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  • Vonkavaara, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Visualisering av 3D-objekt från fågel-vy i Augmented Reality-miljö2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har som syfte att skapa ett applikationstillägg som möjliggör betraktande av 3Dobjektfrån en fågel-vy i Augmented Reality (AR) -miljö. AR är en teknologi under starktillväxt, teknologin bygger på att placera virtuella objekt i den verkliga världen och betraktadessa genom olika typer av hårdvara.Arbetet har utförts mot företaget Neava som upptäckt ett behov av fågel-vy i derasAR-applikation vilken används för byggnadsvisualisering.Metoden som tillämpats för arbetet är Design Science Research (DSR) med enproblemcentrerad inledning som genom metodens sekvenser utmynnat i en IT-artefakt, genomdemonstrationer och kvalitativ datainsamling har lärdom utvunnits utifrån upplevelse ochförståelse av 3D-objektet vid användning av artefakten.Analysen av resultatet visar på ökad upplevelse och förståelse för storlek, placering och formav en virtuell byggnad i AR-miljö när den kan betraktas från en fågel-vy.

  • Mostafavi Shirazi, Seyedeh Fatemeh
    et al.
    Jasmin Tours Cultural & Eco Tour Operator; Antonio de Nebrija University.
    Shafieazadeh, E.
    Jasmin Tours Cultural & Eco Tour Operator; Antonio de Nebrija University.
    How Market Share Develop: The importance of Destination Loyalty2012In: Proceeding of 1th Enlightening Tourism Conference. Naples, Italy, 13-14 September,, 2012, p. 243-251Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Bergqvist, Michaela
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Byggregler för flerbostadshus: en studie av konsekvenser och möjligheter att skapa kvalitativa bostäder genom riktad problemlösning i byggprocessen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning have been conducting housing needs assessments since 1995 (Boverket 2015). The latest assessment was conducted in 2015 and showed that 71,000 homes will need to be built annually by 2020. To be able to contribute to building more homes, Willhem AB is carrying out a project called ”Så bygger vi för alla”. As part of the work, this thesis will examine the building rules and how they can contribute to innovation. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate which rules, laws and norms we have to keep to in Sweden regarding housing construction. The aim of the work is to investigate whether the regulatory framework can create creativity amongst the players in the market.

    This thesis is limited to examining which laws, government policies and eventual municipal requirements that exist in Sweden. Therefore, industry rules, such as the AMA, and contracting regulations, such as AB and ABT, will not be taken into consideration. The survey is also limited to newly built multifamily houses only. Finally, the reference objects that are studied in the thesis will be in Sweden and be limited to being either construction-technical or plan-based innovative and have been recently executed.

    This thesis is based on the existing regulations and theories from previous studies. The data collected for this survey will be studied from a qualitative point of view. The survey aims to investigate a number of reference objects more thoroughly and conduct interviews with key people involved in the project, which means a qualitative approach is best suited.

    In 1987, Sweden received a new building legislation according to Örnhall (2017), which has resulted in a transition from specification requirements to functional requirements in order to increase the liberty in housing production. However, according to Örnhall (2017 the new legislation has contributed to a wider picture of the regulatory framework. The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is the authority that has the overall responsibility for community planning, urban development, construction and housing (Nordstrand 2008). The most important laws and government policies that the social planning sector primarily have to obey are the Planning and Building Act (PBL), the Planning and Building Regulation (PBF) as well as and the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (BBR) (Örnhall, Swedish Construction Service 2017a). The Planning and Building Act (SFS 2010:900), PBL, regulates the planning for land and water whilst the responsibility for maintaining the regulations lies with the municipalities. The purpose of PBL is to promote social development for long-term, equal, social and environmental sustainable development for today’s society and future generations (SFS 2010: 900). When creating new homes, special consideration should be given to long term use of the home (Boverket 2016).

    At the interview stage, six areas emerged that were considered to be particularly problematic or interesting for the development of innovative and cheap housing. These areas were; accessibility, municipal requirements, rules, advice and interpretations, energy, innovation and development, and the ability to build for everyone. I perceived the accessibility aspect as very complex. Several interviewees argue that the accessibility requirements entail an increased cost for new builds, in one case it was even expressed that today’s availability requirements means the housing becomes less accessible to a larger group. The rules for creating an inclusive society also emerged at the interview stage while another recurring opinion is the renewal of the legislation.

    Several interviewees stated that they consider the regulations to be outdated and need to be updated according to today’s society. Based on this, I found The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning requirements contradictory whilst providing support for innovation, many requirements inhibits the development of housing. Therefore, extensive research should be carried out on how people in Sweden want to live today; thereafter the regulations can be updated according to today’s needs.

    In one way or another, all reference objects have been at the forefront when it comes to housing development. A common factor for the various reference objects is that a major problem was identified in all projects, which led to a product or solution being developed. They show that there is not one solution to the problem, but that different solutions can be found to achieve the same goal: better housing for more people.

  • Niklasson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Conceptual Design of Seat Belt Installation for Rear-facing Child Car Seat2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Children are more vulnerable in vehicles compared to adults in collisions. Two main reasons are the different body structure between these two and vehicles are more designed to fit adults. Children’s head is larger relative to their body mass and their neck muscle ligaments are still not fully developed. Children are therefore in need of a restraint system that match their anatomy to make them protected during transportation in vehicles. Crash tests have shown that if children up to the age of five use rear-facing child car seats are the chances reduced of injuries by five times compared to front-facing.

    This report describes the development project of a concept which enables to fasten a rear-facing child car seat with the car seat belt. The objective was to design the fastening components for a rear-facing child car seat that suits children up to five years and considering the regulations, ECE R44, and the Swedish Plus test. This is a Master thesis that has been in collaboration with Company Xand Havd Group in Gothenburg. The project aimed to deliver a digital concept of the fastening components with information about the material, manufacturing methods, product costs, and design form. Also, was the aim to gather information through the project on what it takes to develop a rear-facing child car seat.

    The project consisted of five phases: planning, pre-study, ideation, detailed design and at last presentation of the result. The first phase was to plan and coordinate the project. A pre-study was then made investigating the products on the market, interviews with both users and experts regarding safety for children in vehicles, relevant literature for developing a child car seat was also collected and regulations were studied. The ideation phase developed ideas and three concepts were taken forward for development. One concept was chosen after decision making and the concept was more detailed designed in CAD.The result is presented through a CAD model which illustrates the design form and chosen material.

    The result is a concept that fastens the car seat belt with two hooks which can be connected to the child car seat base. In the base is two buckles designed to connect with the hooks, which uses the same fastening way used in the vehicles to fasten passengers. This is supposed to increase the usability of the installation. Material, manufacturing methods and product costs have been considered and are presented with the result.

  • Svensson, Lucas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Ljungné, Gustaf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Feasibility of an Electrically Tuneable EMC Susceptibility Antenna for 26-150 MHz2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is an essential part in today’s society and there are more products around us that emit electromagnetic waves than ever before. To make sure that all these products function properly under all circumstances EMC testing is needed. One test that is conducted is radiated immunity testing. A susceptibility antenna is needed to perform immunity testing. This thesis aims to show that a tuneable antenna could be used for immunity testing in the frequency band 26-150 MHz and in the future replace the current antenna, which is not tuneable, used at SAAB Support and Services EMC in Östersund. A simulation program called EZNEC+ was used to simulate different antennas that were tested in the semi-anechoic chamber at SAAB. Two antenna types showed better efficiency and reached lower in frequency than SAAB’s current antenna. These antennas were a bowtie antenna and an x-shaped antenna, both extending in only two spacial directions instead of the normal three. Their drawback was a less uniform E-field at the lowest frequencies, where the E-field was much stronger to the sides compared to straight in front of the antenna. This results in a narrow lobe width, but if this drawback could be accepted or mitigated both antennas are possible replacements for the current antenna at SAAB and should be further investigated.

  • Kostenius, Catrine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Lundqvist, Catarina
    Norrbotten Association of Local Authorities.
    Nyström, Lena
    Norrbotten Association of Local Authorities.
    Henriksson, Annica
    Norrbotten Association of Local Authorities.
    Nordstrand, Annika
    Norrbotten County Council.
    The Health Dialogue as a Tool to Increase Health Literacy: Schoolchildren’s and Professional’s Perspectives.2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Sjöblom, Margareta
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    From 9 to 91 in good health: the health promoting role of the inner child through the life course2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    "Like the cement in a brick wall": Health Promotion in schools according to students, school staff and politicians2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Helme, Lisa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Halatchev, Linnea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Utveckling av ett verktyg för lossning och montering av masterpinne i larvkedja2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a bachelor degree project in Industrial design engineering at Luleå University of Technology. It has been carried out at the request of Nevo Maskin AB, a company that performs service and repairs on heavy construction equipment. The project has been executed in collaboration with Sigma Industry East North in Luleå.

    The purpose of this project is to improve and simplify the work with a Trackpress. The work process must be made safe, mobile and ergonomic for the user. The Trackpress is a tool that is used for dismantling and replacing the master pin in the link of the caterpillar chain on excavators. The project covers the middle segment of excavators which means excavators between 12 to 45 tons and this is the most common segment of excavators repaired by Nevo Maskin AB.

    The Trackpress tool used by Nevo Maskin AB consists of three parts: a frame that is placed over the caterpillar chain, a hydraulic cylinder that expands by compressed air and a compressor that controls the compressed air. Supplementary parts are needed between the link and cylinder in order for it to reach the master pin, here they use whatever they have in reach. The exciting Trackpress weighs 86 kgs and cannot be lifted by one sole person, a lifting device must be used. Sometimes two people lifts it but this is not to recommend because of the great risk of injuries.

    To improve the Trackpress the project has been carried out through a design process with five phases of planning, feasibility study, literature study, ideation and detail development to develop a concept. in one of the phases, Ideation, we have worked with workshops where the members draw, discuss, and write down all the ideas generated. By using different methods and groups of people in the workshops we got different angles and points of view on the problem. Furthermore we have done field trips, user studies, interviews market research and creative methods to develop a concept that was drawn in NX and Inventor.

    The final concept consists of three parts, a frame constructed by two parallel steel plates with another plate in the rear, a jack for positioning the cylinder, which is placed on top of the jack and between the parallel plates and a additional part for centering the tool over the chain. In the bottom there are two rails that keep the jack in place. A concept for transporting the tool has been left for future development.

    The concept idea gives the user safer handling of the tool and a more ergonomic way of working with it. The weight and the material consumtion has been reduced. This improvement also reduces de production cost whitch gives the company an advantage against other competitors in the same segment.

     

    Keywords: Industrial design engineering, Master pin pusher, Construction, Product development, Ergonomics, Nevo Maskin AB

  • Lundin, Sven-Erik
    et al.
    Bjerking AB.
    Dalenbäck, Jan-Olof
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Hellström, Göran
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Brinck, Björn
    Geokonsult AB.
    Magnusson, Jan
    ÅF-VVS Projekt AB.
    Ringblom, Lennart
    ÅF-VVS Projekt AB.
    Appel, Carl-Henrik
    PEAB.
    Westin, Sune
    HSB Bostad.
    Solvärmesystem och borrhålsvärmelager för bostadsområde Anneberg, Danderyd: Systemval, projektering och byggande2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Sharma, Aman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    System Identification of a Micro Aerial Vehicle2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to implement an Model Predictive Control based system identification method on a micro-aerial vehicle (DJI Matrice 100) as outlined in a study performed by ETH Zurich. Through limited test flights, data was obtained that allowed for the generation of first and second order system models. The first order models were robust, but the second order model fell short due to the fact that the data used for the model was not sufficient.

  • Lampa, Jessika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering. Lindbäcks Bygg AB.
    Energisimuleringar av trapphus2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A warm stairwell indicates that accidental heat leakage occurs somewhere in the building. It is important to find out the cause of the heat leakage in order to reduce energy losses. In Lindbäck's multi-storey houses there are stairwells that are too hot than they are supposed to be. In this study, one of the buildings with a warm stairwell is analysed and is compared with a building with a stairwell in normal indoor temperature. The study has been carried out in the simulation tool IDA ICE. Data has been collected for the design of the buildings, material content and installations. The buildings have been modelled in the simulation tool and added user behaviours according to the recommendations for energy calculations. Various parameters have been studied and analysed in the simulation environment based on the existing construction of the buildings.

    The results from the simulations show what the residents in the buildings are experiencing. The building with a warm stairwell indicates up to 30 degrees all year round in the simulation model of the existing design. The parameter study shows that there are measures that can affect the thermal climate in a positive direction. Simulations show that heat losses from poorly insulated hot water pipes are a major cause of the hot temperatures in the stairwells. By isolating the hot water pipes, the average temperature for all floors can fall by 2.7 degrees in an average throughout the year. However, it may be problematic to isolate certain pipes in the building system because they are difficult to access. By using flexible pipe insulation, improvements in the thermal comfort could be experienced.

  • Jensen, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Lagen om allmänna vattentjänster: Kommunal tvångsanslutning2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Jilar, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Department of Building Services Engineering Chalmers University of Technology.
    Nordell, Bo
    Department of Building Services Engineering Chalmers University of Technology.
    Further R & D needs for Swedish solar heating technology 1990–1993: An expert group plan sponsored by the Swedish Council for Building Research1991In: Energy Conservation in Buildings: The Achievement of 50% Energy Saving: An Environmental Challenge?: Proceedings of NORTHSUN 90, Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1991Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 1970's when the Swedish development seriously started, experimental plants were built with the primary aim of testing various technologies. The economical aspects were of secondary interest which, in many cases, resulted in high costs and even in poor quality. In the second plant generation during the 1980's, R & D was concentrated upon lowering costs and enhancing performances for the most promising system concepts. Systems are included here for DHW, and for combined DHW and space heating designed for solar heat coverages between 30% and 80% of the annual heat requirement.

    In the named plan, the state of the art and the R&D needs are described with the focus upon residential heating . Included are systems for multi -family houses, incorporatin groof-integrated solar collectors and short-term heat storage. More developed construction and urban planning methods for roof integration is stressed here, as well as systems flexible for size expansion, e.g. throug connection to an external seasonal heat storage.

    Also included are district heating systems for solar heat supply of upto a couple of hundred flats . Ground or roof based collectors and seasonal heat storage in water-filled pits or ducts in deep ground are considered here . Emphasis is placed on more efficient high temperature flatplate collectors, more simple piping systems and further development of heat insulation and water-sealing methods for pit storage as well as high temperature practical tests for duct storage.

  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Energilagring: Aktuell FoU1999Other (Other academic)
  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Säsongslagring av värme och kyla1999Conference paper (Refereed)
  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Renewable energy systems and storage1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Westerström, Göran
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Method for continuous measurement of frost depth in soil1994Report (Other academic)
  • Kemi, Päivi
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Andersen, Sirpa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Patienter med långvarig sjukdom: upplevelser av möten med vårdpersonal på hälsocentral2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Goda möten och trygga relationer mellan patienter och vårdpersonal är kärnan i all sjukvård.Syftet var att undersöka hur personer med långvarig sjukdom upplever möten med vårdpersonal på hälsocentral. Uppsatsen är genomfördmed kvalitativ design. I denna studie utgick vi från Graneheim och Lundmans metod för kvalitativ innehållsanalys med en manifest ansats.I analysen identifierades fyra kategoriersom är rubriker i resultatet, att inte bli betrodd, att sakna stöd och information om vård och egenvård, att önska få vara delaktig i sin egen vård,att känna tacksamhet över att få vård på rätt nivå. Resultatet visar att patienternahade svårt att bli betrodd av läkareoch att kännedom om dem som patienter var viktigt.I kontakt med hälsocentralen fick de själv efterfråga om hjälpinsatserochstöd saknades för enklare hälsofrågor. God relation och kommunikation med läkare var betydelsefullt i vårdmötet. Patienterna ville vara delaktiga i sin egen vård och ville möta professionell expertis.Erfarenhetsutbytemed andra med samma sjukdom beskrevs betydelsefullt.De negativa fynden visaratt patienter inte blir betrodd av sjukvårdenoch att tillgänglighetenär bristfälligt. Det som skapar trygghet respektive otrygghet finns ett starkt samband mellan hur patienter med långvarig sjukdom upplever besöket och blir bemött av vårdpersonalen på hälsocentralen. Fler studier behövs inom området hur möten med vårdgivare påverkar patienter med långvarig sjukdom

  • Törnfeldt, André
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Hur man plankar lagligt: Ett utvecklingsarbete om hur hur man kan undervisa noterad plankning av musik2019Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingsarbetet handlar om hur författaren skapade en lektionsserie för två gymnasieklasser inom musik i kursen gehörs- och musiklära. Under lektionsserien undervisade författaren om hur man kan planka musik, det vill säga hur man genom gehöret återger olika stämmor ur en låt. Att planka musik innebär dels att man med hjälp av ett instrument efterliknar det man hör, dels transkriberar musiken på noter, eller både och. Arbetet behandlar den transkriberade plankningen och vilka metoder man kan använda för att lära sig att höra olika stämmor inom en poplåt. Syftet med arbetet är att se vilka förmågor musikgymnasieelever utvecklar i gehörs- och musiklära under en lektionsserie där musik plankas. Elevernas kunskaper mättes genom ett screeningtest och ett slutprov efter fyra lektioner. Under lektionerna fick eleverna olika plankningsövningar på vanligt förekommande instrument inom popgenren som piano, elbas och trummor. Resultaten pekar på att det krävs förkunskaper om notation samt ett utvecklat gehör för att planka korrekt rytmiskt och harmoniskt.

  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Värmelagring i berg1982In: Energiforskning - samhällskonsekvenser, Uppsala: Kontaktsekretariaten vid Uppsala och Stockholms universitet , 1982Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Nordell, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Värmelager i berg1981Conference paper (Other academic)
  • Fredriksson, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Breddning av samverkansbroar: En studie om förberedande åtgärder vid nyproduktion av samverkansbroar för att klara framtida körfältsökningar2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this master thesis is to provide suggestions of how composite bridges with I-beams

    (steel beams and concrete slab connected via shear connectors) can be prepared during the construction phase to withstand a future widening. As a case study the project "Bridge over Kalix river in Kalix" has been used.

    Tender documents were provided to the stakeholders in September 2018 and the tender answers were at the Swedish

    Transport Administration (Trafikverket) in mid-January 2019. The construction work is planned for the summer of 2019

    and the bridge is planned to be operational by the end of 2020.

    Widening of bridges is an expensive change of the structure, but is done occasionally. This is

    mainly due to two factors; higher safety regulations and a higher number on passing vehicles per

    time unit compared to the 1950 when many of the bridges in Sweden were constructed. Beyond

    the increased amount of traffic, the vehicle and lorries are heavier nowadays and the expected life

    time of the bridge construction is longer.

    The thesis has resulted in three suggestions of widening constructions; one for the case study and

    two for the general case. The suggestions are based on the change in loads (both shear force and

    bending moment) caused by dead loads and traffic loads due to the theoretical widening of 2,5

    meters. The widened part is constructed to withstand service vehicle (e.g. snow removal vehicle),

    but the carrying capacity for the rest of the bridge deck is 74-tonnes vehicle.

    The obtained result shows that both the shear force and the mid-span bending moment increases.

    The shear force increases in total 45,8 % (dead load 65,8 % and traffic load 7,3 %) and the bending

    moment 56,7 % (dead load 61,3 % and traffic load 10,0 %). With these value as base the suggested

    widening construction for the case study is a tilted column with tie beam, both with center distance

    of six meters. To the general case, two suggestions are provided; The first one with a steel plate

    placed in the same way as the tilted column, but with a greater load carrying cross section area and

    thus a greater area to spread the load onto the concrete slab and the web of the beam. The second

    suggestion is simply an extra I-beam parallel to the existing ones. This is an established method in

    widenings where the additional load is great, but it is a method highly dependent on the design of

    the bridge and the surrounding nature.

  • Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering.
    Construction of an indoor positioningsystem using UWB2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Lestander, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Hundra stenar faller: Gruv12: ans egna ord om arbete i världens största underjordsgruva2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Mine12 is a union organisation that has been active in LKAB for 100 years, their struggle for better terms and working conditions is a process that is equelly long. In their struggle there have been all kinds of conflicts and cooperations, their story gives us an insight into their world and reality. This qualitative case study will look upon the history, the present and the individuals power to create the future. To succeed with this task the study will investigate how the Mine12 workers worked with work environment during the period 2002-2007. This essay will shed light on the work that was done during the period, but it has also shown how the individuals worked and effected their surroundings and future.

  • Samadi, Adine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    WTO’s tillämpning av försiktighetsprincipen för hantering av invasiva främmande arter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Främmande arter förflyttar sig mellan staters territorium eftersom de inte känner några statsgränser. Det finns dock arter som avsiktligt flyttas över statsgränser av olika skäl, t.ex. för att främja jakt. De arter som avsiktligt introducerats kan bli klassade som invasiva främmande arter om de medför stora negativa konsekvenser på exempelvis den biologiska mångfalden. Detta har resulterat i försök att kontrollera införsel och spridning av sådana arter, exempelvis genom konventionen om biologisk mångfald. Konventionens regler innebär att stater ska kontrollera, utrota och förhindra införandet av invasiva främmande arter. Regler för kontroll av invasiva främmande arter finns även inom EU-rätten Bland annat för att uppfylla konventionen har EU antagit en förordning om främmande arter. Förordningen syftar till att förebygga, tidigt upptäcka och förvalta redan etablerade invasiva främmande arter. Inom ramen för förordningen har även en förteckning av invasiva främmande arter av unionsintresse antagits. En särskild problematik för området är den internationella handeln och frihandelssystemen. En ökad global handel har lett till en ökad spridning av invasiva främmande arter. En enkel lösning hade varit att begränsa den globala handeln, men detta skulle innebära en konflikt med andra målsättningar och åtaganden. Såväl frihandel som kontroll av invasiva främmande arter är prioriterade målsättningar och problemet måste därför hanteras med försiktighet. Frihandelssystemen, både inom EU och globalt (världshandelsorganisationen), tillåter införandet av handelshinder om det är nödvändigt för att begränsa påverkan av invasiva främmande arter. Kraven är dock relativt högt ställda: det krävs vetenskapliga bevis för artens negativa påverkan. Försiktighetsprincipen har betydelse inom samtliga regleringar. Det är dock svårt att säga om världshandelsorganisationens SPS-avtal verkligen har kapacitet att skydda miljön och människors hälsa från invasiva främmande arter. Resultatet av undersökningen indikerar att handeln åtnjuter ett större skydd än miljön när det gäller kontrollen av invasiva främmande arter. En sätt att uppnå bättre balans i detta avseende skulle kunna vara en harmonierad försiktighetsprincip på området, dvs. att försiktighetsprincipen fick samma långgående skydd inom frihandelssystemen som inom ramen för exempelvis den svenska miljöbalken.

  • Skånberg, David
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Tools for optimizing the observation planning of the MATS satellite mission2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Bo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Berglager: en anläggning för lagring av värme i stor skala1980In: Energimagasinet, ISSN 0348-9493, no 4, p. 49-53Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • Hjelm, Jonathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Green Roof Performance in Cold Climates: A study on how different plants suited for the subarctic climate in northernSweden affects the performances of green roofs2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increased urbanization leads to an increasing amount of impervious surfaces and a decrease ofthe natural hydrological function. Urban stormwater does thus risk to create high surface flows which could damage the receiving water bodies (e.g. erosion) or the urban area itself (flooding). Integrating more nature-based systems into the urban area increases the natural hydrological function and the risks for high surface flows are lowered. One way of implementing nature-based systems in the urban environment is to install green roofs. Most of the research and development done on green roofs have been focusing on the conditions of central Europe. Installing green roofs with the same vegetation in the subarctic climate of northern Sweden would expose it to a climate it might not be suited for, and growth would be limited. The vegetation helps increase the retaining and detaining capabilities of the green roofs and therefore the purpose of this thesis was to examine if planting native vegetation would help increase thegreen roofs performance in a subarctic climate.

    Conventional green roofs vegetated with sedum was hypothesized to have lessened retaining and detaining capabilities when placed in cold climates since the vegetation was exposed to a climate it probably was not suited for. It was examined whether planting more native vegetation could help increase green roofs performance.

    The vegetation was chosen based on Grime´s “universal adaptive strategy theory”, which describes competitors, stress tolerators and ruderals as three different vegetation groups with different survival strategies. Different species from each strategy were selected and planted on the roofs. There were five roofs per survival strategy and five roofs where all strategies were mixed. Conventional sedum vegetation was planted on five roofs to be able to compare green roofs performance. Five control roofs with substrate only and one reference roof made of steel were installed as well.

    In total, seven rainfall events were analyzed, and few significant differences could be found between the competitors, stress tolerators, ruderals and the vegetation mix. A conclusion is that stress tolerators may help to increase green roof performance the most, but due to the relatively short study period, continued measurements are recommended to draw further conclusions. The survival strategies did improve retention and detention relatively to using sedum vegetation and substrate only. The extent of vegetation coverage does not affect the retention or detention from the green roofs. The competitors, stress tolerators, ruderals and vegetation mix had larger plant mass than the sedum and the increased plant mass is probably the reason for their improved retention.

  • Josefin, Rosendahl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Resursplanering: Visualisering av resursplanering för tillverkande företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been performed at Hellgrens Lastvagnsservice in Skellefteå. The company manufactures most wood chip trucks and bodyworks for wood chips trucks. The products are relatively complex and consist of many different parts and products. In this work, the focus will be on a specific customer order when creating a resource plan.

    The task consisted of selecting several sub-products based on an existing production order and analyzing the production resources, especially the hours required for each component. This was done by analyzing the current situation, through interviews with staff, and looking into the current production plan on how the work is performed today. The aim of the project was to make a proposal for a resource planning that the company then can apply to other customers orders.

    Today, the company doesn’t use a resource planning. Everything goes through the production managers. They have previously had a resource planning, but it has not been used since 2016. Because of that they do not have a resource planning, the workers are completely dependent on the production manager and that they have no idea at all when the various parts of one project should be finished. This often led to increased workload and long overtime when the staff hadn’t completed a sub-product before the next operation requests it.

    During this work, problem areas were identified in production planning, resource needs and workload. From the problem areas and through interviews with staff, a requirement specification was created about what resource planning should improve and visualize. Clear picture of who does what, how long the different moments take, even workloads between workers, the ability to start the final assembly as early as possible and to have no or as little inventory as possible is examples of some requirement they had. The requirements were weighted against, own opinion and from the interviews with the manufacturing staff, to determine which requirements are most important for the resource planning to meet.

    Through a creative process, three different concepts were created, a concept that focused on visualizing the various parts of the project with the number of workers needed in each operation. The second concept was the focus on getting as little inventory as possible. The last concept was based on allocating workload between workers as much as possible to reduce overtime for staff.

    Based on the evaluation, concept 2 “minskat mellanlager” and concept 3 “jämnare arbetsbelastning” both got almost the same score. As a result, a concept could not be chosen solely based on weight of the requirement specification.  To choose of the final concept I returned to the interviews with the staff and the current state analysis done on the company earlier in this project, to see what appeared to be the biggest problem. What most workers demanded was a clear plan where they could see what would be done and when everything would be done, not depend on production managers and something they could easily see if they were on time with their work.

    Concept 2 “minskat mellanlager “didn’t meet the requirement of even workload for the staff as good as concept 3 “jämnare arbetsbelastning” did. But at concept 2, “minskat mellanlager “, almost no inventory was formed at all. Because everyone in the staff requested  some kind of plan to show who would do what and when it should be ready, I considered the requirement evener workload more important than the requirement that nothing or a small inventory be created. Consequently, the definitive concept becomes concept 3 as it meets this requirement best.

    The company should use concept 3 “jämnare arbetsbelastning” as a template for setting up a planning for other projects. This concept gives the workers an opportunity to plan their work better and can keep track of what to do and they do not have to depend on the production manager.

  • Urban, Pontus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Improvement Strategies in Construction Sites: Development of Rapid Site Assessment for House-building Industry2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has deteriorated during the past 40 years. Up to 35 % of the production cost is from wastes. The manufacturing industry has had an opposite development, in many cases owing to the contributions of Lean Production and various assessment tools. The assessment tools evaluate manufacturing plants regarding their implementation of Lean, where from improvement strategies can be developed. The goal of the master thesis was to develop an assessment tool that could be used for evaluating Lean construction, which is emerging in the business. The assessment tool is called Rapid Site Assessment (RSA).

    The foundation of the RSA is the Rapid Plant Assessment (RPA) which is performed by taking a brief plant tour, in a team of expert researchers. 20 polar questions are coupled to eleven categories, evaluated to identify the plants potential and develop an improvement strategy. Five more assessment tools have been combined with the RPA and validated with Lean Construction and Lean references.

    The master thesis has been exploratory with a deductive approach, where qualitatively data was acquired. The assessment tool based on the literature review was tested at six different house- building sites. Validity has been obtained by triangulation, a reviewing supervisor, and six different site tests. Reliability was guaranteed by distinguishing the line of work with help of an experienced supervisor, meticulous documentation, and regular guidance meetings.

    The result is the RSA consisting of 32 statements coupled to eleven categories: customer satisfaction; safety, environment, cleanliness and order; visual management; scheduling system; levels of inventory, use of space, and movement of material; teamwork and motivation; Condition and maintenance of equipment and tools; management of complexity and variability; supply chain integration; commitment to quality; commitment to continuous improvements. The six site tests revealed that the house-building industry has development potential. The interviews and the RSA evaluations were generally similar.

    The analysis showed that the RSA tests grasped the sites but was not sufficiently rich for a complete understanding. The assessment needed to be developed, and additional interviews were added to the assessment tool. The categories were mostly relevant, but interviews needed to be added to decrease biases, though this would include the interpretations of more individuals in the project. Comparing different professions perceptions would increase credibility. This could solve the issue that most data were gathered by communication with few employees on site, and not observations. Further, some statements also suited to many categories and could be broken up.

    The master thesis was thoroughly planned but some issues needed to be discussed. The thesis was independently performed, and the assessor was inexperienced in plants and construction sites which aggravated the assessments. The issues were solved by experience feedback from the research group and supervisor. Finally, the RPA was considered repetitive, resulting in a repetitive RSA, but this was not considered a problem though the data was analysed differently in the categories. However, the repetitiveness could aggravate performing an efficient report, which could decrease the readers creditability comprehension. In the future the RSA should be developed for different types of construction projects, roadworks and industries etc, and tested by other researchers to increase credibility.

    The master thesis demonstrated that the RSA could be developed by combining assessment tools, although it could not be performed in a brief tour. By adding interviews, credible improvement strategies can probably be developed from the RSA.

  • Åkerström, Fanny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    AP&T Machine and Line Usability: A usability analysis of stand-alone machines and production lines at AP&T2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automation and digitalization are developing at a high pace and it is important to keep the focus on human-machine interaction. It is becoming more and more important that the usability in machines and lines is related to the development so that the performance and availability of the production processes in the industry are not adversely affected. It is a case of designing the equipment so that users can continue to handle them intuitively and with simplicity the more complex they become. AP&T has in the last 50 years delivered world-leading production solutions for efficient sheet metal forming in the form of presses, automation solutions and press tools. Areas of focus are the automotive and climate and energy industries where they deliver solutions for products such as whitegoods, computer cases, heat exchanger plates and press hardened car parts. AP&T’s goal is to help the customer achieve the highest productivity possible and a long-term and sustainable profitability with a focus on weight reduction, safety and energy efficiency.

    The project aimed to facilitate for the operator, setter and maintenance technician when handling AP&T machines and lines. Running, installing, starting, and changing tools, products or materials in a machine and/or production line should be performed with simplicity. The objective of the project was to identify usability issues by analyzing the current situation from an operator, setter and maintenance technician point of view to develop a more intuitive handling of AP&T’s presses, automation and production lines. A usability development project requires frequent feedback and therefore the iterative design process was chosen. Theories regarding usability, usability inspection methods, visual communication, user interfaces and human limitations were collected and used as a focal point in analyses, and when identifying usability issues and structuring the list of priority. Methods such as observations, interviews and documentation collection were used to form a Hierarchical Task Analysis (HTA) for operators, setters and maintenance technicians linked to the management of the machines ODEN-FT Press, Servo Hydraulic Press, SpeedFeeder, Multi-Layer Furnace and for the press hardening line. Mapping of handling the press tool and automation grippers was also carried out, as well as a study of today's software program used as interface. The devices analyzed were operator panels, mobile panels and terminal screens along with the documentation that accompanies the purchased machine. The results of the analyses gave a list of seventeen points in need of improvements according to the users. These were areas such as screens in the user interface of the terminals, icons on the panels, and management of the tools during tools and material changes. These were first structured according to the users and then developed into a priority list structured after implementation time with the fastest improvements with the greatest effect first. At the top of this list, the user interface, operator panels and the education of operators, setters, and maintenance technicians ended up.

    The recommendation, which is the conclusion of this Master thesis, is to start at the top in the list of priorities when developing the identified problems. Further investigation of the issues is necessary due to the time limitation which excluded companies based in America and Asia from the evaluation. The most important recommendation for further development is to continue to utilize the users. Usability inspections are carried out, but it is important that users are allowed to continue to participate during tests and further development of solutions. It is not possible to achieve flawless usability, however, it is always possible to further develop the handling and experience of a product. It is also suggested to simultaneously connect usability with the digital development that Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things implies to be able to identify and eliminate problems as they appear.

  • Österberg, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Transportation demands: of chilled and frozen groceries2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today focus on the environemnt is bigger than ever before. UN writes in their climate agenda that they by 2030want to cut the food waste per capita in half. There are strict regulations today regarding how food needs to betransported and stored, but as soon as the consument takes, for example, milk from the frigde at a store there areonly a few guidelines about how the product should be stored. If a chilled or frozen product is not kept insidethe range of the given temperature, a microbilogical growth will begin. This leads to that the food goes bad or,in worst case, that the consumer gets poisoned. There is a change happening today in how the consumers shoptheir food and more focus is layed upon the customer to handle their grocery shopping by themselves.

    This project focuses on developing a solution that will help the consumer to keep their food at the right temperatureduring an extended period of time. The project is carried out in Stockholm during 20 weeks in collaborationwith IKEA of Sweden in Älmhult. The target group in this project is IKEA’s broad customer group.With help from a Human Centered Design process this project goes through the three phases; inspiration,ideation and implementation. The project has been formed with interaction through workshops with differentexternal actors like users and focus groups. The ideation resulted in four simpler concepts that verged in to twothrough external decision making with supervisors from IKEA of Sweden. During the project, the prototypeshave been used together with users to evaluate the usability of the concepts.

    The result consists of two concepts; Behålla and Blåsa, that are aimed to meet two different users that hasbeen identified through surveys and interviews. Behålla is a smaller product that is target towards the user thatbrings food with them to work or school, also to those who buys less groceries at the store. Blåsa is, in contrastto Behålla, a bigger product that is targeted towards the customers that buys a bigger set of chilled and frozengroceries. Additionally four color variations has been created to offer IKEA alternative executions. These conceptsare visualized with renderings through Adobe Illustratior. With these concepts IKEA can enlarge theirsustainability profile and offer their customers two new products to keep their chilled and frozen foods cold.

  • Jonsson, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    ”Vi kan ju städa den tillsammans, då blir nog jorden glad.”: Handlingsberedande aktiviteter i förskolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how we in the preschool environment can create activities that contribute to action readiness for children, regarding issues related to sustainable development. The study has been performed with participatory observations as the primary method, where image display has been used to introduce and awaken the children's interest in various sustainability issues. The study is based on the children's interest, descriptions and understanding where action-preparatory activities regarding littering have been staged to create awareness for the children.The study rests on the lived-world phenomenological foundation, but also takes root in the socio-cultural theory of children's learning. The study's results have been thematised and show that children's understanding of sustainability issues is extensive. The children describe and relate to the outside world true the phenomena that appear to be important in their world of life, where the norm of right and wrong, human guilt and responsibility is emphasized.

  • Jonsson, Marika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehabilitation.
    Litteraturöversikt om patienters upplevelse av fysioterapeutisk behandling genom distanskontakt via videolänk2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore and describe patients experiences of telerehabilitation, more specific physical therapy modalities by distance in real-time video communication. The chosen method was performing a qualitative literature study. The studies were graded regarding evidens with a method described by Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services. A descriptive content analysis of the included studies result was performed, according to instructions by Friberg. In the result one theme with five underlying categories emerged.

    The theme was: Videomeeting is a possibility when it takes ground from the individuals needs. The five categories were: Competent and experienced physical therapist is available, Treatment available at home, Increased personal resources leads to increased empowerment, Relations at distance, Technical equipment.

    Conclusion shows that both positive and negative experiences are described. Telerehabilitation can make it possible to give a professional treatment where the patients empowerment may increase. Individual support is important, both according to the physical therapy modality and to the usage of technology. Technology that fails can give a negative experience. Telerehabilitation has its limitations both in the physiotherapist’s possibilities for examination and in what is visible in the video. It is important to take notice to personal integrity aspects.

  • Karmakar, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.
    Additive Manufacturing Stainless Steel for Space Application2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hutwalker, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany.
    Binder, Angela
    University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany.
    Langefeld, Oliver
    University of Technology, Clausthal-Zellerfeld Germany.
    Galler, Robert
    Montanuniversität Loeben, Austria.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human and technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Human Work Science.
    Weimar, Lucas
    RWTH Aachen University , Aachen, Germany.
    Braun, Tobias
    RWTH Aachen University , Aachen, Germany.
    Lottermoser, Bernd
    RWTH Aachen University , Aachen, Germany.
    SafeMine PhD-Programme: Educating the Mine Health and Safety Workforce of Tomorrow2018In: Mining Report Glückauf, E-ISSN 2195-6529, Vol. 154, no 5, p. 400-405Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Granberg, Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Widmark, Anne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta med personcentrerad vård på mottagning i primärvården2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Personcentrerad vård innebär att personen är i centrum och inte dennes sjukdom. Ett partnerskap mellan distriktssköterskan och personen eftersträvas, med utgångspunkt från personens livsberättelse och dennes livssituation för att gemensamt skapa mål och strategier för genomförande av behandlingar samt omvårdnad. I mötet ska distriktssköterskan visa vilja, öppenhet samt intresse att lyssna till personens berättelse och beskrivning av sin situation. Syftet: Syftet var att beskriva distriktssköterskors erfarenheter av att arbeta personcentrerat på mottagning i primärvården. Metod: Åtta distriktssköterskor från hälsocentraler i norra Sverige deltog i studien. Datainsamlingen utfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer och data analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultat: I resultatet framkom ett tema; Att vilja väl men inte ha förutsättningar och fem kategorier; Att vara lyhörd och närvarande i patientmötet; Att individanpassa mötet; Att skapa samförstånd med patienten; Att ha brist på tid; Att ha kunskap och samsyn om arbetssättet. I resultatet framkom att lyssna, vara lyhörd, närvarande, visa intresse och se patienten är viktiga aspekter i det personcentrerade arbetet. Ett ökat samförstånd och delaktighet resulterade i ökat ansvar från patienten i egenvården. Slutsats: Personcentrerad vård ger mer nöjda patienter med ökat egenansvar. Distriktssköterskor måste dock ges förutsättningar för att kunna arbeta personcentrerat varför arbetsgivare måste införa rutiner för att implementera detta arbetssätt. Detta skulle också ge distriktsköterskorna en ökad känsla av tillfredställelse i arbete med personcentrerad vård.

  • Nilsson, Erika
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Lindström, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    "Det finns inga hinder, bara möjligheter": Hantering av inomhusmiljöns anpassning för barn i behov av särskilt stöd2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Sjölund, Amanda
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Gustafsson, Tove
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education.
    Anpassningar för en tryggare tillvaro: En studie om anpassningar för barn i neuropsykiatriska svårigheter i förskolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka hur anpassningar och tillgänglighet skapas i förskolans lärmiljöer för barn i neuropsykiatriska svårigheter samt hur detta kommer till uttryck i verksamheten utifrån förskollärarnas perspektiv. Arbetet utgår från ett sociokulturellt perspektiv som beskriver hur lärandet sker i den sociala omgivningen, samt ett relationellt perspektiv som belyser att omgivningen bör anpassas efter barnet. Studien är av kvalitativ karaktär och området har undersökts utifrån förskollärarnas upplevelser. Genom fokusgruppsdiskussion och observation har studien tagit del av förskollärarnas gemensamma uppfattningar och föreställningar inom de anpassningar som utförs. Resultatet har visat att kunskap och kompetens hos förskollärarna är av stor betydelse för vilka förutsättningar som skapas samt hur och varför anpassningarna utförs. De förutsättningar som skapas genom förskollärarnas kunskap och kompetens erbjuder barnen möjlighet till utveckling och lärande. I resultatet framkom även anpassningar som kan underlätta vardagen på förskolan för barn i neuropsykiatriska svårigheter. Verktyg som bildstöd och surfplatta är exempel på verktyg som kunde urskiljas i resultatet. En slutsats som har kunnat tas för denna studie är att förskollärarnas inställning och engagemang är avgörande för att bemöta och åstadkomma goda anpassningar för barn i denna typ av problematik.

  • Stenström, Christer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Eriksson, Kjell
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
    The J-contour integral in peridynamics via displacements2019In: International Journal of Fracture, ISSN 0376-9429, E-ISSN 1573-2673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peridynamics is a nonlocal formulation of solid mechanics capable of unguided modelling of crack initiation, propagation and fracture. Peridynamics is based upon integral equations, thereby avoiding spatial derivatives, which are not defined at discontinuities, such as crack surfaces. Rice’s J-contour integral is a firmly established expression in classic continuum solid mechanics, used as a fracture characterizing parameter for both linear and nonlinear elastic materials. A corresponding nonlocal J-integral has previously been derived for peridynamic modelling, which is based on the calculation of a set of displacement derivatives and force interactions associated with the contour of the integral. In this paper, we present an alternative calculation of the classical linear elastic J-integral for use in peridynamics, by writing Rice’s J-integral as a function entirely of displacement derivatives. The accuracy of the proposed J-integral on displacement formulation is investigated by applying it to the exact analytical displacement solution of an infinite specimen with a central crack and comparing the exact analytical expression of its J-integral. Further comparison with a well-known peridynamic crack problem shows very good agreement. The suggested method is computationally efficient and further allows testing of the accuracy of a peridynamic model as such.

  • Miland, Sofia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Thelander, Katrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenhet av övervakade urinprov på ungdomar inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrisk öppenvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Barn och ungdomar inom barn- och ungdomspsykiatrisk öppenvård testas för droganvändning genom övervakat urinprov av en sjuksköterska antingen slumpmässigt eller i samband med introduktion av behandling med läkemedel eller utredning. Det finns sparsam vetenskaplig kunskap kring detta ämne från ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv och inte alls från barnens perspektiv.  Enligt socialstyrelsens riktlinjer för missbruk och droger finns det risk att man utför övervakat urinprov slentrianmässigt då det kan bli en rutin som används utan reflektion. 

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att belysa sjuksköterskors erfarenheter kring övervakat urinprov av ungdomar inom barn och ungdomspsykiatrisk öppenvård.

    Metod: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med ett induktivt förhållningssätt har använts. Åtta sjuksköterskor från barn och ungdomspsykiatrisk öppenvård har ingått i studien. Materialet transkriberades och analyserades i enlighet med Graneheim och Lundman (2004) genom konventionell innehållsanalys. Dessutom diskuteras metodvalet utifrån Graneheim, Lindgren och Lundman (2017) för att öka trovärdigheten.

    Resultat: Detta i tre slutkategorier; Att två världar krockar, Att individanpassa utefter behov och relation, Att bli inspirerad och motiverad av patienter och föräldrar.

    Konklusion: Sjuksköterskor som har erfarenheter av övervakat urinprov träffar patienter på olika sätt, ibland planerat där en relation finns och man har ett omvårdnadsperspektiv men ibland där man träffar ungdomen på ordination av annan behandlare enbart för att utföra en åtgärd. Det finns rutiner som man skall följa i samband med ett övervakat urinprov men vi kan konkludera att det sker anpassningar utifrån att bevara ungdomens integritet. Vi kan också konstatera att sjuksköterskorna motiveras av att arbeta med barn och ungdomar och deras familjer och verkar trivas bäst där det finns utrymme för att skapa relationer och tillit med patienterna

  • Börestam, Harald
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Norell, Mathilda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Samordning mellan arkitekt och vvs-projektör i programskede: En undersökning, ett förslag till arbetsmetod och ett gestaltningsexperiment.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has high statutory standards for inside climate and thermic comfort in buildings. Because of technical advances these requirements can be met, but at a cost. Increasingly effective HVAC and plumbing systems are linked to a larger volume claim for units, pipes and ducts. As the systems grow the design aspect moves in a contrary direction. A direction where the role of the architect has changed to become a consulting part (Östnäs 1984). These diverging developments has triggered a knowledge gap between technical engineers and architects. 54% of respondents on this study claim that this gap causes problems, and 35% claim that it often contributes negatively to the end result in the form of having to resort to last minute solutions.

    This master thesis aims to investigate if the coordination between architects and HVAC & plumbing engineers can be improved by bridging the knowledge gap. The study is limited to only encompass the coordination between these two groups and leaves out remaining disciplines and parties. The focus of this study is directed to the early stages in the building design process.

    The hypothesis suggests that there exists a need for further coordination regarding installations design. This has been tested through a quantitative survey consisting of a web form with a total of 99 respondents. This data was then statistically analyzed in the form of hypothesis testing, which concluded there exists a general need for improved coordination. Furthermore, hypothesis test I showed that there is also need for a change regarding which disciplines should be involved in early stages of projects.

    The most common coordination problems were identified by a quantitative study consisting of interviews with eleven projectors and two branch experts. The two most coveted aspects were the volumetric size of room containing ventilation machinery and the placing of vertical shafts. Where vertical spaces caused greatest consequences. The reason for these problems, according to many, being an acute lack of interdisciplinary knowledge or experience from the architect. On the other hand, architects claim this is due to changes being made in latter stages of projects by other disciplines or the client. The majority claim that a solution is to bring in the HVAC & plumbing engineer in an earlier stage.

    Following this a workshop including five professionals was carried out to draft up a solution. It established that if the HVAC & plumbing engineer is brought in at an earlier stage it allows for the right conditions to be set. Suggestions regarding creative start up meetings were introduced. Participants agreed that the best way to mediate knowledge about installations is to educate through both interdisciplinary projects at universities, and also through courses or site visits for architects.

    To meet the identified needs a solution was constructed from collected data. This solution took the form of a checklist to help guide how meetings between the architect and HVAC & plumbing engineer should be carried out in early stages. The checklist clarifies responsibility and expectations for both parts.

    This solution was then tested through a simulated design project. The project consists of an apartment building property for Notstället 5 & 6 in Eskilstuna municipality. A solution for the installations is presented.

    The checklists ability to meet the identified needs were concluded to suffice but an additional tool for bridging the knowledge gap further would be beneficial. The use of this solution did not cause any significant negative consequences on the architectural qualities, but created value by discovering new innovative solutions, in addition to preventing unplanned surprises from arising.

    As a research topic this project has sparked interest in the branch. Insights from this study concludes that interdisciplinary communication and knowledge transfer between disciplines in general is an interesting topic to study.

  • Lindberg, Frida
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Användning av livscykelanalys för beslut vid nybyggnation av flerbostadshus?: En intervjustudie med fastighetsbolag verksamma i norr- och västerbotten2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for environmental and sustainability in the construction industry have increased as well as the awareness of how natural resources are used. This has made environmental issues more and more important (Swedish Construction Service, 2016a). The construction and real estate sector accounts for about 18 percent of Sweden's annual greenhouse gas emissions (Boverket, 2018b). In addition, Boverket (2017a) estimates that 600,000 new homes are needed till the year of 2025, this leads to emissions that are not negligible in a life-cycle perspective.

    The purpose of this thesis is to present if and how LCA (Life-cycle assessment) is currently used in decision making by builders, in this case real estate companies. The aim is to be able to present how LCA is used by builders active in the northen region of Sweden, why or why not LCA is used. The objective is also to present the pros and cons of using LCA in decision making when building multi-family houses.

    The work includes an interview study of seven real estate companies operating in the north of Sweden. The result obtained is a summary of the collected data from the interviews and the theory that exists in the subject.

    The study's conclusion is that there are currently few real estate companies in Norr- and Västerbotten, as well as throughout Sweden, using LCA. In this interview study, it is one real estate company that uses LCA. The real estate company uses LCA to develop its product and production and would like to be at the forefront of environmental issues. This real estate company only sees advantages of using LCA. And the literature study shows that the benefits are many, among other things, it shows where the biggest environmental impact is in a building's life cycle and can contribute to development.

     

    However, the incentive to use LCA is low. This is mainly due to the fact that knowledge about LCA within their own organization is low and many find it difficult to understand and implement LCA. These are also some of the disadvantages found in this study, LCA is time consuming and it is difficult to get reliable data. For those companies that do not use LCA, at the present time, there is a will to start using the tool if user friendliness is improved and the economic benefits can be demonstrated.

     

    All real estate companies interviewed are convinced that environmental issues will be increasingly important in the future and believe that LCA will be a part of achieving sustainable construction.

     

    Proposals for further studies are to map more real estate companies, such as real estate companies operating in major cities where more and larger construction projects occur. The real estate company that uses LCA is using industrial construction, it would have been interesting to study if LCA is easier to applicate to an industrial building concept.

  • Rask, Amanda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Indirect methods as quality control of cemented hydraulic fill: Renström mine, Boliden mineral AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Renström mine, Boliden Mineral AB, uses, among other methods, the Transverse long hole stoping method with backfill. The mine uses a cement-stabilized hydraulic fill (CHF), which is a mixture of enrichment sand, cement and water. The most important factor in relation to strength is the water cement ratio. Today, only tests have been performed on the surface and in laboratory tests. The purpose of this work is thus to study the possibility of using other types of methods that can give a better understanding of the strength of the entire filling volume. Studies on backfill containing Portland cement and sulphur have shown that the UCS strength decreases with time, which can cause problems for the mine. A leaching method (MRM leaching test) used to evaluate potential sulphide soils has been used in this study on the backfill to investigate the sulphurs impact on the cement mixture. Electrical conductivity, pH, and redox potential were investigated and gave similar results, where the higher cement levels (8%, 10%, and 12%) were indistinguishable while the lower cement content (4%) differed significantly from the other levels. This probably indicates that the higher cement levels have a greater resistance to the influence of the sulphur. The most promising results were given when the method was used on enrichment sand alone. The linear lowering of the pH value of the enrichment sand, from pH 4.9 to about pH 3, point to that the enrichment sand contains large amounts of sulphur, as previously chemical analysis has shown. This suggests that the method can best be used in an early stage before the sand is mixed with cement. The strength results on the samples showed a strength after 7 days that was in line with the 90-day strength. However, all 90 day samples had decreased in strength during the time sequence, which may be an effect of the sulphur content, but should be further investigated to be determined. The smaller size of the samples was also experienced as a challenge during the temperature measurements due to small temperature variations and environmental effects. A maturity method for predicting the strength of concrete called "The maturity method" has been investigated in this study. To determine the strength maturity relationship, both the temperature related to time and the equivalent age must be evaluated. The study showed that the method cannot be used on the mine's backfill without first making adjustments related to the lower cement content used in the backfill compared with concrete constructions, since it is not possible to determine the strength growth in the early stage as the method requires.

  • Rönnqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Artificiell Intelligens inom medicinsk bilddiagnostik: En allmän litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Artificial Intelligence (AI) increasingly comes in to our society and homes. In the field of medical care and radiology, AI will provide an aid for radiologists and radiographers in their professions. Research on AI continues in finding better and more functional algorithms which can achieve that.

    Purpose: The purpose of this literature study is to compile facts about modalities using artificial intelligence as support. Method: The study was conducted as a general literature study, which generated fifteen articles that were quality-reviewed and categorized after analysis. Result: Depending on the date when the articles were written the methods varied concerning how training of AI was performed. It also varied how the images were pre-processed before training. The images need to be processed by noise reduction and segmentation for AI in order to be able to classify the pathological change. That process was facilitated in later versions of AI where all these steps were performed at the same time. Conclusion: Major changes may occur in radiology and the changes are likely to affect everyone in an X-ray ward. The authors can see that the development has just begun and research has to continue for many years to come.

  • Stark, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Söderholm, Lena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors upplevelser av att möta suicidnära patienter inom psykiatrisk öppenvård2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är av största vikt att kunskapen inom omvårdnad fördjupas och att utbildning och fortbildning inom ämnet suicid finns att tillgå. Suicid är en vanlig dödsorsak och patienter med psykisk ohälsa löper större risk för att begå suicid. En tredjedel av alla som suiciderar har en aktuell kontakt med psykiatrisk hälso-och sjukvård. Det är viktigt att arbeta suicidförebyggande genom att fånga upp patienter med suicidtankar i ett tidigt skede och att samarbeta över verksamhetsgränserna. Ett respektfullt bemötande samtfortbildning i suicidpreventionär nödvändigt.

  • Vikberg, Tommy
    et al.
    RISE.
    Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Tryckfall över värmebatteri i virkestork: resultat av tre års mätningar. Slutrapport.2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheterna att utföra behovsstyrt underhåll på virkestorkar istället för enligt ett underhållschema vore önskvärt. En av underhållsåtgärderna som är svåra att schemalägga i tiden är rengöring av värmebatterierna eftersom graden av nedsmutsning i stor del beror på råvaran, utomhusklimatet och sågutrustningen. I detta projekt mättes det statiska tryckfallet över värmebatteriet i 1:a-zon i en två zons kanaltork. Mätningen pågick under tre års tid och målet var att få till stånd en mätning som indikerar när det är dags att rengöra värmebatteriet. Projektets slutsatser är:

    • Det är möjligt att mäta graden av spånpålimning på värmebatterierna genom att mäta tryckfallet över värmebatteriet.
    • Tryckfallsmätning kan tjäna som indikator för när det är lämpligt att rengöra värmebatteriet.
  • Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Hansson, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Couceiro, José
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Vikberg, Tommy
    RISE.
    Konditionering av virke vid olika fuktkvoter: studier i tomograf2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fuktförändringar i virke under pågående konditionering har aldrig tidigare studerats i tomograf.

    Resultat av denna labbstudie av diffusionsbaserad, icke-kondenserande jämviktskonditionering vid olika fuktkvotsnivåer sammanfattas enligt följande: (Notera att torkningsspänningar inte utvärde­rats i denna studie utan enbart fuktförändringar.)

    • Studien styrker industriella erfarenheter att konditionering ”tar bättre” på virke nedtorkat till lägre fuktkvot jämfört än om fuktkvoterna är högre.
    • Försöken ger en god fingervisning om hur länge konditionering bör pågå för en viss önskad medel­fuktkvotshöjning i ett industriellt vanligt förekommande klimat 70 °C och psykrometer­skillnad 2° vilket motsvarar en jämviktsfuktkvot på 16,8%. Vill man ex höja medelfuktkvoten från 10 – 12% visar resultaten att 4 timmars konditionering är tillräckligt för furuvirket. Att i samma klimat höja medel­fuktkvoten 2% vid högre startfuktkvoter (mellan 14–23%) har inte i något fall varit möjligt för vare sig gran eller furu under de 8 timmar som konditionering pågick. Det är också viktigt att påpeka att konditioneringsklimatet i dessa labbförsök har uppnått börvärden mycket snabbt (figur 3) vilket inte är fallet vid stora virkeslaster i industriskala där basningskapacitet och blåsdjup påverkar tid till uppnådda börvärden.
    • Vad gäller fuktkvotsskillnad nära ytorna ses generellt en utplaning av fuktförändringar i samtliga försök efter 3–4 timmar.
    • Fuktkvotsnivån spelar roll för den inledande fuktkvotsförändringen inom tvärsnittet: ju torrare virke desto snabbare förändring.
    • När konditioneringen startar är fuktvandringen i splintved effektivare än i kärnved vilket sannolikt förklaras av splintvedens högre diffusivitet.
    • Vad gäller eventuella skillnad mellan träslag är det inte möjligt att dra några slutsatser.
    • Metodstudien visar att upplösningen i tomografen är tillräcklig för att kunna utvärdera fuktkvotsförändringar nära virkesytorna i ca 3 mm tjocka skal.
  • Sehlstedt-Persson, Margot
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Mögeltest av torkade furu, gran och contorta bräder: Sammanfattning av “Mould susceptibility of dried boards of Contorta pine, Scots pine and Norway spruce A comparative study” Faksawat Poohphajai, februari 2018. 2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to compare the development of the surface mould growth on dried boards of Pinus contorta (Contorta pine), Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine) and Picea abies (Norway spruce) under the surface treatment conditions of surface planing and an anti-fungal agent Grön-Fri treatment. The main purpose of this study is to investigate, whether Contorta pine and Scots pine can achieve as good durability against mould as Norway spruce by Grön-Fri treatment and surface planing.In this study, dried samples of Contorta pine, Scots pine and Norway spruce were treated by Grön-Fri treatment and surface planing before incubated with mould fungi using an indirect contamination method with three species of surface mould fungi, Penicillium commune, Aspergillus niger and Paecilomyces variotti. The incubation was performed in a climate chamber under a controlled condition at 27°C of temperature and 95% of relative humidity for 21 days. The mould growth on the wood surface was investigated on the basis of the area of contamination by a visual assessment of mould growth.Based on the results of this study, Grön-Fri treatment and surface planing showed a significant inhibitory effect on the mould growth on the dried samples of Norway spruce, Scots pine, and Contorta pine. Furthermore, Grön-Fri treatment in combination with surface planing showed the best result of decreasing the mould growth compared to surface planing without Grön-Fri treatment and Grön-Fri treatment without surface planing. Contorta pine and Scots pine showed as good durability against mould attack as Norway spruce by treatment condition of Grön-Fri treatment and surface planing. The results showed that the durability of the mould surface contaminating fungi on wood can be improved by surface planing and Grön-Fri treatment.