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Efficient Decentralized Data Storage Based on Public Blockchain and IPFS
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1281-6130
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0244-3561
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4031-2872
2020 (English)In: 2020 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Computer Science and Data Engineering (CSDE), IEEE, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Blockchain technology has enabled the keeping of a decentralized, tamper-proof, immutable, and ordered ledger of transactional events. Efforts to leverage such a ledger may be challenging when data storage requirements exceed most blockchain protocols’ current capacities. Storing large amounts of decentralized data while maintaining system efficiency is the challenge that we target. This paper proposes using the IPFS distributed hash table (DHT) technology to store information immutably and in a decentralized manner to mitigate the high cost of storage. A storage system involving blockchain and other storage systems in concert should be based on immutable data and allow removal of data from malicious users in the DHT. Efficiency is improved by decreasing the overall processing time in the blockchain with the help of DHT technology and introducing an agreement service that communicate with the blockchain via a RESTful API. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method and conclude that the combination of IPFS and blockchain provides efficient cryptographic storage, immutable history and overall better efficiency in a decentralized manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020.
Keywords [en]
Public blockchain, smart contract, distributed hash table, immutability
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Cyber-Physical Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82001DOI: 10.1109/CSDE50874.2020.9411599Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85105428214OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-82001DiVA, id: diva2:1510141
Conference
7th IEEE Conference on Computer Science and Data Engineering (CSDE 2020), Gold Coast, Australia, December 16-18, 2020 (virtual)
Projects
DIT4BEARS
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-6654-1974-1

Available from: 2020-12-15 Created: 2020-12-15 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Blockchain and Distributed Hash Table Technology in Decentralized Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blockchain and Distributed Hash Table Technology in Decentralized Systems
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the popular domains in real-time analytics, ma-chine learning, ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, and embedded systems where remote smart devices play notable roles in smart homes and industry. The information from emerging IoT environments like remotely-controlled objects, autonomous vehicles (AVs), and energy management can produce a huge amount of data. Moreover, under-standing the security in a scalable decentralized IoT environment is a significant issue.Decentralization has become popular again in the world since cryptocurrencies started to be a part of businesses. Therefore, researchers invested in upgrading resources to increase the reliability of these systems among people when most of the activities and human works are now managed by smart electronic devices remotely. Distributed ledgers, Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs), and blockchain technologies are proper decentralized technologies that improve system security, scalability, and trustworthiness. Blockchains contain a group of connected blocks that are digitally signed transactions stored in a decentralized fashion. The DHT technology is another decentralized solution that helps applications keep files and information immutable in a decentralized manner to mitigate the high cost of storage without memory limitations.In this thesis, we argue for a decentralized systems paradigm and, in conjunction with IoT and the blockchain. Our contributions are as follows. First, we introduce the term networks and service architectures and how it is possible to use blockchain in the real world. We consider different architectures in IoT systems and show the blockchain en-counter with the IoT and the resulting behavior. Second, we detect most of the frequent types of attacks in IoT related to using blockchain in the systems. We also describe how the blockchain works and illustrate a variety of security problems in systems. Fur-thermore, we discuss how the blockchain solves security problems by comparing different blockchains and explain how users handle their communication without third-party de-pendence. As our third contribution, we propose a novel architecture that consists of finding global identification in distributed applications and enable decentralized systems to be more secure with the help of blockchain technology. We also validate the proposed architecture and novel decentralized application development to evaluate high efficiency by combining blockchain, DHT, and biometric technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86795 (URN)978-91-7790-909-5 (ISBN)978-91-7790-910-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-10-22, A193, Skellefteå, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-08-25 Created: 2021-08-23 Last updated: 2021-10-01Bibliographically approved
2. Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High-level systems need identification techniques, where higher security and scalability are considered requirements. Identification plays a significant role in systems where smart electronic devices increase in zero trust and open environments like decentralized systems. Also, decentralization has emerged as one of the most exciting domains in recent years, again after the first Internet was invented. Besides, decentralization in identification systems has gained popularity worldwide since cryptocurrencies became part of businesses. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) can be appropriate decentralized solutions that improve identification to be much more secure, scalable, and trustworthy.

The decentralized nature of DLT and DHT ensures no single point of failure, making them highly resilient to attacks. Blockchain as a DLT solution can help devices communicate with each other securely and trustably by storing an immutable history of transactions, providing an additional layer of security to identification systems. DHT senable applications to keep files and information immutable in a decentralized manner. DHTs ensure that the data is replicated across multiple nodes, making it highly resilient to data loss. Moreover, mitigating high storage costs without memory limitations is the target of these technologies. In this context, a decentralized system paradigm that combines systems with DLT and DHTs can be highly beneficial.

This thesis argues for such a paradigm, and the contributions include introducing the term decentralized networks and architectures and demonstrating the feasibility of using blockchain as a DLT solution in real-world scenarios. These scenarios can be applied to the Internet of Things (IoT) or other Peer to Peer networked systems. We explore different architectures in various systems and analyze the interaction in blockchain. This thesis contributes to developing decentralized identification systems that provide users’ trust in an open environment. It presents the challenges associated with decentralized identification, including registry and storage issues, and proposes solutions using DLT and DHT. The immutability of DLT and DHTs provides fast and secure solutions for decentralized identification systems. In particular, we show that a DHT-based architecture is feasible to maintain decentralization while avoiding memory constraints. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of performance. Our investigation shows that combining DHTs with blockchain in decentralized identifiers improves performance.

By concealing blocks in the private blockchain, we show that query performance is better than other DHT and public blockchain-based solutions without concealed information. Moreover, our results show that DHT performs better than the public blockchain for scenarios with many records.

These findings highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate technology for decentralized identification systems, considering the specific use case and the number of records to be stored.

We also consider different decentralized identification systems and platforms built based on the recommendation of W3C Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs). We found low-efficiency issues using this technology, resulting from leveraging public DLT in the data registry part of DIDs. That model has searching time problems if the DLT grows. Finally, this thesis helps to analyze these issues and find better solutions. By choosing the right technology, we can ensure that decentralized identifiers are efficient, secure, and scalable, which enables users to trust them in an open environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105460 (URN)978-91-8048-579-1 (ISBN)978-91-8048-580-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-08-30, A 193, Luleå University of Technology, Skellefteå, 08:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-14 Created: 2024-05-14 Last updated: 2024-06-03Bibliographically approved

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Alizadeh, MortezaAndersson, KarlSchelén, Olov

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