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Tribological and Mechanical Performance of Thermoplastic Composites: Effect of Cryogenic Aging and Testing-Environment
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements. CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Portugal.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8025-5104
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105597ISBN: 978-91-8048-589-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-8048-590-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-105597DiVA, id: diva2:1860995
Public defence
2024-09-03, E632, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-27 Created: 2024-05-27 Last updated: 2024-06-18Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Structural, thermal, and mechanical characterisation of PEEK-based composites in cryogenic temperature
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural, thermal, and mechanical characterisation of PEEK-based composites in cryogenic temperature
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2023 (English)In: Polymer testing, ISSN 0142-9418, E-ISSN 1873-2348, Vol. 125, article id 108139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal, thermo-mechanical and mechanical properties of four different commercially available polyetheretherketones (PEEK) based materials were investigated. PEEK matrix was either modified and/or reinforced with carbon fibres, graphite and/or PTFE. Impact strength was measured at three different temperatures: 25 °C, −100 °C, and −195 °C. At 25 °C, thermal stability and mechanical properties, including the elastic modulus, compression, and impact strength, were enhanced with the addition of carbon fibres. Matrix modification had a minor impact on thermal stability, while the mechanical properties decreased, except for impact strength. At −100 °C, the mechanical properties of the neat polymers were improved, including increased impact strength by 20% compared to values at 25 °C. Addition of fillers hindered the rise of impact strength due to complex mechanisms caused by different coefficients of thermal expansion of reinforcements and matrix. At −195 °C, the significant increase of impact strength was revealed for unmodified PEEK reaching 30 times higher values than at 25 °C, while matrix modification suppressed the rise of impact strength. The scratch test indicated the superior behaviour of unfilled PEEK during the tested load range (up to 15 N), while the effect of the fillers was observed at much lower load threshold of 7 N.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Cryogenic temperature, Fractography, Impact behaviour, Polymer-matrix composites (PMCs), Thermal properties
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Polymer Technologies
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99484 (URN)10.1016/j.polymertesting.2023.108139 (DOI)001048242600001 ()2-s2.0-85164561685 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 860246
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-11 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-08-11 Created: 2023-08-11 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
2. Effect of cryogenic aging and test-environment on the tribological and mechanical properties of PEEK composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of cryogenic aging and test-environment on the tribological and mechanical properties of PEEK composites
2024 (English)In: Tribology International, ISSN 0301-679X, E-ISSN 1879-2464, Vol. 194, article id 109554Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated mechanical and tribological properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and PEEK composites, before and after aging in liquid nitrogen for 5 months. Tribological tests conducted at 25 °C and at − 100 °C in air and in high vacuum (10−5 Pa) environment revealed the effect of matrix modification, fillers, environment, temperature, and cryogenic aging on their performances. Cryogenic aging of the polymers resulted in cryogenic embrittlement and decrease of the fracture toughness by around 10% and increase of wear rate by at least 20%. Very low coefficient of friction (0.02) was achieved in cryogenic vacuum environment for carbon fiber, graphite, and PTFE reinforced PEEK. The results indicate the significant impact of aging, temperature and environment on PEEK and its composites.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2024
Keywords
Cryogenic aging, PEEK composite, Tribology, Vacuum
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104894 (URN)10.1016/j.triboint.2024.109554 (DOI)2-s2.0-85187960018 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2024;Nivå 2;2024-04-05 (marisr);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-03-26 Created: 2024-03-26 Last updated: 2024-05-27Bibliographically approved
3. Cryogenic cyclic aging effect on thermal, mechanical and tribological performance of PEEK-based materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cryogenic cyclic aging effect on thermal, mechanical and tribological performance of PEEK-based materials
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
PEEK composite, tribology, cryogenic temperature, cryogenic cyclic aging
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105594 (URN)
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-27
4. Impact of test-environment and cryogenic aging on mechanical properties and tribological performance of PI-based materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of test-environment and cryogenic aging on mechanical properties and tribological performance of PI-based materials
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study investigates the effect of test-environment, temperature, and cryogenic aging in liquid nitrogen for 5 months on mechanical and tribological performance of polyimide (PI) and PI composites. Tribological tests were conducted at 25 °C in air, and at both 25 °C and -100 °C in a high vacuum (10-5 Pa) environment. Impact of cryogenic aging, testing condition on PI-based materials varied depending on the polymer structure and composition. Cryogenic aging led to embrittlement, increasing the coefficient of friction and wear rate up to 77% and 165%, respectively. Some polyimides exhibited the lowest coefficient of friction (0.04) in vacuum at 25°C, while the temperature reduction to -100 oC in vacuum generally decreased the tribological performance, increased contact stresses and abrasive wear of the materials. 

Keywords
polyimide, vacuum, cryogenic temperature, cryogenic aging
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105593 (URN)
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-27
5. Influence of cryogenic cyclic aging on thermal, mechanical and tribological performance of PI-based materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of cryogenic cyclic aging on thermal, mechanical and tribological performance of PI-based materials
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
PI composite, tribology, cryogenic cyclic aging, vacuum
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105595 (URN)
Available from: 2024-05-24 Created: 2024-05-24 Last updated: 2024-05-27

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