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Lead-free 22lr ammunition for sport shooting: A simple implementation or a huge challenge?
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3157-4632
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3995-8331
2024 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, ISSN 1754-3371Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In Europe it is approximated that around six million people are active in sport shooting. Currently, most bullets are manufactured out of lead which in many cases is combined with a copper jacket. There are several reasons for using lead; lead is relatively cheap, soft, and has a high density, and is therefore often the ideal material for bullets. Currently, the EU is seeking a restriction or ban on the use of lead in firearm bullets, with the main motivation that hunting with lead bullets might result in lead poisoning of both animals and people. The proposed lead ban will also have a major impact on sport shooting, as it is likely to be subjected to the same regulations. One caliber that has been shown to be very difficult to produce as a lead-free alternative is 22lr (long rifle), which today is the most common caliber for sport shooting in many disciplines. Today, there are not many scientific investigations available which show the performance of lead versus lead-free ammunition in caliber 22lr, even though it would make sense to investigate the possibilities of designing lead-free ammunition before a possible lead ban is further discussed. In this work the performance of two common lead-free 22lr-cartridges is evaluated and shown in comparison with existing lead-based ammunition, with a primary focus on sport shooting. Performance has been evaluated under both summer and winter conditions to cover different sports shooting disciplines. The results of this study clearly show the difficulty of finding lead-free 22lr cartridges with acceptable performance on the market today. In fact, the performance of the tested lead-free ammunition is so poor that the EU’s proposed lead ban could completely ruin shooting as a sport due to a lack of functioning ammunition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2024.
Keywords [en]
Lead, lead-free, caliber, 22lr, .22, long rifle, ammunition, bullets, biathlon, shooting, shooting sports, accuracy, ballistics, impact, aiming, projectiles, physics of sports
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Reliability and Maintenance
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103456DOI: 10.1177/17543371231219379ISI: 001134707600001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85181200234OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-103456DiVA, id: diva2:1823673
Note

Full text license: "Under Sage's Green Open Access policy, the Accepted Version of the article may be posted in the author's institutional repository and reuse is restricted to non-commercial and no derivative uses."

Available from: 2024-01-03 Created: 2024-01-03 Last updated: 2024-03-12

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Marklund, PärPettersson, Anders

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