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Towards the Automatic Transformation of the SIMULINK Model into an FPGA-in-Loop System and its Real-Time Simulation
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9299-0811
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0075-1608
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, 02150, Finland.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9315-9920
2024 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Information is a key component of progress. Industry 4.0, and especially the future Industry 5.0, is closely related to the topic of the Digital Twin, where virtual components interact with each other. The main advantage of such a system is that it can fully mimic the behaviour of the complicated system, including various unexpected perturbations such as noise, jitter, delays, etc. Thus, the ability to create complex models and run them in real-time is a basic need for extending the Digital Twin. One of the major problems in the development of digital twins is the increasing complexity of the models. Therefore, large processing capacities and parallel computation become critical. The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a type of hardware that best fits this task. The FPGA-in-the-loop (FiL) can be considered as the container for running the Digital-Twin model. The transformation of a digital model into FiL is known and used by many companies at this time. However, the authors found that there are no publicly available model-to-FiL transformation methods. In this paper, the authors aim to fill this gap. We first discuss the major design challenges of a FiL system and provide recommendations to overcome them in the form of a road map. We then demonstrate a step-by-step process for converting a simple MATLAB/SIMULINK model to a FiL system using the proposed road map. Finally, we will demonstrate the validation process of the designed FiL systems and prove that they are running in real-time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2024.
Keywords [en]
FPGA-in-the-Loop, Digital Twin, Real-Time Simulator
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103539DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2024.3359918Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85186083263OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-103539DiVA, id: diva2:1825391
Funder
Vinnova, 2022-03002
Note

Full text license: CC BY NC-ND

Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-03-11
In thesis
1. Model-Integrated Engineering of Smart Energy Distribution Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-Integrated Engineering of Smart Energy Distribution Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is a method that is used to support analysis, design, independent verification, and validation inherent in the development of software and hardware systems. MBSE applications are present in many areas of our daily lives, including manufacturing, robotics, healthcare, automation, etc. However, despite their rapid and sustainable growth during the last few years, the MBSE methods themselves are quite far from perfect. There are some current problems, which resist more rapid penetration of MBSE systems in their development. One of them is the issue of interoperability between different MBSE tools since most of them are vendor-specific. Although vendor dependency has been a problem well before the conceptualization of MBSE this problem is especially actual for the MBSE due to the heterogeneity of the concepts (model, systems thinking, and systems engineering) that it is based on. Furthermore, there is currently a gap between the development of a simulation model and the development of a control system for that model. Currently, this problem is usually solved by involving two or more groups of engineers, where each of these groups works on their problems. All this costs companies additional engineering time and, as a result, development costs. Therefore, new, and more sophisticated approaches for the generation of MBSEs are needed to overcome the challenges highlighted above

To narrow the field of study and better focus on specific problems, smart power distribution systems have been chosen as the main research object for this dissertation. Furthermore, the author uses the term Digital Twin to refer to the multilayered structure of the complex distributed automation system consisting of three layers, that is:

– the static machine-readable information about the infrastructure of the smart energy system,

– the simulation model layer,

– the distributed control layer for the investigated smart energy system.

In particular, the semi-automated approach is presented in Article C of this thesis. The proposed approach is semi-automated because it generates the MATLAB script of the simulation model rather than the model itself. To generate the model, the user needs to automatically generate it in MATLAB (a link to a detailed video describing this process is provided in Article C). IEC 61850 specification files, written in substation configuration language, are used as a starting point for further conversions.

The IEC 61850 standard is a key component of the current dissertation. IEC 61850 is an international standard that covers different sides of smart energy distribution systems, including communication protocols for diverse equipment in a substation, including protection, control, and measurement equipment, as well as intelligent electronic devices(IEDs).

The dissertation consists of five papers, each of which aims at a specific goal, namely:

– Paper A touches upon interoperability problems between information architecture of different communication protocols (IEC61850/GOOSE - transformer substations, OpenADR - smart buildings, OCPP - electric vehicles), and proposes a concept for solving that problem.

– Paper B describes the design challenges of the SIMULINK model, which is considered the modeling layer of the multi-layer structure of the Digital Twin. As an example, a model of a datacenter is evaluated, designed, and validated against real data.

– In Paper C, an approach for information model automatic transformation from IEC61850 to OCPP is proposed. A test programming application was built, based on the proposed approach, and the generated OCPP information model was tested with the help of third-party programming tools.

– Paper D presents a performance analysis of the BeagleBone Black as an IEC61850Merging Unit simulator. The goal is to determine how well BeagleBone Black’shardware and software performance meets the IEC61850 Merging Unit requirements.– Paper E reveals an approach for converting a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to an FPGA-in-Loop system. The goal is to make a step towards automation of the digital twin design process and discuss the various barriers to achieving it.

Thus, the work presented in this dissertation raises questions about compatibility between different standards, the problems of converting the IEC 61850 information model to MBSE, the verification of the generated MBSE against the original IEC 61850 information model, the problems of hardware incompatibility with the target programming application, and the problems designing a Digital Twin model from SIMULINK (as an example in this thesis). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024. p. 219
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103540 (URN)978-91-8048-460-2 (ISBN)978-91-8048-461-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-02-16, A 2028, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved

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Galkin, NikolaiYang, Chen-WeiVyatkin, Valeriy

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