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Ice sintering: Dependence of sintering force on temperature, load, duration, and particle size
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6231-8944
Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden; Contamination and Core CFD, Volvo Car Corporation, SE-405 31 Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1537-2133
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8355-2414
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8225-989X
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 131, no 2, article id 025109Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present experiments along with an approximate, semi-analytic, close-form solution to predict ice sintering force as a function of temperature, contact load, contact duration, and particle size during the primary stage of sintering. The ice sintering force increases nearly linear with increasing contact load but nonlinear with both contact duration and particle size in the form of a power law. The exponent of the power law for size dependence is around the value predicted by general sintering theory. The temperature dependence of the sintering force is also nonlinear and follows the Arrhenius equation. At temperatures closer to the melting point, a liquid bridge is observed upon the separation of the contacted ice particles. We also find that the ratio of ultimate tensile strength of ice to the axial stress concentration factor in tension is an important factor in determining the sintering force, and a value of nearly 1.1 MPa can best catch the sintering force of ice in different conditions. We find that the activation energy is around 41.4KJ/mol41.4KJ/mol, which is close to the previously reported data. Also, our results suggest that smaller particles are “stickier” than larger particles. Moreover, during the formation of the ice particles, cavitation and surface cracking is observed which can be one of the sources for the variations observed in the measured ice sintering force.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2022. Vol. 131, no 2, article id 025109
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88792DOI: 10.1063/5.0073824ISI: 000746515900007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85123639304OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-88792DiVA, id: diva2:1628847
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-01-17 (johcin)

Available from: 2022-01-17 Created: 2022-01-17 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Experiments and simulations on the mechanics of ice and snow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiments and simulations on the mechanics of ice and snow
2023 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this study, experiments and simulations were conducted to investigate ice and snow. The ice sintering force as a function of temperature, pressing force (contact load), contact duration, and particle size during the primary stage of sintering was formulated using experimental methods along with an approximate, semi-analytic, close-form solution. It was shown that the ice sintering force increases nearly linear with increasing external pressing force but best approximated as a power law for dependency on both contact duration and particle size. Moreover, the exponent of the power law for size dependence is around the value predicted by general sintering theory. The temperature dependence of the sintering force is highly nonlinear and follows the Arrhenius equation. It was observed that at temperatures closer to the melting point, a liquid bridge is observed upon these paration of the contacted ice particles. The ratio of ultimate tensile strength of ice to the axial stress concentration factor in tension is found as an important factor in determining the sintering force, and a value of nearly 1.1 MPa was estimated to best catch the sintering force of ice in different conditions. From the temperature dependency, the activation energy is calculated to be around 41.4 kJ/mol, which is close to the previously reported value. Also, the results for the sintering force suggest that smaller particles are “stickier” than larger particles. Moreover, cavitation and surface cracking is observed during the formation of the ice particles and these can be one of the sources for the variations observed in the measured ice sintering force values.

The presence of a capillary bridge in contact between an ice particle and a "smooth" (or rough) Aluminum surface at relative humidity around 50% and temperatures below the melting point was experimentally demonstrated. Experiments were conducted under controlled temperature conditions and the mechanical instability of the bridge upon separation of the ice particle from the Aluminum surface with a constant speed was considered. It was observed that a liquid bridge with a more pronounced volume at temperatures near the melting point is formed. It was showen that the separation distance is proportional to the cube root of the volume of the bridge. The volume of the liquidbridge is used to estimate the thickness of the liquid layer on the ice particle and the estimated value was shown to be within the range reported in the literature. The thickness of the liquid layer decreases from nearly 56 nm at -1.7◦C to 0.2 nm at -12.7◦C. The dependence can be approximated with a power law, proportional to (TM − T)−β, where β < 2.6. We further observe that for a rough surface, the capillary bridge formation in the considered experimental conditions vanishes.

The Discrete Element Method (DEM) was employed to simulate the filling behavior of dry snow. Snow as a heterogeneous, hot material which is constituted from spherical ice particles which can form bonds. The bonding behavior of ice particles is important in determining the macroscopic behavior of snow. The bond diameter of ice-ice contacts as a function of time, compressive load, and strain rate is used and a DEM for dry snow was developed and programmed in MATLAB. A beam element with implemented damage model was used in the simulation. The simulated parameters were macroscopic angle of repose, packing density, and surface conditions as a function of temperature and fillingrate. The DEM results were able to verify the existing published experimental data. The simulation results showed that angle of repose of snow decreased with decreasing the temperature, the surface became irregular due to particles rotation and re-arrangement for lower falling speeds of particles, and density increased with depth of deposition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
Experiments, Sintering force, Capillar bridge, liquid film, Discrete Element Method, Particles
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94782 (URN)978-91-8048-234-9 (ISBN)978-91-8048-235-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2023-02-20, E632, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-12-08 Created: 2022-12-08 Last updated: 2023-02-01Bibliographically approved
2. Mechanics of Ice and Snow as a Granular Material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanics of Ice and Snow as a Granular Material
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, the mechanical properties of ice and dry snow as a class of granular materials are investigated through a series of experiments, analyses, and simulations. The primary focus is on understanding the intricate details of ice sintering, capillary bridge formation, and the behavior of snow under varying conditions.

The investigation into ice sintering reveals a formulation of the sintering force, considering temperature, pressing force, contact duration, and particle size during the primary sintering stage. The results indicate a nearly linear increase in sintering force with external pressing force, while dependency on contact duration and particle size follows a nonlinear power-law relationship. The temperature dependence of the sintering force is nonlinear, aligning with the Arrhenius equation. The ultimate tensile strength of ice and the axial stress concentration factor are identified as crucial factors in determining the sintering force. Additionally, observations near the melting point reveal the formation of a liquid bridge between contacted ice particles.

Moving on to capillary bridge formation, the experiments demonstrate the presence of a liquid bridge between an ice particle and a smooth (or rough) aluminum surface at controlled temperature conditions. The separation distance is found to be proportional to the cube root of the bridge volume, which decreases with decreasing temperature. Notably, for a rough surface, capillary bridge formation diminishes under the considered experimental conditions.

The significance of snow in various contexts prompts an exploration of its mechanical properties. Utilizing micro-computed tomography imaging and quasi-static mechanical loading, a methodology for mapping the density-dependent material properties of manufactured snow is established. The study investigates structural parameter variations during loading, revealing insights into the three-dimensional structure, relative density, and mechanical behavior of snow. Results from Burger’s model show an increasing trend in modulus and viscosity terms with density. Digital volume correlation aids in calculating full-field strain distribution, highlighting particle characteristics and changes in specific surface areas during loading.

Expanding the scope to natural snow, cutting-edge techniques like micro-tomography are integrated with traditional loading methods. Employing CT imaging and uniaxial compression tests, along with digital volume correlation, density-dependent material properties are analyzed. The study incorporates two snow samples, revealing density-dependent trends in modulus and viscosity terms. The results provide valuable insights into the non-homogeneous behavior of natural snow and contribute to fields such as glacier dynamics and avalanche prediction.

Finally, the discrete element method with a variable bond model is used to simulate the behavior of granular materials, specifically focusing on snow. The model incorporates temperature dependent cohesion and effectively captures the angle of repose and stress-strain behavior of snow.

In summary, this thesis presents an investigation into the mechanical properties of ice, capillary bridge formation, manufactured snow, natural snow, and granular materials, providing insights and contributing to the understanding of ice and snow in various environmental and engineering contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
micro tomography, mechanics, ice and snow, sintering force, thin liquid layer, discrete element method
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105285 (URN)978-91-8048-558-6 (ISBN)978-91-8048-559-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-12, E632, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-04-29 Created: 2024-04-29 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved

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Bahaloohoreh, HassanGren, PerCasselgren, JohanForsberg, FredrikSjödahl, Mikael

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