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Model-Integrated Engineering of Smart Energy Distribution Systems
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9299-0811
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is a method that is used to support analysis, design, independent verification, and validation inherent in the development of software and hardware systems. MBSE applications are present in many areas of our daily lives, including manufacturing, robotics, healthcare, automation, etc. However, despite their rapid and sustainable growth during the last few years, the MBSE methods themselves are quite far from perfect. There are some current problems, which resist more rapid penetration of MBSE systems in their development. One of them is the issue of interoperability between different MBSE tools since most of them are vendor-specific. Although vendor dependency has been a problem well before the conceptualization of MBSE this problem is especially actual for the MBSE due to the heterogeneity of the concepts (model, systems thinking, and systems engineering) that it is based on. Furthermore, there is currently a gap between the development of a simulation model and the development of a control system for that model. Currently, this problem is usually solved by involving two or more groups of engineers, where each of these groups works on their problems. All this costs companies additional engineering time and, as a result, development costs. Therefore, new, and more sophisticated approaches for the generation of MBSEs are needed to overcome the challenges highlighted above

To narrow the field of study and better focus on specific problems, smart power distribution systems have been chosen as the main research object for this dissertation. Furthermore, the author uses the term Digital Twin to refer to the multilayered structure of the complex distributed automation system consisting of three layers, that is:

– the static machine-readable information about the infrastructure of the smart energy system,

– the simulation model layer,

– the distributed control layer for the investigated smart energy system.

In particular, the semi-automated approach is presented in Article C of this thesis. The proposed approach is semi-automated because it generates the MATLAB script of the simulation model rather than the model itself. To generate the model, the user needs to automatically generate it in MATLAB (a link to a detailed video describing this process is provided in Article C). IEC 61850 specification files, written in substation configuration language, are used as a starting point for further conversions.

The IEC 61850 standard is a key component of the current dissertation. IEC 61850 is an international standard that covers different sides of smart energy distribution systems, including communication protocols for diverse equipment in a substation, including protection, control, and measurement equipment, as well as intelligent electronic devices(IEDs).

The dissertation consists of five papers, each of which aims at a specific goal, namely:

– Paper A touches upon interoperability problems between information architecture of different communication protocols (IEC61850/GOOSE - transformer substations, OpenADR - smart buildings, OCPP - electric vehicles), and proposes a concept for solving that problem.

– Paper B describes the design challenges of the SIMULINK model, which is considered the modeling layer of the multi-layer structure of the Digital Twin. As an example, a model of a datacenter is evaluated, designed, and validated against real data.

– In Paper C, an approach for information model automatic transformation from IEC61850 to OCPP is proposed. A test programming application was built, based on the proposed approach, and the generated OCPP information model was tested with the help of third-party programming tools.

– Paper D presents a performance analysis of the BeagleBone Black as an IEC61850Merging Unit simulator. The goal is to determine how well BeagleBone Black’shardware and software performance meets the IEC61850 Merging Unit requirements.– Paper E reveals an approach for converting a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to an FPGA-in-Loop system. The goal is to make a step towards automation of the digital twin design process and discuss the various barriers to achieving it.

Thus, the work presented in this dissertation raises questions about compatibility between different standards, the problems of converting the IEC 61850 information model to MBSE, the verification of the generated MBSE against the original IEC 61850 information model, the problems of hardware incompatibility with the target programming application, and the problems designing a Digital Twin model from SIMULINK (as an example in this thesis). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024. , p. 219
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103540ISBN: 978-91-8048-460-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-8048-461-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-103540DiVA, id: diva2:1825439
Public defence
2024-02-16, A 2028, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-26Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Prototyping Multi-Protocol Communication to enable semantic interoperability for Demand response Services
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prototyping Multi-Protocol Communication to enable semantic interoperability for Demand response Services
2021 (English)In: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), IEEE, 2021, p. 15-20Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In future demand response scenarios, a multitude of different types of resources are potentially to be used, e.g., electric vehicles, flexible residential loads, and battery storage systems. To solve the problem of real-time communication of data among the various resources, it is likely that several different communication protocols and most importantly differing semantic models, must be used. An aggregator utilizing several types of resources is therefore potentially faced with a problem of semantic interoperability. This paper addresses this challenge by presenting a testbed consisting of a microgrid model integrated with several controllers communicating with industrial grade protocols for demand response, including IEC 61850, OpenChargePoint protocol (OCPP), OpenADR and UDP. The testbed forms a basis for further development of a semantic canvas to enable forecasting, activation and clearing of heterogenous demand response resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2021
Keywords
Protocols, Semantics, Microgrids, Demand response, Real-time systems, Smart grids, IEC Standards, Semantic interoperability Real-time simulation, Multi-agent system, Multi-communication protocols
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88454 (URN)10.1109/SmartGridComm51999.2021.9631990 (DOI)2-s2.0-85123935218 (Scopus ID)
Conference
2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm),Aachen, Germany,25-28 Oct. 2021
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation:978-1-6654-1502-6, 978-1-6654-3044-9

Available from: 2021-12-16 Created: 2021-12-16 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
2. On Modelling of Edge Datacentre Microgrid for Participation in Smart Energy Infrastructures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Modelling of Edge Datacentre Microgrid for Participation in Smart Energy Infrastructures
Show others...
2022 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, E-ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 3, p. 50-64Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Datacentres are becoming a sizable part of the energy system and are one of the biggest consumers of the energy grid. The so-called “Green Datacentre” is capable of not only consuming but also producing power, thus becoming an important kind of prosumers in the electric grid. Green datacentres consist of a microgrid with a backup uninterrupted power supply and renewable generation, e.g., using photovoltaic panels. As such, datacentres could realistically be important participants in demand/response applications. However, this requires reconsidering their currently rigid control and automation systems and the use of simulation models for online estimation of the control actions impact. This paper presents such a microgrid simulation model modelled after a real edge datacentre. A case study consumption scenario is presented for the purpose of validating the developed microgrid model against data traces collected from the green edge datacentre. Both simulation and real-time validation tests are performed to validate the accuracy of the datacentre model. Then the model is connected to the automation environment to be used for the online impact estimation and virtual commissioning purposes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Keywords
Biological system modeling, Cooling, Data models, Load modeling, Microgrids, Renewable energy sources, Uninterruptible power systems
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88889 (URN)10.1109/OJIES.2021.3138537 (DOI)000747441500001 ()2-s2.0-85122278310 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-03-08 (joosat);

Funder: ERA-Net SES 2018 (RegSys)

Available from: 2022-01-24 Created: 2022-01-24 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
3. Automatic Generation of Charging Point's Digital Twin for Virtual Commissioning of Their Automation Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automatic Generation of Charging Point's Digital Twin for Virtual Commissioning of Their Automation Systems
2023 (English)In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, E-ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 4, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The wide propagation of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure integrated into the energy distribution network poses numerous challenges for the engineering and control of the latter: the load dynamic characteristics become more unsteady, requiring more advanced control, predictions, and virtual commissioning. One step toward the automation of the design and simulation of new charging stations can be reached through the integration of the EV-specific standards and protocols with other widely spread electrical standards, thereby, improving the compatibility between standards, increasing the reuse of the intelligent work results, and promoting the development of EVs’ infrastructure. A method for virtual commissioning of electrical charging stations is proposed, implemented, and tested in a form of a software tool in which the electrical system description from the widely used IEC 61850 standard is used as an input. The designed tool builds a digital twin of the charging station that consists of its Simulink model as well as two automatically generated communication code primitives using the open charge point protocol for control and management purposes over the autogenerated model. The generated digital twin can be used for virtual commissioning purposes. The application of the method is illustrated in a case study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023
Keywords
Charging point’s automation, digital twin, IEC 61850, MATLAB
National Category
Information Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95177 (URN)10.1109/ojies.2022.3230214 (DOI)000910528700002 ()2-s2.0-85146236310 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 775970
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-01-09 (hanlid);

Funder: ERA-Net SES 2018 (RegSys)

Available from: 2023-01-06 Created: 2023-01-06 Last updated: 2024-01-09Bibliographically approved
4. Microcomputer Prototyping of IEC61850-9-2 with Performance Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microcomputer Prototyping of IEC61850-9-2 with Performance Analysis
2023 (English)In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), IEEE, 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2023
Series
IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communications, ISSN 2373-6836, E-ISSN 2474-2902
National Category
Computer Sciences Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems; Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103538 (URN)10.1109/SmartGridComm57358.2023.10333923 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180812125 (Scopus ID)978-1-6654-5557-2 (ISBN)978-1-6654-5556-5 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), October 31 - November 3, 2023, Glasgow, United Kingdom
Funder
Vinnova, 2022-03002
Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-01-12Bibliographically approved
5. Towards the Automatic Transformation of the SIMULINK Model into an FPGA-in-Loop System and its Real-Time Simulation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards the Automatic Transformation of the SIMULINK Model into an FPGA-in-Loop System and its Real-Time Simulation
2024 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Information is a key component of progress. Industry 4.0, and especially the future Industry 5.0, is closely related to the topic of the Digital Twin, where virtual components interact with each other. The main advantage of such a system is that it can fully mimic the behaviour of the complicated system, including various unexpected perturbations such as noise, jitter, delays, etc. Thus, the ability to create complex models and run them in real-time is a basic need for extending the Digital Twin. One of the major problems in the development of digital twins is the increasing complexity of the models. Therefore, large processing capacities and parallel computation become critical. The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a type of hardware that best fits this task. The FPGA-in-the-loop (FiL) can be considered as the container for running the Digital-Twin model. The transformation of a digital model into FiL is known and used by many companies at this time. However, the authors found that there are no publicly available model-to-FiL transformation methods. In this paper, the authors aim to fill this gap. We first discuss the major design challenges of a FiL system and provide recommendations to overcome them in the form of a road map. We then demonstrate a step-by-step process for converting a simple MATLAB/SIMULINK model to a FiL system using the proposed road map. Finally, we will demonstrate the validation process of the designed FiL systems and prove that they are running in real-time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2024
Keywords
FPGA-in-the-Loop, Digital Twin, Real-Time Simulator
National Category
Computer Systems
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103539 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2024.3359918 (DOI)2-s2.0-85186083263 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2022-03002
Note

Full text license: CC BY NC-ND

Available from: 2024-01-09 Created: 2024-01-09 Last updated: 2024-03-11

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