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Efkarpidis, N., Imoscopi, S., Bratukhin, A., Brännvall, R., Franzl, G., Leopold, T., . . . Sauter, T. (2024). Proactive Scheduling of Mixed Energy Resources at Different Grid Levels. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, 15(2), 952-963
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proactive Scheduling of Mixed Energy Resources at Different Grid Levels
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2024 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1949-3029, E-ISSN 1949-3037, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 952-963Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102472 (URN)10.1109/tste.2023.3320055 (DOI)2-s2.0-85173370167 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-04-04 (joosat);

Available from: 2023-11-15 Created: 2023-11-15 Last updated: 2024-04-04Bibliographically approved
Galkin, N., Yang, C.-W. & Vyatkin, V. (2024). Towards the Automatic Transformation of the SIMULINK Model into an FPGA-in-Loop System and its Real-Time Simulation. IEEE Access
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the Automatic Transformation of the SIMULINK Model into an FPGA-in-Loop System and its Real-Time Simulation
2024 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Information is a key component of progress. Industry 4.0, and especially the future Industry 5.0, is closely related to the topic of the Digital Twin, where virtual components interact with each other. The main advantage of such a system is that it can fully mimic the behaviour of the complicated system, including various unexpected perturbations such as noise, jitter, delays, etc. Thus, the ability to create complex models and run them in real-time is a basic need for extending the Digital Twin. One of the major problems in the development of digital twins is the increasing complexity of the models. Therefore, large processing capacities and parallel computation become critical. The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a type of hardware that best fits this task. The FPGA-in-the-loop (FiL) can be considered as the container for running the Digital-Twin model. The transformation of a digital model into FiL is known and used by many companies at this time. However, the authors found that there are no publicly available model-to-FiL transformation methods. In this paper, the authors aim to fill this gap. We first discuss the major design challenges of a FiL system and provide recommendations to overcome them in the form of a road map. We then demonstrate a step-by-step process for converting a simple MATLAB/SIMULINK model to a FiL system using the proposed road map. Finally, we will demonstrate the validation process of the designed FiL systems and prove that they are running in real-time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2024
Keywords
FPGA-in-the-Loop, Digital Twin, Real-Time Simulator
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103539 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2024.3359918 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186083263 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2022-03002
Note

Full text license: CC BY NC-ND

Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-03-11
Galkin, N., Yang, C.-W. & Vyatkin, V. (2023). Automatic Generation of Charging Point's Digital Twin for Virtual Commissioning of Their Automation Systems. IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, 4, 14-26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic Generation of Charging Point's Digital Twin for Virtual Commissioning of Their Automation Systems
2023 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, E-ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 4, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wide propagation of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure integrated into the energy distribution network poses numerous challenges for the engineering and control of the latter: the load dynamic characteristics become more unsteady, requiring more advanced control, predictions, and virtual commissioning. One step toward the automation of the design and simulation of new charging stations can be reached through the integration of the EV-specific standards and protocols with other widely spread electrical standards, thereby, improving the compatibility between standards, increasing the reuse of the intelligent work results, and promoting the development of EVs’ infrastructure. A method for virtual commissioning of electrical charging stations is proposed, implemented, and tested in a form of a software tool in which the electrical system description from the widely used IEC 61850 standard is used as an input. The designed tool builds a digital twin of the charging station that consists of its Simulink model as well as two automatically generated communication code primitives using the open charge point protocol for control and management purposes over the autogenerated model. The generated digital twin can be used for virtual commissioning purposes. The application of the method is illustrated in a case study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Keywords
Charging point’s automation, digital twin, IEC 61850, MATLAB
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95177 (URN)10.1109/ojies.2022.3230214 (DOI)000910528700002 ()2-s2.0-85146236310 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-01-09 (hanlid);

Funder: ERA-Net SES 2018 (RegSys)

Available from: 2023-01-06 Created: 2023-01-06 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
Galkin, N., Ruchkin, M., Vyatkin, V., Yang, C.-W. & Dubinin, V. (2023). Automatic Generation of Data centre Digital Twins for Virtual Commissioning of their Automation Systems. IEEE Access, 11, 4633-4644
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic Generation of Data centre Digital Twins for Virtual Commissioning of their Automation Systems
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2023 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 4633-4644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data centres are becoming an increasingly important part of our society’s infrastructure. The number of data centres is growing constantly, making growing the gross level of electrical energy consumption. At the same time, the rapid spread of sophisticated electrical devices as well as other automation systems, in general, produces an opportunity for making data centres an attractive player in the constantly designing energy market. But for this, new advanced technologies must be applied to solve the problems of complexity and heterogeneity in various types of data centre design. A new concept, which is based on the automated generation of a digital twin (DT) system, is directly from its schematic representations presented in this paper. A DT is a virtual version of an object or system, designed to aid decision-making and virtual commissioning through simulation, machine learning, and reasoning. In the scope of current work, the IEC 61850 standard is chosen as a starting point for a multi-step generation of the DT combining simulation model and decentralized control logic. As a result, the designed DT “clone” of an electrical system consists of the SIMULINK model of the electrical system plus the automatically generated control application (based on the IEC 61499 standard).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Keywords
Digital Twin, Data Centre, Automation, IEC 61850, IEC 61499, MATLAB
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95178 (URN)10.1109/access.2023.3234804 (DOI)000918823000001 ()2-s2.0-85147208706 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-02-09 (joosat);

Funder: ERA-Net SES 2018 (RegSys)

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-01-06 Created: 2023-01-06 Last updated: 2023-09-15Bibliographically approved
Lyu, T., Galkin, N., Liakh, T., Yang, C.-W. & Vyatkin, V. (2023). Methods of data streaming from IEC 61499 applications to Cloud storages. In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE): . Paper presented at 32nd IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) 2023, Helsinki, Finland, June 19-21, 2023. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods of data streaming from IEC 61499 applications to Cloud storages
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2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104007 (URN)10.1109/ISIE51358.2023.10228163 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172091616 (Scopus ID)
Conference
32nd IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) 2023, Helsinki, Finland, June 19-21, 2023
Note

Funder: European Commission (101057083);

ISBN for host publication: 979-8-3503-9972-1;

Available from: 2024-01-30 Created: 2024-01-30 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Galkin, N., Yang, C.-W., Etherden, N. & Vyatkin, V. (2023). Microcomputer Prototyping of IEC61850-9-2 with Performance Analysis. In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm): . Paper presented at IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), October 31 - November 3, 2023, Glasgow, United Kingdom. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microcomputer Prototyping of IEC61850-9-2 with Performance Analysis
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, ISSN 2373-6836, E-ISSN 2474-2902
National Category
Computer Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems; Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103538 (URN)10.1109/SmartGridComm57358.2023.10333923 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180812125 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-5557-2 (ISBN)978-1-6654-5556-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), October 31 - November 3, 2023, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Funder
Vinnova, 2022-03002
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
Yang, C.-W., Galkin, N. & Vyatkin, V. (2023). On interoperability of Datacentre and the Energy market in the Nordic Region. In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE): . Paper presented at 32nd IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) 2023, Helsinki, Finland, June 19-21, 2023. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On interoperability of Datacentre and the Energy market in the Nordic Region
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
National Category
Computer Sciences Communication Systems Energy Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104006 (URN)10.1109/ISIE51358.2023.10227974 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172086588 (Scopus ID)
Conference
32nd IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE) 2023, Helsinki, Finland, June 19-21, 2023
Note

Funder: European Union (775970); The partners of the ERA-Net SES 2018 join call RegSys;

ISBN for host publication: 979-8-3503-9972-1

Available from: 2024-01-30 Created: 2024-01-30 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Galkin, N., Yang, C.-W., Etherden, N., Bollen, M., Vyatkin, V. & Wu, Y. (2023). Toolset Development for Modelling Sympathetic Phenomenon and its Detection by a Neural Network. In: 2023 IEEE 2nd Industrial Electronics Society Annual On-Line Conference (ONCON): . Paper presented at 2nd IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual On-Line Conference (IES ONCON 2023), United States, [DIGITAL], December 8-10, 2023. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toolset Development for Modelling Sympathetic Phenomenon and its Detection by a Neural Network
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2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE 2nd Industrial Electronics Society Annual On-Line Conference (ONCON), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems; Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105002 (URN)10.1109/ONCON60463.2023.10431303 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186749130 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2nd IEEE Industrial Electronics Society Annual On-Line Conference (IES ONCON 2023), United States, [DIGITAL], December 8-10, 2023
Funder
Vinnova, 2022-03002
Note

ISBN for host publication: 979-8-3503-5797-4; 

Available from: 2024-04-08 Created: 2024-04-08 Last updated: 2024-04-08Bibliographically approved
Yang, C.-W., Galkin, N. & Vyatkin, V. (2023). Towards Interoperability of Edge Datacentre in the Energy Community with IEC 61850 Modelling. In: IECON 2023 - 49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society: . Paper presented at 49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2023), Singapore, Singapore, October 16-19, 2023. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Interoperability of Edge Datacentre in the Energy Community with IEC 61850 Modelling
2023 (English)In: IECON 2023 - 49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Green modular datacentres are a new class of datacentres which can reduce the carbon footprints of the datacentre industry which accounts for close to 1% of total energy use worldwide. Green modular datacentres can operate as a prosumer and contribute energy to the energy grid through participation in the energy market as a part of the energy community. This paper investigates the interoperability of the datacentre in the energy community by proposing an IEC 61850 Logical Device model for a green modular datacentre. The applicability of the datacentre model is demonstrated through the re-implementation of the Energy Management System of an edge datacentre installation with the proposed IEC 61850 Logical Device model and its logical implementation in IEC 61499.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Series
Annual Conference of Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X, E-ISSN 2577-1647
Keywords
Automation, Datacenter, Energy Community, IEC 61499, IEC 61850
National Category
Computer Sciences Energy Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103551 (URN)10.1109/IECON51785.2023.10312479 (DOI)2-s2.0-85179521799 (Scopus ID)
Conference
49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society (IECON 2023), Singapore, Singapore, October 16-19, 2023
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Funder: ERA-Net Smart Energy Systems;

ISBN for host publication: 979-8-3503-3183-7 (print), 979-8-3503-3182-0 (electronic)

Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
Efkarpidis, N., Goranovic, A., Yang, C.-W., Geidl, M., Herbst, I., Wilker, S. & Sauter, T. (2022). A Generic Framework for the Definition of Key Performance Indicators for Smart Energy Systems at Different Scales. Energies, 15(4), Article ID 1289.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Generic Framework for the Definition of Key Performance Indicators for Smart Energy Systems at Different Scales
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2022 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 15, no 4, article id 1289Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growing integration of intermittent renewable energy sources (RESs) and the increasing trend of shutting down fossil-fuel-based power plants has brought about the need for additional flexibility in energy systems. This flexibility can be provided in various forms, including controllable generation and consumption, storage, conversions, and exchanges with interconnected systems. In this context, an increasing focus is placed on the development of smart energy systems (SESs) that combine different types of distributed energy resources (DERs), information and communication technologies (ICTs), demand side management (DSM), and energy conversion technologies. The utilization of SESs can lead to multiple benefits for the stakeholders involved; therefore, the assessment of their performance is a primary concern. Due to their multidisciplinary nature, there are no known or universally accepted standards for assessing the performance of SESs. Previous efforts only define key performance indicators (KPIs) for individual homogeneous subsystems, focusing on a specific SES type and application area. This paper focuses on the development of a novel comprehensive KPI framework that can be applied to any type of SES, regardless of the application area. The proposed framework consists of four layers that specify the application area, the main SES requirements, and the involved stakeholders’ objectives. Next, the KPIs are identified for each of the stakeholders’ objectives. The proposed KPI framework is applied to the use case of a European research project with different application areas, to demonstrate its features. Finally, a repository of KPIs is identified for each use case with respect to the aforementioned SES requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2022
Keywords
application area, KPI framework, region, SES requirements, stakeholder objectives
National Category
Energy Engineering Energy Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89215 (URN)10.3390/en15041289 (DOI)000778147800001 ()2-s2.0-85124624944 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-02-23 (hanlid);

Funder: ERA-Net Smart Energy Systems; Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)

Available from: 2022-02-11 Created: 2022-02-11 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0075-1608

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