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Buasiri, T., Kothari, A., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Krzeminski, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2024). Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement. Materials and Structures, 57, Article ID 1.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement
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2024 (English)In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mortar beams incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which were synthesized in situ on Portland cement particles, were used to produce nanomodified Portland cement sensors (SmartCem sensors). SmartCem sensors exhibited an electrical response comparable to a thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistivity of − 0.0152/ °C. The highest temperature sensing was obtained for the SmartCem sensor, which contained ~ 0.271 wt.% of CNFs. The calculated temperature sensitivity was approximately 11.76% higher in comparison with the mortar beam containing only unmodified Portland cement. SmartCem sensors were used to monitor the cement hydration in large-scale self-compacting concrete beams. The measurements were conducted after casting for 7 days. Additionally, commercially available thermocouple and humidity sensors were used as references. The results showed that changes in electrical resistivity measured by the SmartCem sensor were well aligned with the ongoing hydration processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
Keywords
Nanomodified Portland cement, Carbon nanofibers, CNFs, Temperature sensing, Temperature sensitivity, Temperature sensor, Hydration temperature, Hydration monitoring, Cement-based sensor
National Category
Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97278 (URN)10.1617/s11527-023-02275-w (DOI)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-12-04 (joosat);

Full text license: CC BY

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2023-12-04Bibliographically approved
Buasiri, T., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Krzeminski, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2024). Sensing mechanisms of nanomodified Portland cement composites. Cement & Concrete Composites, 151, Article ID 105602.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensing mechanisms of nanomodified Portland cement composites
2024 (English)In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 151, article id 105602Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mortar sensors were fabricated as beams incorporating different amounts of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized in-situ on cement particles. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured and compared to recorded changes in compressive stress, temperature, and humidity. Sensing mechanisms and corresponding models were developed. The findings of the study indicate that the piezoresistive effect is influenced by the critical concentration of CNFs inside the composite matrix and the tunneling effect. In addition, water absorption and desorption, as well as the amount of chemically bound water played an important role in humidity sensing. Thermal fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction was dominant for the temperature sensitivity.

Keywords
Sensing mortar, Nanomodified Portland cement, Cement-based composite, Carbon nanofibers, CNF, Sensing behavior, Sensing mechanism, Piezoresistive, Humidity sensing, Temperature sensing, Electrical resistivity, Electrical conductivity, Predictive model
National Category
Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97280 (URN)10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2024.105602 (DOI)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Transport AdministrationLuleå University of TechnologySvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-06-03 (joosat);

Funder: Skanska Sverige;

Full text: CC BY License;

Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2024-06-03Bibliographically approved
Kothari, A., Buasiri, T. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Early Age Performance of OPC-GGBFS-Concretes Containing Belite-CSA Cement Cured at Sub-Zero Temperatures. Buildings, 13(9), Article ID 2374.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early Age Performance of OPC-GGBFS-Concretes Containing Belite-CSA Cement Cured at Sub-Zero Temperatures
2023 (English)In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2374Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study determined how replacing sodium nitrate-based antifreeze admixture (AF) with belite-calcium sulfoaluminate (belite-CSA) cement affects the early age properties of ecological concretes based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS). Concrete specimens were cured at −15 °C and treated in various ways before testing, i.e., no treatment, stored at 20 °C for 12 and 24 h. Generally, the addition of belite-CSA cement shortened the setting time due to the rapid formation of ettringite. The incorporation of 25 wt% of antifreeze admixture (AF) to the OPC-GGBFS concrete cured at −15 °C partially inhibited ice formation and enabled the continuation of hydration processes. This trend was observed for all samples, independent of the applied AF after freezing curing. On the contrary, the addition of 20 wt% of CSA failed to inhibit the ice formation and increased the risk of frost damage for concretes despite the treatment after freezing. These concrete specimens had lower hydration, lower strength, and a more porous binder matrix. The microstructure of the binder matrix was significantly affected by the amount of CSA and extreme negative curing, followed by no notable recovery post-curing at room temperature. Therefore, pre-curing at room temperature for at least 6 h has the potential to avoid frost damage. Concrete containing 25 wt% AF combined with 12 h and 24 h of curing at 20 °C after removal from freezing and prior to testing could enhance the compressive strengths of all concretes. The renewed hydration was indicated as the main influencing factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
ordinary Portland cement (OPC), calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA), ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS), hydration, microstructure—SEM, antifreeze admixture (AF), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), negative temperature, compressive strength, porosity, UPV
National Category
Building Technologies Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101403 (URN)10.3390/buildings13092374 (DOI)2-s2.0-85172798992 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-09-25 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2024-04-16Bibliographically approved
Gulisano, F., Buasiri, T., Cwirzen, A. & Gallego, J. (2023). Monitoring Road Infrastructures with Self-sensing Asphalt Pavements. In: Piervincenzo Rizzo; Alberto Milazzo (Ed.), European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring: EWSHM 2022: . Paper presented at 10th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (10th EWSHM), Palermo, Italy, July 4-7, 2022 (pp. 784-793). Springer Nature, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring Road Infrastructures with Self-sensing Asphalt Pavements
2023 (English)In: European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring: EWSHM 2022 / [ed] Piervincenzo Rizzo; Alberto Milazzo, Springer Nature, 2023, Vol. 1, p. 784-793Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Structural health monitoring (SHM) of road pavements is an essential task, which can help the decision-making process for timely maintenance actions. Embedded sensors are typically used to collect long-term monitoring data. However, the main drawbacks of intrusive sensors concern the risk of premature damage and the incompatibility of the sensors with the host material. Self-sensing asphalt mixtures can be used to overcome these limitations. These kinds of smart materials can autonomously monitor their strain and damage states without the need for embedded sensors. The sensing mechanism is based on the piezoresistive effect, consisting of a change in the electrical conductivity of the material when subjected to external loading. To endow the asphalt mixture with piezoresistive function, a proper amount of conductive additive should be incorporated without compromising the mechanical performance of the pavement. The present work aims to design piezoresistive asphalt mixtures for the development of SHM and traffic management systems. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were added to the asphalt mixture with this purpose, and the piezoresistive response was tested at laboratory scale. The results show that piezoresistive asphalt mixtures have excellent self-sensing properties and can be effectively used for SHM, traffic detection and weigh-in-motion applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2023
Series
Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering (LNCE), ISSN 2366-2557, E-ISSN 2366-2565 ; 253
Keywords
Self-sensing pavements, Piezoresistive asphalt mixtures, Structural health monitoring, Multi-walled carbon nanotubes, Graphene nanoplatelets
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93578 (URN)10.1007/978-3-031-07254-3_79 (DOI)000871789600077 ()2-s2.0-85134301943 (Scopus ID)
Conference
10th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring (10th EWSHM), Palermo, Italy, July 4-7, 2022
Available from: 2022-10-13 Created: 2022-10-13 Last updated: 2022-11-10Bibliographically approved
Buasiri, T. (2023). Sensing capability of nanomodified Portland cement composites. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sensing capability of nanomodified Portland cement composites
2023 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sensing cement-based composites refer to composites that have sensing functionality that can measure several physical and chemical parameters. Sensing cement-based composites are fabricated by incorporating some functional fillers, such as conductive fibers (CFs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene, into conventional concrete. The self-sensing phenomenon in a material is based on the property of an electrically conductive material to show a change in its electrical resistivity. Several factors affect the electrical resistivity of cement-based composites. These include, for example, the type of added conductive phases, their concentration, the microstructure of the surrounding binder matrix, and its composition or moisture content. Variable stress, strains, relative humidity, temperature, or crack development can all affect conductivity.

A novel material, so-called "nanomodified Portland cement," is an in situ synthesis of carbon-based materials on untreated Portland cement particles. The synthesized method is based on the application of a chemical vapor deposition process (CVD). The nanomodified Portland cement was produced and used as a conductive filler in a sensing cement-based composite to improve the dispersion issue of the carbon-based materials, which have a hydrophobic nature and the tendency to agglomerate in the cement-based composites.

The sensing capability of the nanomodified Portland cement composites was studied and compared with other conductive materials, revealing the percolation threshold and tunneling phenomena as possible explanations for the sensing mechanism with and without mechanical deformation.

The achieved results of this study suggest that nanomodified Portland cement is a promising material for use in sensing cement-based composites as it exhibits high sensitivity to compressive stress and strain, humidity, and temperature. Furthermore, it has the potential to be utilized in the development of integrated monitoring systems for concrete structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Sensing cementitious composites, nanomodified Portland cement, Carbon nanofibers, CNF, piezoresistive materials, sensor, cement-based sensor, self-monitoring, sensing capability
National Category
Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97288 (URN)978-91-8048-337-7 (ISBN)978-91-8048-338-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2023-10-11, F 1031, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2023-09-22Bibliographically approved
Gulisano, F., Buasiri, T., Apaza, F. R., Cwirzen, A. & Gallego, J. (2022). Piezoresistive behavior of electric arc furnace slag and graphene nanoplatelets asphalt mixtures for self-sensing pavements. Automation in Construction, 142, Article ID 104534.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piezoresistive behavior of electric arc furnace slag and graphene nanoplatelets asphalt mixtures for self-sensing pavements
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2022 (English)In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 142, article id 104534Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Self-sensing road pavements can autonomously monitor their stress/strain and damage states without the need for embedded sensors. This kind of multifunctional pavements could be used for the realisation of autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Moreover, it would permit to collect important traffic data for traffic-monitoring analysis and the development of Vehicle to Infrastructure Communication (V2I) tools, hence contributing to the digitalisation of the transport sector. The sensing mechanism is based on the piezoresistive effect, consisting of a change in the electrical response of the road material when subjected to stress/strain or damage. This paper aims to investigate the piezoresistive behavior of conductive asphalt mixtures with electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) for self-sensing application. The results showed that asphalt mixtures with EAFS as fine aggregate and 7 wt% of GNPs exhibited excellent self-sensing properties for both traffic monitoring and SHM systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Self-sensing pavements, Piezoresistive asphalt-mixtures, Autonomous SHM, Traffic detection
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92931 (URN)10.1016/j.autcon.2022.104534 (DOI)000848469700003 ()2-s2.0-85136096495 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Sensing PAVE
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-12 (hanlid);

Funder: Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (PID2020-118987RB-I00); UPM (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid) ProgramaPropio 2021

Available from: 2022-09-12 Created: 2022-09-12 Last updated: 2022-09-12Bibliographically approved
Buasiri, T., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Krzeminski, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2021). Novel humidity sensors based on nanomodified Portland cement. Scientific Reports, 11, Article ID 8189.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel humidity sensors based on nanomodified Portland cement
2021 (English)In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, article id 8189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commonly used humidity sensors are based on metal oxides, polymers or carbon. Their sensing accuracy often deteriorates with time, especially when exposed to higher temperatures or very high humidity. An alternative solution based on the utilization of Portland cement-based mortars containing in-situ grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was evaluated in this study. The relationship between the electrical resistivity, CNF content and humidity were determined. The highest sensitivity was observed for samples containing 10 wt.% of the nanomodified cement which corresponded to 0.27 wt.% of CNFs. The highest calculated sensitivity was approximately 0.01024 per 1% change in relative humidity (RH). The measured electrical resistivity is a linear function of the RH in the humidity range between 11% and 97%. The percolation threshold value was estimated to be at around 7 wt.% of the nanomodified cement, corresponding to ~0.19 wt.% of CNFs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2021
Keywords
Nanomodified cement, Carbon nanofibers, CNFs, Humidity curing, Humidity sensing, Humidity sensitivity
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83648 (URN)10.1038/s41598-021-87563-7 (DOI)000640601800023 ()33854122 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85104479999 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Transport Administration
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-04-19 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-04-14 Created: 2021-04-14 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Buasiri, T., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Krzeminski, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2021). Role of Carbon Nanofiber on the Electrical Resistivity of Mortar under Compressive Load. Transportation Research Record, 2675(9), 32-37
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Role of Carbon Nanofiber on the Electrical Resistivity of Mortar under Compressive Load
2021 (English)In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2675, no 9, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A nanomodified cement consisting of particles with in situ synthesized carbon nanofibers was developed to introduce a strong load-sensing capability of the hydrated binder matrix. The material was produced using chemical vapor deposition. The nanomodified cement contained 2.71 wt% of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The electrical properties of the composite were determined. Several mortar samples were prepared by partially substituting ordinary Portland cement with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt% of the nanomodified cement. Additionally an ordinary Portland cement mortar was used as reference. The results show that the strongest piezoresistive response and therefore the best load-sensing was obtained for the mortar containing the highest amount of CNFs. This mortar contained 10 wt% of nanomodified cement. The fractional change in electrical resistivity of this mortar was 82% and this mortar had a compressive strength of 28 MPa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2021
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80859 (URN)10.1177/0361198120947417 (DOI)000570875200001 ()2-s2.0-85118466588 (Scopus ID)
Funder
VinnovaSwedish Transport Administration
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-10-26 (beamah)

Available from: 2020-09-21 Created: 2020-09-21 Last updated: 2023-05-23Bibliographically approved
Kothari, A., Rajczakowska, M., Buasiri, T., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2020). Eco-UHPC as Repair Material-Bond Strength, Interfacial Transition Zone and Effects of Formwork Type. Materials, 13(24), Article ID 5778.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Eco-UHPC as Repair Material-Bond Strength, Interfacial Transition Zone and Effects of Formwork Type
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2020 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 5778Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A reduced carbon footprint and longer service life of structures are major aspects of circular economy with respect to civil engineering. The aim of the research was to evaluate the interfacial bond properties between a deteriorated normal strength concrete structure and a thin overlay made of Eco-UHPC containing 50 wt% of limestone filler. Two types of formwork were used: untreated rough plywood and surface treated shuttering plywood. The normal strength concrete elements were surface scaled using water jets to obtain some degradation prior to casting of the UHPC overlay. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), bond test (pull-off test), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) were used for analysis. Elements repaired with the Eco-UHPC showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to the non-deteriorated NSC sample which was used as a reference. The bond strength varied between 2 and 2.7 MPa regardless of the used formwork. The interfacial transition zone was very narrow with only slightly increased porosity. The untreated plywood, having a rough and water-absorbing surface, created a surface friction-based restraint which limited microcracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Shuttering plywood with a smooth surface enabled the development of higher tensile stress on the UHPC surface, which led to a more intensive autogenous shrinkage cracking. None of the formed microcracks penetrated through the entire thickness of the overlay and some were partly self-healed when a simple water treatment was applied. The project results showed that application of UHPC as repair material for concrete structures could elongate the lifespan and thus enhance the sustainability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
Eco-UHPC, NSC (normal strength concrete), UPV, bond test (pull-off), SEM-EDS, ITZ, formwork, self-healing
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82205 (URN)10.3390/ma13245778 (DOI)000602864400001 ()33348899 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85098280741 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationVinnova
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-01-08 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-01-08 Created: 2021-01-08 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Buasiri, T., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K., Krzeminski, L. & Cwirzen, A. (2020). Piezoresistive response of nanomodified Portland cement under bending. In: : . Paper presented at 74th RILEM Annual Week And 40th Cement and Concrete Science Conference, Sheffiled, UK [Online], August 31 - September 4, 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Piezoresistive response of nanomodified Portland cement under bending
2020 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97287 (URN)
Conference
74th RILEM Annual Week And 40th Cement and Concrete Science Conference, Sheffiled, UK [Online], August 31 - September 4, 2020
Available from: 2023-05-23 Created: 2023-05-23 Last updated: 2024-02-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0459-7433

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