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  • 1. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal2013In: Proceedings of the STLE Annual Meeting and Exhibition 2013, Detroit MI, USA., STLE , 2013, p. 125-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile.In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication

  • 2. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The influence of speed, grease type, and temperature on radial contaminant particle migration in a double restriction seal2011In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 867-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) is used to measure the grease velocity profile in small seal-like geometries and the radial migration of contaminant particles is predicted. In the first part, the influence of shaft speed, grease type, and temperatures on the flow of lubricating greases in a narrow double restriction sealing pocket is evaluated. Such geometries can be found in, for example, labyrinth-type seals. In a wide pocket the velocity profile is one-dimensional and the Herschel-Bulkley model is used. In a narrow pocket, it is shown by the experimental results that the side walls have a significant influence on the grease flow, implying that the grease velocity profile is two-dimensional. In this area, a single empirical grease parameter for the rheology is sufficient to describe the velocity profile. In the second part, the radial migration of contaminant particles through the grease is evaluated. Centrifugal forces acting on a solid spherical particle are calculated from the grease velocity profile. Consequently, particles migrate to a larger radius and finally settle when the grease viscosity becomes large due to the low shear rate. This behavior is important for the sealing function of the grease in the pocket and relubrication.

  • 3. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Contaminant migration in the vicinity of a grease lubricated bearing seal contact2011In: Journal of tribology, ISSN 0742-4787, E-ISSN 1528-8897, Vol. 133, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lubricating grease is commonly used for lubricating sealed and greased for life rolling element bearings. This grease also provides an additional sealing function to protect the bearing against ingress of contaminants. In this work the sealing function of lubricating grease in the vicinity of the seal lip contact has been studied experimentally by measuring the migration of spherical fluorescent contaminant particles in the vicinity of the contact, as a function of shaft speed and lubricant type. The experimental results reveal that in some greases contaminant particles migrate towards the sealing contact where the shear rate reaches its highest value. However, for other greases, Newtonian base oils, and elastic fluids, this is not necessarily the case and contaminant particles consistently migrate away from the sealing contact. Various physical phenomena have been investigated to explain the difference in migration behavior. It is concluded that migration towards the sealing contact is driven by the viscosity gradient and migration away from the sealing contact is related to the Weissenberg number. The sealing function of grease in the vicinity of the sealing contact is due to the migration of contaminant particles. The migration reduces the probability of particles to reach the sealing and bearing contacts.

  • 4. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Non-Newtonian effects on film formation in grease lubricated radial lip seals2009In: Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers annual meeting & exhibition 2009: Lake Buena Vista, Florida, USA, 17 - 21 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, p. 140-142Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the high shear rheology of grease and determines whether the "normal stress effect" can significantly contribute to film formation in radial lip seal applications. Rheology measurements and a rheology model for the grease have been developed to model the normal stress at high shear rates. Subsequently, a seal lip model is developed to predict lift forces, generated by the normal stress effect. The model predicts lift forces over 50% of the seals specific lip force for low contact pressure bearing seals.

  • 5. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Non-newtonian effects on film formation in grease-lubricated radial lip seals2010In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 308-318Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In existing models, the only lubricant property used for predicting film thickness in radial lip seals is the (base) oil viscosity. Lubricating greases show non-Newtonian behavior, and additional normal stress components develop that may contribute to the load-carrying capacity. This study investigates the shear rheology of greases and determines whether this "normal stress effect" in grease can significantly contribute to film formation in radial lip seals. First, the rheological behavior of grease is studied in a rotary plate-plate rheometer at small gaps of 25-500 μ m up to shear rates of 5 · 104 s-1. The rheology measurements are used for a rheology model that predicts the first normal stress difference in the grease. Second, a seal lip model was developed to predict the lift force generated by the normal stress effect that separates the seal from the shaft. The model results show that the load-carrying capacity depends very much on the operating conditions: lip geometry, speed, and temperature. The model predicts a lift force that is over 50% of the seal specific lip force for low-contact pressure-bearing seals. The model can easily be used in existing oil seal models and makes it possible to optimize seal design by utilizing the normal stress effect.

  • 6.
    Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    On the Normal Stress Effect in Grease-Lubricated Bearing Seals2015In: Tribology & Lubrication Technology, ISSN 1545-858X, Vol. 71, no 9, p. 939-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The film formation in lip seals, due to non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film build-up between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current paper we evaluate this earlier work and our earlier theoretical seal lip model with a series of experiments. We use a modified concentric cylinder geometry and a model fluid to study the fluid pressure distribution in the seal type geometry. The results are then related to grease lubricated seals and our earlier theoretical predictions. The present analysis shows that this earlier work and our earlier predictions are not correct and indicate that normal stresses in the grease pull the seal lip towards the shaft, increasing the contact pressure. However, normal stresses also ensure the presence of grease on the shaft or bearing inner ring which enhances replenishment of the sealing contact.

  • 7.
    Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    On the Normal Stress Effect in Grease-Lubricated Bearing Seals2014In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 939-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The film formation in lip seals, due to non-Newtonian rheology of the lubricant, has been a topic of speculation. Earlier work suggests that normal stresses in grease would be favorable for the film build-up between the seal lip and shaft or bearing ring. In the current paper we evaluate this earlier work and our earlier theoretical seal lip model with a series of experiments. We use a modified concentric cylinder geometry and a model fluid to study the fluid pressure distribution in the seal type geometry. The results are then related to grease lubricated seals and our earlier theoretical predictions. The present analysis shows that this earlier work and our earlier predictions are not correct and indicate that normal stresses in the grease pull the seal lip towards the shaft, increasing the contact pressure. However, normal stresses also ensure the presence of grease on the shaft or bearing inner ring which enhances replenishment of the sealing contact.

  • 8.
    Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Review of the lubrication, sealing and pumping mechanisms in oil and grease-lubricated radial lip seals2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Lugt, Piet
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Review of the lubrication, sealing, and pumping mechanisms in oil- and grease-lubricated radial lip seals2009In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 223, no 3, p. 347-358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radial lip seals are successfully used since the 1940s to seal lubricated systems. Despite extensive experimental and theoretical research in the field, it is still not fully clear how these seals function. Experimental studies, found in the public literature, show that the relatively high surface roughness of the seal lip is very important for good and reliable performance. In addition, the pressure distribution under the lip seems to be a critical factor. Six fundamental hypotheses are presented on the lubrication, pumping, and sealing mechanisms to explain the working principles of these seals. It is generally accepted that lubrication results from micro-elastohydrodynamic film build up between the rough seal surface and the shaft. Non-symmetrical tangential deformations of the lip surface are observed during experiments and assumed to act like spiral groove bearings that generate a pumping action and lubricant film. Another hypothesis suggests that the lubricant will behave non-Newtonian under the very high shear rates experienced in operating conditions. This will reduce friction because of shear-thinning and enhances sealing. Macroscopic aids, like hydrodynamic pumping aids and engineered asperity patterns on the shaft, do improve seal performance. Almost all public literature discusses oil-lubricated radial lip seals while many seals are grease lubricated, especially in certain technical fields. Due to the non-Newtonian behaviour of grease, the lubrication, sealing, and pumping mechanisms are assumed to differ from the oil-lubricated seals. Lower friction and improved protection against contamination are measured, and it is expected that the interest in grease lubrication will rapidly grow in future.

  • 10. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Prakash, Braham
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    The sealing function of grease: contamination migration in grease lubricated radial lip seals2010In: Proceedings of the STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference 2010: presented at STLE/ASME International Joint Tribology Conference, October 17-20, 2010, San Francisco, California, USA, New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2010, p. 81-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lubricating grease is commonly used for lubricating `sealed and greased for life' bearings. This grease lubricates the rolling contacts. It also provides an additional sealing function to protect the bearing against ingress of contamination. The sealing function of lubricating grease in the vicinity of the seal lip contact has been studied experimentally. The effects of the lubricant rheology on the migration of ingress particles has been examined. In grease, experimental results reveal that contaminant particles consistently migrate towards the sealing contact where the shear rate reaches its highest value. In contrast, for a Newtonian base oil and a non shear thinning elastic fluid, it has been observed that the migration effect takes place in the opposite direction, and brings particles away from the sealing contact. It is concluded that the sealing function of grease in the vicinity of the sealing contact is due to the fluid rheology and more specifically to the shear thinning behaviour of the lubricant

  • 11.
    Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Sealing improvements by grease selection in double lip seals and labyrinth seals2012In: 17th ISC: International Sealing Conference ; Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 13 - 14, 2012, Frankfurt am Main: Fachverband Fluidtechnik im VDMA e.V , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Baart, Pieter
    et al.
    Vorst, Bas van der
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Ostayen, Ron A. J. van
    Delft University of Technology.
    Oil-bleeding model for lubricating grease based on viscous flow through a porous microstructure2010In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 340-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the criteria in selecting lubricating grease for rolling-element bearing applications is its ability to bleed oil, sometimes called ogrease bleeding.o Oil bleeding is assumed to be the dominating mechanism supplying new oil to the rolling track for lubrication. In this study, a physical model has been developed to understand the relation between parameters that control oil bleeding. In the model, lubricating grease is described as a porous network, formed by the thickener fibers, that contains the base oil. This type of structure is confirmed by SEM and AFM images of a lithium complex grease showing a matrix of rigid fibers with random orientation. A relatively simple flow model based on Darcy's law for viscous flow in porous media and an anisotropic microstructure deformation model was developed. The model relates the pressure gradient, oil viscosity, thickener structure deformations, and permeability to the volumetric oil flow out of the thickener network. The permeability depends strongly on the thickener microstructure. The model was verified with experiments at a wide variety of temperatures and rotational speeds.

  • 13.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Lundström, Staffan
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Li, Jinxia
    A new method to visualize grease flow in a double restriction seal using microparticle image velocimetry2011In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 54, p. 784-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new method to visualize and quantify grease flow in between two sealing lips or, in general, a double restriction seal is presented. Two setups were designed to mimic different types of seals; that is, a radial and an axial shaft seal. The flow of the grease inside and in between the sealing restrictions was measured using microparticle image velocimetry. The results show that grease flow due to a pressure difference mainly takes place close to the rotating shaft surface with an exponentially decaying velocity profile in the radial direction. Consequently, contaminants may be captured in the stationary grease at the outer radius, which explains the sealing function of the grease.

  • 14.
    Green, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Visualisering och kvantifiering av fettströmning i lagertätningar med µPIV2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Baart, Pieter
    µPIV measurement of grease velocity profiles in channels with two different types of flow restrictions2012In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 54, p. 94-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling bearings and seals. In this paper the flow of lubricating grease passing restrictions is described. Such flow occurs in rolling bearings during relubrication events where the grease is flowing in the transverse (axial) direction through the bearing and is hindered by guide rings, flanges et cetera, as well as in seals where transverse flow occurs, for example during so-called breathing caused by temperature fluctuations in the bearing. This study uses a 2D flow model geometry consisting of a wide channel with rectangular cross-section and two different types of restrictions to measure the grease velocity vector field, using the method of Micro Particle Image Velocimetry. In the case of a single restriction, the horizontal distance required for the velocity profile to fully develop is approximately the same as the height of the channel. In the corner before and after the restriction, the velocities are very low and part of the grease is stationary. For the channel with two flow restrictions, this effect is even more pronounced in the “pocket” between the restrictions. Clearly, a large part of the grease is not moving. This condition particularly applies to the cases with a low-pressure drop and where high consistency grease is used. In practice this means that grease is not replaced in such “corners” and that some aged/contaminated grease will remain in seal pockets.

  • 16.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Lundström, Staffan
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    Measurements of grease flow in channels with restrictions using μPIV2010In: 14th Nordic Symposium on Tribology: NORDTRIB 2010 : Storforsen, Sweden, June 8-11, 2010, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is commonly used to lubricate various machine components such as rolling element bearings, open gears etc. Better understanding of the flow properties of grease will contribute to understanding the lubrication mechanism in bearings and flow in lubrication systems. In an earlier paper Micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) techniques were used to study the flow in a rectangular channel. The present paper is an extension of this work where restrictions were applied in such a channel, which creates a much more complex velocity field. The grease is seeded with fluorescent particles, which are illuminated by a double-pulsed laser. The test geometries that are used in this study are a channel with one flat restriction and one with two flow restrictions in a similar channel. The stationary grease mass-flow and the two dimensional velocity fields have been monitored for different pressure drops. For the channel with one flat restriction, the flow was measured to be symmetric at the inlet and outlet, and the distance for the flow to fully develop is comparable with the height of the channel; Slow motion was followed near the step corner at the inlet. For the channel with two flow restrictions, the vector profiles show that the maximum velocity appears at the restrictions; In-between the two restrictions, a part of the grease is not moving. This particularly applies to cases with low-pressure drop and where high consistency grease was used.

  • 17.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Experimental study of free surface grease flow subjected to centrifugal forces2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the understanding of grease flow in various applications such as gears, seals and rolling bearings, the free surface flow of different greases under different running conditions has been investigated. A rotating disc has been used to study grease flow as the grease was subjected to a centrifugal force. The grease flow and mass loss was measured for greases with different rheology on different surfaces and with surface textures. It is shown that the speed at which grease starts to move is mostly determined by grease type and yield stress, while the impact of the surface material and roughness is less pronounced. The mass loss is shown to be influenced both by the rheology of the grease and the surface material

  • 18.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration2014In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 57, no 6, p. 1106-1115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant for the prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. In this study, grease flow is visualized using microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV). The experimental setup includes a concentric cylinder configuration with a rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a double restriction seal geometry with two different grease pocket sizes. It is shown that the grease is partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fully yielded in the small grease pocket. For the small grease pocket, it is shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate region close to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary region near the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behavior and its wall slip effects have been identified. The μPIV experimental results have been compared with a numerical model for both the large and small gap size. It is shown that the flow is close to one-dimensional in the center of the small pocket. A one-dimensional analytical model based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model has been developed, showing good agreement with the measured velocity profiles in the small grease pocket. Furthermore, wall slip effects and shear banding are observed, where the latter imply that using the assumption of uniform shear in conventional concentric cylinder rheometers may result in erroneous rheological results.

  • 19.
    Li, Jinxia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Lubricating grease shear flow and boundary layers in a concentric cylinder configuration2013In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Tribology Symposium of IFoMM (International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science), Luleå, March 19-21, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease is extensively used to lubricate various machine elements such as rollingbearings, seals, and gears. Understanding the flow dynamics of grease is relevant forthe prediction of the grease distribution for optimum lubrication and the migration ofwear- and contaminant particles. In this study grease flow is visualized using themethod of micro Particle Image Velocimetry; the experimental setup comprises aconcentric cylinder with rotating shaft to simulate the grease flow in a DoubleRestriction Seal (DRS) geometry with two different grease pocket heights. It is shownthat grease may be partially yielded in the large grease pocket geometry and fullyyielded in the small grease pocket geometry. For the small grease pocket geometry, itis shown that three distinct grease flow layers are present: a high shear rate regionclose to the stationary wall, a bulk flow layer, and a high shear rate boundary regionnear the rotating shaft. The grease shear thinning behaviour and its wall slip effectshave been detected and discussed.

  • 20. Rapetto, Marco
    et al.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    On the influence of surface roughness on real area of contact in normal, dry, friction free, rough contact by using a neural network2009In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 266, no 5-6, p. 592-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model previously developed at LTU was used in order to perform numerical simulations of normal, dry, friction free, linear elastic contact of rough surfaces. A variational approach was followed and the FFT-technique was used to speed up the numerical solution process. Five different steel surfaces were measured using a Wyko optical profilometer and several 2D profiles were taken. The real area of contact and the pressure distribution over the contact length were calculated for all the 2D profiles. A new slope parameter was defined. An artificial neural network was applied to determine the relationship between the roughness parameters and the real area of contact. The trained model was able to capture the dependence of the real area of contact on the roughness parameters. The ability of the neural network to generalize on unseen data was tested. The neural network was able to prove the correlation between the roughness parameters and the real area of contact.

  • 21. Rapetto, Marco
    et al.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Lugt, Piet
    On the influence of surface roughness on real area of contact in normal, dry, friction free, rough contact by using a neural network2007In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces: Huddersfield, U.K., 17th - 20th July 2007 / [ed] Liam Blunt, Huddersfield: University of Huddersfield , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22. Rapetto, Marco
    et al.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Lugt, Piet
    On the influence of surface roughness on real area of contact in normal, dry, friction free, rough contact by using a neural network2007In: Svenska Mekanikdagar 2007: Program och abstracts / [ed] Niklas Davidsson; Elianne Wassvik, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2007, p. 32-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Sahlin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Marklund, Pär
    A mixed lubrication model incorporating measured surface topography: Part 1: theory of flow factors2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 224, no 4, p. 335-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixed lubrication model that permits real three-dimensional surface topography as input is developed. The theory of computing flow factors within the model is presented, and with a following paper (Part 2) the method of measuring and adapting the surface roughness, and model validation through flow measurements and application to a bearing is shown. A contact mechanics model is used to calculate the elastoplastic displacement of a periodic topography signal. A method based on homogenization is used to calculate flow factors for all lubrication regimes. The flow factors are compared with the Patir and Cheng method. Results indicate that the two methods compare well for longitudinal roughness lay, but differ significantly for a cross-patterned surface roughness due to the more complete flow description of the current model.

  • 24.
    Sahlin, Fredrik
    et al.
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Marklund, Pär
    Almqvist, Andreas
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    A mixed lubrication model incorporating measured surface topography: Part 2: roughness treatment, model validation, and simulation2010In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part J, journal of engineering tribology, ISSN 1350-6501, E-ISSN 2041-305X, Vol. 224, no 4, p. 353-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mixed lubrication flow factor model that permits real three-dimensional surface topography as input has been developed. Part 1 gives the theory of computing flow factors within the model. In this article, a method of adapting the measured surface topography signal to suit the numerical models is developed and presented in detail. The mixed lubrication model is validated through flow measurements for three different rough surface test specimens. Simulation of a hydrodynamic bearing was conducted and the results are presented in terms of pressure distributions and Stribeck curves covering all lubrication regimes. The results indicate that the model may be an efficient and accurate engineering design and research tool for tribological devices operating in all lubrication regimes.

  • 25.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Understanding grease flow through optical visualizations2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow dynamics of a lubrication mechanism is very complex, much due to the complex rheology and composition of the grease. In order to obtain an optimal lubrication, both the initial amount of grease and the position of the grease is highly important as too much grease will contribute to an increased friction, and grease in the wrong place will negatively affect the replenishment through oil bleeding. To understand the flow dynamics of grease hence is highly important for the understanding of the lubrication mechanism. Using micro Particle Image Velocimetry (μPIV) we have in a series of studies investigated the dynamics of grease flow in 2D straight channels with- and without restrictions, and in a full 3D configuration comprising a double restriction seal geometry. Velocity profiles for greases of different thickness have been measured, showing the influence of the grease rheology on the grease flow behaviour. KEYWORDS: Lubricants:Greases, Lubricant Physical Analysis:Non-Newtonian Behavior, Lubricant Physical Analysis:Rheology.

  • 26.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lugt, Piet
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Baart, Pieter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics.
    μPIV measurements of lubricating grease flow in channel with two types of restrictions2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF ERC, Tribology Group.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF ERC, Tribology Group.
    Free-surface grease flow: influence of surface roughness and temperature2015In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 59, no 1, article id 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease flow in grease lubricated systems can often be qualified as free-surface flow. It occurs for example in rolling bearings after the churning phase or on open gears. Here only a fraction of the bearing or gearbox volume is filled with grease. Part of the grease is flowing in relatively thin layers induced by centrifugal forces caused by rotation of the various components. In this paper a model problem is investigated in the form of a free-surface flow of grease on a rotating disc. Experiments have been performed where the onset of flow and remaining grease have been studied varying the surface roughness, temperature and the centrifugal forces. The experiments have been coupled to analytical models describing the flow and temperature distribution in the grease. It was found that the impact of surface roughness could be neglected. The flow is determined by the centrifugal forces and rheology of the grease. Temperature effects the rheology but also the oil separation creating low shear strength/low viscosity layers at the surface.

  • 28.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Free-surface grease flow on a rotating plate2014In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 317-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grease lubrication is traditionally used in a great variety of mechanical systems such as rolling bearings, seals, and gears where it has been shown more advantageous than oil, mainly due to its consistency allowing the grease to stay inside the system and not leak out. Knowledge of the flow dynamics of grease is important for the understanding and prediction of grease distribution for optimum lubrication and for the migration of wear and contaminant particles. Free-surface effects play an important role in rolling bearings and open gears as the configuration normally is filled with about 30 % grease to avoid heavy churning. In this study, an analytical model of the stationary uniform flow on a rotating disc is developed and validated with experiments. The model results in the velocity profile for the flow in the thin fully yielded viscous layer in connection to the surface as well as an expression for the plug flow region on top of the viscous layer. Furthermore, the depth-averaged velocity is derived as is the shear stress value on the plate. From the latter, follows a condition for the grease to start moving and in turn yielding an expression for the viscous layer thickness as a function of the grease yield stress value, grease density, angular velocity, and radial position. In addition, an expression of the layer thickness containing the ratio between the flow rate and the layer width which in turn can account for effects not included in the model such as wall slip and surface adhesion and thus add another degree of freedom into the model. Experiments with two different greases having NLGI grade 1 and 2, respectively, shows it is possible to obtain a good fit with the analytically obtained thickness using the rheological parameters for actual greases.

  • 29.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Investigation of grease flow in a rectangular channel including wall slip effects using microparticle image velocimetry2010In: Tribology Transactions, ISSN 1040-2004, E-ISSN 1547-397X, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 600-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The grease flow in a rectangular channel is investigated using microparticle image velocimetry. Of certain interest is to study the behavior close to the boundary where wall slip effects are shown to be present. Three greases with different consistencies (NLGI00, NLGI1, and NLGI2) have been used, together with three wall materials (steel, brass, and polyamide) with different surface roughness. The pressure drop is also varied. It is shown that the velocity profile is strongly dependent on the consistency, having a dominating plug flow structure for a stiff grease. Furthermore, it is shown that wall slip effects occur in a thin shear layer close to the boundary where a very large velocity gradient is present. An analytical solution for the velocity across the channel is described using a Herschel-Bulkley rheology model. The model fits well with the measured velocity profile for all three above-mentioned greases.

  • 30.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, Staffan
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Smörjfetters reologi: undersökning av randeffekter med μPIV2009In: Svenska mekanikdagarna: Södertälje 2009, Stockholm: Svenska nationalkommittén för mekanik , 2009, p. 68-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Westerberg, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Lundström, T. Staffan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Green, Torbjörn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Höglund, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Li, Jinxia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Lugt, Piet
    Baart, Pieter
    SKF Engineering & Research Center, Nieuwegein.
    Grease flow modeling using micro particle image velocimetry2013In: Svenska mekanikdagar 2013, Lund: Lunds tekniska högskola , 2013, p. 106-Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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