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  • 1.
    Aldieri, Luigi
    et al.
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sundström, Kristoffer
    The Ratio Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vinci, Concetto Paolo
    Department of Economic and Statistical Sciences, University of Salerno, Fisciano, Italy.
    Wind Power and Job Creation2020In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 45Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a global overview of job effects per MW of wind power installations, which will enable improved decision-making and modeling of future wind-power projects. We found indications that job creation connected to wind-power installations is rather limited. In total, 17 peer-reviewed articles and 10 reports/non-peer-reviewed papers between 2001 and 2019 were assessed. Our three major policy conclusions are as follows: (a) job creation seems to be limited; (b) each new project should consider a unique assessment, since all projects have been undertaken within different institutional frameworks, labor markets, and during separate years, meaning that the technology is not comparable; and (c) the number of jobs depends on the labor intensity of the country.

  • 2.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Automatiseringen och jobben då och nu2020In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 81-84Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Ratio.
    Crowding Out or Knowledge Spillovers from the Wind Power Industry: The Effect on Related Energy Machinery2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a risk that if a government adopts a R&D spending policy directed towards wind power technology crowding out of other technologies might occur due to fiscal constraints and changes in relative prices. The purpose of this paper is to provide a backward-looking analysis of how the accumulation of wind energy patents and public R&D spending affected the domestic and neighboring country output of granted patents in the “related energy machinery field”. The econometric analysis, a Poisson fixed-effects estimator based on the Hausman, Hall and Griliches (1984) method, relies on a data set consisting of eight countries in Western Europe with the highest rates of patent production in the field of wind power between 1978 and 2008. The results show that an accumulation of a national wind power stock is a statistically significant negative determinant of a country’s related energy machinery patenting outcomes. However, no crowding out effects of public R&D spending were found

  • 4.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Divergence of Renewable Energy Invention Efforts in Europe: An Econometric Analysis Based on Patent CountsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of convergence (or divergence) of invention efforts per capita in the renewable energy field across European Union (EU) countries. Divergence may imply a risk of a lower level of goal fulfilment regarding the share of renewable energy in the EU energy mix. This is due to free-rider issues and sub-optimal investment levels, in turn making it more expensive and cumbersome to expand renewable energy production. Convergence suggests a faster renewable energy goal achievement. The econometric analysis is based on patent application counts per capita for 13 EU Member States over the time period 1990–2012. The methods used draw on the economic convergence literature. First, we rely on a panel data set to test for conditional β-convergence. Moreover, a distributional dynamics approach is employed to test for σ- and γ-convergence, and analyse the intra-distributional dynamics. The results indicate conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention capabilities across the 13 countries, thus suggesting that some EU countries tend to free-ride on the development efforts of other Member States.

  • 5.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Divergence of Renewable Energy Invention Efforts in Europe: an econometric analysis based on patent counts2018In: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 829-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of convergence (or divergence) of invention efforts per capita in the renewable energy field across European Union (EU) countries. Divergence may imply a risk of a lower level of goal fulfilment regarding the share of renewable energy in the EU energy mix. This is due to free-rider issues and sub-optimal investment levels, in turn making it more expensive and cumbersome to expand renewable energy production. Convergence suggests a faster renewable energy goal achievement. The econometric analysis is based on patent application counts per capita for 13 EU Member States over the time period 1990–2012. The methods used draw on the economic convergence literature. First, we rely on a panel data set to test for conditional β-convergence. Moreover, a distributional dynamics approach is employed to test for σ- and γ-convergence, and analyse the intra-distributional dynamics. The results indicate conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention capabilities across the 13 countries, thus suggesting that some EU countries tend to free-ride on the development efforts of other Member States.

  • 6.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International knowledge spillovers in the wind power industry: Evidence from Europe2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last 30 years, there has been a remarkable change in the wind power industry with declining costs and increasing electricity output. A factor that might speed up the innovative process and development of wind power is knowledge spillover, something that has been found and is considered important for other industries. However, when it comes to wind power, there is a shortage of comprehensive studies and previous research has found only limited evidence of knowledge spillovers in the industry. The paper studies the patents granted during the time period 1978-2008 as an innovative measure and focuses on core wind power countries in Western Europe in order to examine those countries that as a matter of fact invest and are engaged in the wind power industry. Domestic knowledge spillovers are found to have a positive effect on patent production while the results of international more are more ambiguous.

  • 7.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    International Knowledge Spillovers in the Wind Power Industry: evidence from the European Union2018In: Economics of Innovation and New Technology, ISSN 1043-8599, E-ISSN 1476-8364, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 205-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the presence of international knowledge spillovers in the wind power sector. Specifically, the paper investigates whether successful invention efforts in one country, measured by way of granted wind power patent counts, have had positive effects on the neighboring countries’ abilities to generate patents of the same category. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office during the period 1978-2008 are used for the eight national technological leaders in the western European wind power sector. The few comprehensive wind power studies that exist have only found limited evidence of international knowledge spillovers. However, in this paper we find that international spillovers are statistically significant determinants of a country’s wind power patenting outcomes. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the knowledge spillover effects are shown to become stronger with decreases in this distance. The results should have important policy implications, e.g., for a national government when it comes to applying an investment strategy in wind power or, alternatively, free-riding on other countries’ invention efforts.

  • 8.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    KappaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. The Ratio Institute.
    Technological Change and Wage Polarization: The IlliberalPopulist Response2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is discuss how technological change affect the labor marketand what populist actions that are expected follow. The causes and consequences of possibletechnological unemployment will be addressed and to what extent it could be expected thatthe rapid technological change leads to unemployment (or that the labor market adapts in asimilar way to previous technological changes as has been seen in history so far). A changinglabor market will constitute challenges for the future of liberalism - possible wage polarizationand heterogeneous distribution of unemployment in the labor force might create a demand forpolicy solutions that have an illiberal direction. In the paper it will be argued that the threatof populism will come from a disgruntled middle class rather than as commonly believed thepoorer stratas of the wage distribution.

  • 10.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technological Change in Service of the Environment2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Jonas Grafstrom provides an outline of how technological change in the renewable energy field can contribute to mitigate climate issues. Such knowledge enables policy makers (e.g., at the EU level) to make better and more informed decisions.

  • 11.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Technological Change in the Renewable Energy Sector: Essays on Knowledge Spillovers and Convergence2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the determinants of technological change in the renewable energy sector, with a special emphasis on the role of knowledge spillovers and convergence across countries. The thesis consists of a preface and five self-contained papers. In Paper I technological change is broken down into the three major development stages laid out by Joseph Schumpeter: invention, innovation and diffusion. Econometric models of each of these stages are specified in the empirical context of wind power. The models are estimated employing a panel dataset consisting of eight western European countries over the time period 1991-2008. The results display evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention (i.e., patenting) model. The results from the technology learning models indicate evidence of global learning-by-doing, and that the prices of input factors have been important determinants of wind power costs. In line with previous research, the diffusion model results show that investment costs have influenced the development of installed wind power capacity. Paper II investigates how wind power inventions in European countries have affected the technological development achievements in neighboring countries. Data on the number of patents granted at the European Patent Office (EPO) during the period 1978-2008 in the eight technologically leading wind power countries in Europe are employed in a patent production function framework. The presence of international knowledge spillovers is found to constitute a statistically significant determinant of a country’s patent production. Geographical distance is also taken into consideration, and the results suggest that knowledge spillovers are subject to spatial transaction costs: with longer distances the role of international spillovers becomes weaker. Paper III investigates the convergence of inventive capabilities in the EU. Data on total patents per capita in 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2011 are analyzed using both parametric and non-parametric techniques. Converging inventive abilities may be important for the future of the EU given that rapid technological change has resulted in major structural changes in the Member States’ economies during the last decades. The β-convergence and σ-convergence tests suggest convergence in inventive capabilities, and this finding gains some support when analyzing the intra-distributional dynamics of the invention capabilities. Paper IV specifically investigates whether the generation of renewable energy patents per capita has converged or diverged across 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2012. The results indicate the presence of conditional β- and σ-divergence in renewable energy invention abilities. This could be critical for assessing the future prospects of EU policy in the renewable energy field; divergence in terms of invention outcomes could imply a less rapid and yet more expensive goal fulfillment due to free-rider behavior and sub-optimal investment levels. Finally, Paper V tests for convergence/divergence based on countries’ public spending to renewable energy R&D. The empirical analysis focuses on the presence of conditional β-convergence across 13 EU countries over the period 1990-2012. The results suggest divergence in public R&D-based knowledge accumulation, and this is consistent with free-riding behavior on the part of some EU Member States. Energy import dependence and electricity deregulation also affect this divergence pattern. For instance, the higher the energy import dependence, the lower is the speed of divergence across the EU countries in terms of public R&D support. Overall, the diverging pathways in terms of both public R&D and private patenting efforts may raise concerns about an unfair burden-sharing in terms of renewable energy development efforts.

  • 12.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences. Ratio.
    Teknikutvecklingen och arbetsmarknaden2019In: En dynamisk arbetsmarknad / [ed] Lotta Stern, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2019, p. 26-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vanliga tider liknar varandra, men ovanliga tider är annorlunda på sitt eget sätt –teknikutvecklingen som pågår bär tecken som tyder på att vi är på väg in i en ovanlig tid. Det ovanliga i denna tid är den sammanlagda snabbheten av teknologiska förändringar. Historiskt har teknikutveckling förändrat arbetsmarknader men det har funnits gott om tid för omställning. I detta kapitel diskuteras teknikförändringarnas utmaningar och huruvida det sker en polarisering på arbetsmarknaden. Kapitlet avslutas med några tankar kring hur en person på arbetsmarknaden kan rusta sig för en framtida, potentiellt ovanlig, tid.

  • 13.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The creation of renewable energy technology in Europe: are patents per capita converging?2016In: Energy: Expectationsand Uncertainty: Challenges for Analysis, Decisions and Policy, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether a convergence or divergence of national innovation capabilities regarding renewable energy patents of the 13 EU countries occurs in the course of the time period 1990-2010. An answer to the research question permits immediate conclusions with regard to the success prospects of the EU's Renewable Energy Directive (2009/28/EC), which sets climate and energy targets for both 2020. The empirical analysis is focused on whether renewable energy patents have converged or diverged between the countries. The data is based on patents granted at the European patent office. The methodologies applied draws from the economic convergence literature. The initial results have showed signs of conditional beta and sigma divergence in renewable energy invention abilities.

  • 14.
    Grafström, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    The strengths and weaknesses in the Swedish renewable energy sector: an assessment report2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are both weaknesses and opportunities of the Swedish renewable energy sector. This papers aim at increasing the awareness of how the state of the sector is right now, if there are any obvious difficulties facing firms in Sweden and provide knowledge about what issues that has to be addressed in order for firms to be able to succeed. The aim is addressed by looking at data and connecting the data to growth theory. Three issues stand out. Business angels do not understand the industry: As angel investors not only contribute capital to the company, but also its expertise, commitment and contacts, it is important for most business angels that they understand the industry to invest in. Lack of capital -access to capital is insufficient. Small critical mass-absorbing technology: In order to absorb technology human capital is needed, not only in general but specific technology.

  • 15.
    Grafström, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Jaunky, Vishal
    Convergence of Inventive Capabilities within the European Union: A Parametric and Non-Parametric AnalysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of a single economic market and rapid technological advances in the European Union (EU) have resulted in its Member States undergoing major structural changes over the past few decades. The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether or not there is convergence in the inventive capabilities across the EU. This is done by econometrically investigating, by means of parametric and non-parametric techniques, the development of patents granted per capita in 13 Member States per capita during the period 1990–2011. The findings of the β-convergence and σ-convergence tests show convergence in inventive capabilities. Moreover, a similar result is obtained when analysing the distributional dynamics of the invention capabilities. The speed of convergence is slow, however; this suggests that policy efforts implemented by the EU to reduce technological gaps among its Member States have been insufficient, and predicts negative long-term consequences for EU cohesion.

  • 16.
    Grafström, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Lindman, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Invention, innovation and diffusion in the European wind power sector2016In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 114, p. 179-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an economic analysis of the technology development patterns in the European wind power sector. The three classic Schumpeterian steps of technological development, invention, innovation and diffusion, are brought together to assess the relationship between these. Three econometric approaches are used, a negative binomial regression model for inventions approximated by patent counts, different learning curve model specifications that have been derived from a Cobb-Douglas cost function to address innovation, and a panel data fixed effect regression for the diffusion model. We suggest an integrated perspective of the technological development process where possible interaction effects between the different models are tested. The dataset covers the time period 1991–2008 in the eight core wind power countries in Western Europe. We find evidence of national and international knowledge spillovers in the invention model. The technology learning model results indicate that there exists global learning but also that the world market price of steel has been an important determinant of the development of wind power costs. In line with previous research, the diffusion model results indicate that investment costs have been an important determinant of the development of installed wind power capacity. The results also point towards the importance of natural gas prices and feed-in tariffs as vital factors for wind power diffusion.

  • 17.
    Grafström, Jonas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Gawel, Erik
    Lehmann, Paul
    Struntz, Stephan
    Knowledge Accumulation from Public Renewable Energy R&D in the European Union: Converging or Diverging Trends?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the presence of convergence (or divergence) in public renewable energy R&D spending accumulation in 12 Member States of the European Union (EU) and an extended set of 17 OECD countries. Specifically, we employ a data set covering the period 1980-2012. The motivation for investigating convergence in the selected countries are in part due to the political economy of imposing stricter targets for renewable energy. The method draws inspiration from the classic economic convergence literature. Various empirical specifications for conditional β-convergence is tested. The empirical results suggest divergence in public R&D-based knowledge accumulation, and this is consistent with free-riding behavior on the part of some Member States. Energy import dependence and electricity regulation also affect the divergence pattern, e.g., the speed of divergence.

1 - 17 of 17
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