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DHT- and Blockchain-based Smart Identification for Video Conferencing
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1281-6130
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0244-3561
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4031-2872
2022 (English)In: Blockchain: Research and Applications, ISSN 2096-7209, Vol. 3, no 2, article id 100066Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Video conferencing applications help people communicate via the Internet and provide a significant and consistent basis for virtual meetings. However, integrity, security, identification, and authentication problems are still universal. Current video conference technologies typically rely on cloud systems to provide a stable and secure basis for executing tasks and processes. At the same time, video conferencing applications are being migrated from centralized to decentralized solutions for better performance without the need for third-party interactions. This article demonstrates a decentralized smart identification scheme for video conferencing applications based on biometric technology, machine learning, and a decentralized hash table combined with blockchain technology. We store users' information on a distributed hash table and transactional events on the distributed ledger after identifying users by implementing machine learning functions. Furthermore, we leverage distributed ledger technology's immutability and traceability properties and distributed hash table unlimited storage feature to improve the system's storage capacity and immutability by evaluating three possible architectures. The experimental results show that an architecture based on blockchain and distributed hash table has better efficiency but needs a longer time to execute than the two other architectures using a centralized database.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022. Vol. 3, no 2, article id 100066
Keywords [en]
Video conferencing, Blockchain, IPFS, Decentralized web hosting, Machine learning
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Cyber-Physical Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-89406DOI: 10.1016/j.bcra.2022.100066ISI: 000907670900007Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85134433660OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-89406DiVA, id: diva2:1640883
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 1;2022-04-13 (sofila);

Funder: Kolarctic CBC project DIT4BEARS (grant no. KO4096)

Available from: 2022-02-28 Created: 2022-02-28 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High-level systems need identification techniques, where higher security and scalability are considered requirements. Identification plays a significant role in systems where smart electronic devices increase in zero trust and open environments like decentralized systems. Also, decentralization has emerged as one of the most exciting domains in recent years, again after the first Internet was invented. Besides, decentralization in identification systems has gained popularity worldwide since cryptocurrencies became part of businesses. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) can be appropriate decentralized solutions that improve identification to be much more secure, scalable, and trustworthy.

The decentralized nature of DLT and DHT ensures no single point of failure, making them highly resilient to attacks. Blockchain as a DLT solution can help devices communicate with each other securely and trustably by storing an immutable history of transactions, providing an additional layer of security to identification systems. DHT senable applications to keep files and information immutable in a decentralized manner. DHTs ensure that the data is replicated across multiple nodes, making it highly resilient to data loss. Moreover, mitigating high storage costs without memory limitations is the target of these technologies. In this context, a decentralized system paradigm that combines systems with DLT and DHTs can be highly beneficial.

This thesis argues for such a paradigm, and the contributions include introducing the term decentralized networks and architectures and demonstrating the feasibility of using blockchain as a DLT solution in real-world scenarios. These scenarios can be applied to the Internet of Things (IoT) or other Peer to Peer networked systems. We explore different architectures in various systems and analyze the interaction in blockchain. This thesis contributes to developing decentralized identification systems that provide users’ trust in an open environment. It presents the challenges associated with decentralized identification, including registry and storage issues, and proposes solutions using DLT and DHT. The immutability of DLT and DHTs provides fast and secure solutions for decentralized identification systems. In particular, we show that a DHT-based architecture is feasible to maintain decentralization while avoiding memory constraints. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of performance. Our investigation shows that combining DHTs with blockchain in decentralized identifiers improves performance.

By concealing blocks in the private blockchain, we show that query performance is better than other DHT and public blockchain-based solutions without concealed information. Moreover, our results show that DHT performs better than the public blockchain for scenarios with many records.

These findings highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate technology for decentralized identification systems, considering the specific use case and the number of records to be stored.

We also consider different decentralized identification systems and platforms built based on the recommendation of W3C Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs). We found low-efficiency issues using this technology, resulting from leveraging public DLT in the data registry part of DIDs. That model has searching time problems if the DLT grows. Finally, this thesis helps to analyze these issues and find better solutions. By choosing the right technology, we can ensure that decentralized identifiers are efficient, secure, and scalable, which enables users to trust them in an open environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105460 (URN)978-91-8048-579-1 (ISBN)978-91-8048-580-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-08-30, A 193, Luleå University of Technology, Skellefteå, 08:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-14 Created: 2024-05-14 Last updated: 2024-06-18Bibliographically approved

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Alizadeh, MortezaAndersson, KarlSchelén, Olov

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