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Capillary Bridge in Contact with Ice Particles Can Be Related to the Thin Liquid Film on Ice
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6231-8944
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8355-2414
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8225-989x
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7395-3302
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2024 (English)In: Journal of cold regions engineering, ISSN 0887-381X, E-ISSN 1943-5495, Vol. 38, no 1, article id 04023021Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally demonstrate the presence of a capillary bridge in the contact between an ice particle and a smooth aluminum surface at a relative humidity of approximately 50% and temperatures below the melting point. We conduct the experiments in a freezer with a controlled temperature and consider the mechanical instability of the bridge upon separation of the ice particle from the aluminum surface at a constant speed. We observe that a liquid bridge forms, and this formation becomes more pronounced as the temperature approaches the melting point. We also show that the separation distance is proportional to the cube root of the volume of the bridge. We hypothesize that the volume of the liquid bridge can be used to provide a rough estimate of the thickness of the liquid layer on the ice particle since in the absence of other driving mechanisms, some of the liquid on the surface must have been pulled to the bridge area. We show that the estimated value lies within the range previously reported in the literature. With these assumptions, the estimated thickness of the liquid layer decreases from nearly 56 nm at T = −1.7°C to 0.2 nm at T = −12.7°C. The dependence can be approximated with a power law, proportional to (TM − T)−β, where β < 2.6 and TM is the melting temperature. We further observe that for a rough surface, the capillary bridge formation in the considered experimental conditions vanishes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), 2024. Vol. 38, no 1, article id 04023021
National Category
Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102441DOI: 10.1061/JCRGEI.CRENG-738ISI: 001143507100005Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85175442634OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-102441DiVA, id: diva2:1811397
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-15 (sofila);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2023-11-13 Created: 2023-11-13 Last updated: 2024-05-06Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Mechanics of Ice and Snow as a Granular Material
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanics of Ice and Snow as a Granular Material
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this thesis, the mechanical properties of ice and dry snow as a class of granular materials are investigated through a series of experiments, analyses, and simulations. The primary focus is on understanding the intricate details of ice sintering, capillary bridge formation, and the behavior of snow under varying conditions.

The investigation into ice sintering reveals a formulation of the sintering force, considering temperature, pressing force, contact duration, and particle size during the primary sintering stage. The results indicate a nearly linear increase in sintering force with external pressing force, while dependency on contact duration and particle size follows a nonlinear power-law relationship. The temperature dependence of the sintering force is nonlinear, aligning with the Arrhenius equation. The ultimate tensile strength of ice and the axial stress concentration factor are identified as crucial factors in determining the sintering force. Additionally, observations near the melting point reveal the formation of a liquid bridge between contacted ice particles.

Moving on to capillary bridge formation, the experiments demonstrate the presence of a liquid bridge between an ice particle and a smooth (or rough) aluminum surface at controlled temperature conditions. The separation distance is found to be proportional to the cube root of the bridge volume, which decreases with decreasing temperature. Notably, for a rough surface, capillary bridge formation diminishes under the considered experimental conditions.

The significance of snow in various contexts prompts an exploration of its mechanical properties. Utilizing micro-computed tomography imaging and quasi-static mechanical loading, a methodology for mapping the density-dependent material properties of manufactured snow is established. The study investigates structural parameter variations during loading, revealing insights into the three-dimensional structure, relative density, and mechanical behavior of snow. Results from Burger’s model show an increasing trend in modulus and viscosity terms with density. Digital volume correlation aids in calculating full-field strain distribution, highlighting particle characteristics and changes in specific surface areas during loading.

Expanding the scope to natural snow, cutting-edge techniques like micro-tomography are integrated with traditional loading methods. Employing CT imaging and uniaxial compression tests, along with digital volume correlation, density-dependent material properties are analyzed. The study incorporates two snow samples, revealing density-dependent trends in modulus and viscosity terms. The results provide valuable insights into the non-homogeneous behavior of natural snow and contribute to fields such as glacier dynamics and avalanche prediction.

Finally, the discrete element method with a variable bond model is used to simulate the behavior of granular materials, specifically focusing on snow. The model incorporates temperature dependent cohesion and effectively captures the angle of repose and stress-strain behavior of snow.

In summary, this thesis presents an investigation into the mechanical properties of ice, capillary bridge formation, manufactured snow, natural snow, and granular materials, providing insights and contributing to the understanding of ice and snow in various environmental and engineering contexts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
micro tomography, mechanics, ice and snow, sintering force, thin liquid layer, discrete element method
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105285 (URN)978-91-8048-558-6 (ISBN)978-91-8048-559-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-12, E632, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
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Supervisors
Available from: 2024-04-29 Created: 2024-04-29 Last updated: 2024-05-22Bibliographically approved

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Bahaloo, HassanGren, PerCasselgren, JohanForsberg, FredrikSjödahl, Mikael

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