in a laboratory model tunnel2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mainali, Ganesh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Saiang, Christine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Jansson, Robert
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Experimental study of thermal spalling on rock blocks exposed to different fire/heating conditions2011In: Bergmekanikdag 2011: Föredrag, Stiftelsen bergteknisk forskning - Befo , 2011, p. 53-63Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Mainali, Ganesh
    Saiang, Christine
    Jansson, Robert
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Adl-Zarrabi, Bijan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Experimental study on thermal spalling of rock blocks exposed to fire2010In: Bergmekanikk i Norden 2010 = Rock mechanics in the Nordic countries 2010 / [ed] Charlie C. Li, Kongsberg, Norway, 9.-12. June 2010, 2010, p. 294-305Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Swan, Graham
    Rock Mechanics and Mine Design, Sudbury, Canada.
    Yi, Changping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Velocity Amplification of Seismic Waves Through Parallel Fractures Near a Free Surface in Fractured Rock: A Theoretical Study2019In: Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, ISSN 0723-2632, E-ISSN 1434-453X, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the dynamic demand for support design under rockburst conditions, one of the most important issues is the prediction of ground motion parameters at the site of interest. Field monitoring has shown that the peak ground motion at the surface of an excavation in fractured rock is preferentially amplified compared to the motion in solid rock at a similar distance from the source. However, the traditional scaling laws used in rock support design do not account for the effect of free surface (excavation) and fracturing of rock. Recent studies have shown that high ground motion might be generated when a seismic wave crosses through fractures near a free surface in fractured rocks which is very complex and is not well understood. In this paper, particle velocity amplification was theoretically studied by investigating the dynamic interaction between seismic wave and multiple fractures near a free surface using the method of characteristics and the displacement discontinuity model. A harmonic load was applied on a model with a fractured zone near a free surface to investigate this phenomenon. After the harmonic wave propagated normally through multiple parallel fractures, the velocity amplification factor (VAF) was calculated as a function of the ratio of the magnitude of the peak particle velocity at the free surface of the model to the peak input velocity. The VAF can be as high as 3.77 and varies depending on the state of the fractured rock and the characteristics of the seismic wave. Parameter studies were conducted to investigate the effects of seismic load and multiple fractures on wave propagation, especially in terms of the wave frequency, the fracture spacing, the number of fractures and the stiffness of fractures. The results have proved that the interaction of the seismic wave and multiple fractures near the free surface strongly influences the ground motion. Quantitative relationships between the various influential factors and the corresponding VAF were developed. It is anticipated that such relationships can provide criteria to improve the current design procedures and help mining engineers to improve their rock support practice for rockburst-prone areas.

  • 29.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Swan, Graham
    Rock Mechanics and Mine Design, Canada.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    1D numerical simulation of velocity amplification of P-waves travelling through fractured rock near a free surface2015In: The Southern African Journal of Mining and Metallurgy, ISSN 2225-6253, E-ISSN 1543-9518, Vol. 115, no 11, p. 1121-1126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most widely used support design damage criterion for rockburst-prone mines is based upon kinetic energy, which is proportional to the square of the ejection velocity and is commonly expressed in terms of peak particle velocity (PPV). Field monitoring and back-analyses have shown that ejection velocities of the order of 10 m/s and higher can result from seismic events of moderate magnitude. Such velocities are much higher than those predicted using PPV obtained from scaling laws. It has also been found that the peak ground motion (i.e. PPV) on the surface of an excavation is preferentially amplified (by four-to tenfold) compared to the motion in solid rock at a similar distance from the source. However, the wave propagation and interaction processes involved within the fractured rock in generating high ground motion are very complex and are not well understood at this time. In this paper, velocity amplification was investigated by modelling the dynamic interaction between fractured rock and a free surface using a 2D discontinuum-based numerical program, UDEC (Universal Distinct Element Code). A 1D model with a fractured zone was used to represent the fractured rock. Velocity amplification, quantified by PPV, predicted at the free end of the model was 2.0-3.6 times higher than the input velocity. It was found that the wave frequency, fracture stiffness, fracture spacing, and thickness of fractured zone are the main factors that affect the velocity amplification. The results have proved that the interaction of the seismic wave and multiple fractures near the free surface strongly influences the ground motion

  • 30.
    Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Yi, Changping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Shirzadegan, Shahin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Nyberg, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Malmgren, Lars
    Mining Technology R and D, LKAB Kiruna Mine.
    Nordqvist, Anders
    LKAB.
    Numerical back-analysis of simulated rockburst field tests by using coupled numerical technique2013In: Ground Support 2013: Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Underground Construction / [ed] Yves Potvin; B.G.H. Brady, Perth, Australia: Australian Center for Geomechanics , 2013, p. 565-581Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to assess the capacity of ground support systems when submitted to dynamic loading, simulated rockburst tests utilizing blasting have been performed for many years in different countries with limited success. In general, the blasts need to be carefully designed in order to reach the goal; however, different blast layouts (e.g. blasthole angle, burden) have been used based on researcher’s experience without conducting detailed analyses, the exception being a field test by CSIR. Recently, field trials have been conducted at the LKAB Kiirunavaara underground mine with some unexpected results which show that either the whole tested panel was destroyed or only a few fractures were formed without any ejections being observed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the failure mechanism in the simulated rockburst tests and improve the blast design by back-analyzing the test results using a coupled numerical modeling technique. The blast was simulated by using finite element method (LS-DYNA) and the dynamic interaction between the blasting generated waves and the opening was simulated by using discrete element modeling (UDEC) with the dynamic input from LS-DYNA. The numerical modeling showed that blasting can create both radial fractures radiating from the blasthole and fractures parallel or sub-parallel to the surface of the tested panel caused by reflected tensile stress waves. By comparing the results of the numerical modeling with the measured data, it is shown that the collapse failure was mainly controlled by the creation of a cone-shaped area formed by radial fractures and the burden seems to be a critical factor. In order to obtain fractures caused by reflected tensile stress waves and reduce blasting induced radial fractures, 2 parallel blastholes are suggested with larger burden (> 5 m) for future tests. Furthermore, the limitation of the current numerical modeling has also been discussed. The coupled numerical technique has shown its advantage when simulating blasting as well as interaction between waves and opening and it can thus be used as a tool for extrapolating results from simulated rockburst experiments if detailed geological structure and ground support system can be incorporated in the model and the model can be well calibrated.

  • 31. Zhang, Ping
    et al.
    Yin, J.J.
    Hunan University.
    Nordlund, Erling
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Li, N.
    Xi'an University of Technology.
    Determination and verification of the longitudinal deformation profile in a horse-shoe shaped tunnel using two-stage excavation2008In: MassMin 2008: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Mass Mining, Lulea, Sweden 9-11 June 2008 / [ed] Håkan Schunnesson; Erling Nordlund, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2008, p. 845-854Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Zhang, Zhi-qiang
    et al.
    Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, P.R. China.
    Li, Ning
    Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, P.R. China.
    Zhang, Ping
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Han, S.
    Xi’an University of Technology, Xi’an, P.R. China.
    Effect of fault on tunnel stability with different distribution2013In: Global View of Engineering Geology and the Environment: International Symposium & 9th Asian Regional Conference of IAEG / [ed] Faquan Wu; Shengwen Qi, London: CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group , 2013, p. 279-285Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For tunnel engineering, the fault that locates near tunnel always plays an important role on the stability of the surrounding rock mass and the safety of the supporting system. To investigate the influence of the fault on the tunnel stability, systematic numerical experiments are carried out via the FINAL code. Through these numerical experiment results, the displacement and the distribution of the stress in surrounding rock mass are analyzed for these cases of the different locations and dips of fault around tunnel periphery, and the stress in the sprayed concrete layer are analyzed as well. To simulate the characteristics of the fault located in the rock mass, the COJO element, embedded in the FINAL code, is used in all numerical experiments. The quantized results reflecting the rules of the change for the displacement, stress, plastic region in the surrounding rock mass are obtained also in this paper.

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