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  • 1.
    Abdullah Abkar, Mahdi Mohammed
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia.
    Yunus, Riduan
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, 86400, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Albaom, Mohammed Abdo
    Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia.
    Enhancing construction site performance through technology and management practices as material waste mitigation in the Malaysian construction industry2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 7, article id e28721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry, increasingly prioritizing sustainability, necessitates an exploration of technology and management's role in mitigating material waste at construction sites. This study examines the impact of 3R, IBS, BIM, and MMA in enhancing Construction Site Performance (CSP) in the Malaysian construction sector. Seven hypotheses were formulated to assess the relationship between technology adoption, material management practices, and the moderating influence of Material Management Adoption (MMA) on CSP. Data were collected through an online survey from 295 valid responses in the Malaysian construction sector, focusing on professionals involved in solid waste management. Utilizing Partial Least Squares - Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), the findings highlight the importance of technological integration, efficient material management, and competitive strategies in effective material waste mitigation. Furthermore, the qualitative aspect of the study, conducted among 6 solid waste organizations in Malaysia, enriches the findings by providing nuanced insights into local practices and challenges. Emphasizing the importance of contextual insights, the study addresses professionals involved in solid waste management within the Malaysian construction industry. The geographical specificity adds depth to the analysis, offering a comprehensive understanding of regional dynamics. Despite acknowledging limitations in technology and material usage, the study offers recommendations for refining waste mitigation and improving construction site performance. This research model offers actionable insights for construction site stakeholders, emphasizing the criticality of waste mitigation and CSP. The results, both quantitative and qualitative, underscore the potential of these practices within the Malaysian construction industry to foster innovation and drive positive change.

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  • 2.
    Abkar, Mahdi Mohammed Abdullah
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Yunus, Riduan
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Al-Shameri, Ahmed Saleh Ahmed Saif
    Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Harouache, Ahmed
    Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), Johor, Parit Raja, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia.
    An empirical investigation of automation technology as material waste mitigation measure at Johor construction sites2023In: Frontiers in Built Environment, E-ISSN 2297-3362, Vol. 9, article id 1232195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation technology in the construction industry is the use of advanced tools, devices, and processes that reduce manual labor and enhance efficiency in various construction activities. Automation technology can minimize waste, optimize resource utilization, and reduce the environmental impact of construction processes. This study aims to examine the relationship between automation technology adoptions (ATAs) utilizing reduce, reuse, and recycle (3R), building information modeling (BIM), industrialized building systems (IBSs), green building index (GBI), and Internet of Things (IoT) practices toward construction site performance (CSP) to measure their influences on material waste mitigation measures at Johor construction sites. To achieve these goals, five hypotheses were developed to explore the association between ATA and CSP. Data were gathered utilizing an online survey. The participants were contractors and expert practitioners in the Johor construction industry, including architects, project managers, and academicians/researchers. A total of 257 valid responses were used to investigate the assumptions. The partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) procedure was used. The findings revealed that ATA utilizing 3R, BIM, IBS, GBI, and IoT as material mitigation measures positively enhances CSP.

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  • 3.
    Abkar, Mahdi Mohammed Abdullah
    et al.
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    Yunus, Riduan
    Faculty of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    Harouache, Ahmed
    Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Al-Shameri, Ahmed Saleh Ahmed Saif
    Faculty of Technology Management & Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor, Malaysia.
    The adoption of automation technology for the mitigation of material waste on construction sites in the Malaysian construction industry2024In: International Journal of Construction Management, E-ISSN 1562-3599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction business has always been at the forefront of technological advancements, and this trend has only accelerated in recent years as one of the important contexts among the other numerous new technologies. The current study aims to examine the relationship between Automation Technology Adoptions (ATA) and Construction Site Performance (CSP) and their influence on material waste mitigation measures in Johor construction sites. Data was gathered utilizing an online survey method, with the participants from the Johor construction industries representing contractors and experts. A total of 257 responses were valid to investigate the assumptions of the validations, and ‘Partial Lease Square - Structural Equation Modeling’ (PLS-SEM) procedure has been used. The adopted model may be used to help construction site managers and workers understand the importance of the ATA, CSP, and their utilization as material waste management approaches. The obtained results emphasize the relevance of automation technology adoption for mitigating construction material waste in construction sites with such a clear significance and clarity under the use of automation in construction sites. These findings will assist construction professionals to manage their materials on the job site and complete their projects.

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  • 4.
    Agrawal, Dhiraj
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Hingna Road, Wanadongri, Nagpur, 441110, India.
    Waghe, Uday
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Hingna Road, Wanadongri, Nagpur, 441110, India.
    Ansari, Khalid
    Department of Civil Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Hingna Road, Wanadongri, Nagpur, 441110, India.
    Amran, Mugahed
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 11942, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia; Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and IT, Amran University, 9677, Amran, Yemen.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Department of Civil Eng., School of Eng., Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500, Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Alluqmani, Ayed E.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic University of Madinah, Madinah, 41411, Saudi Arabia.
    Thakare, Nitin
    Department of Civil Engineering, G. H. Raisoni Institute of Engineering and Technology, Nagpur, 441110, India.
    Optimization of eco-friendly concrete with recycled coarse aggregates and rubber particles as sustainable industrial byproducts for construction practices2024In: Heliyon, E-ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 10, no 4, article id e25923Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this technology era, sustainable construction practices have become quite imperative. The exploration of alternative materials to reduce the environmental footprint is of paramount importance. This research paper delves into an exhaustive investigation concerning the utilization of recycled coarse aggregates (RCA) and rubber particles (RP) in concrete. It contributes to the growing body of knowledge aimed at fostering sustainable development in the construction industry by reducing waste, promoting recycling, and mitigating the environmental footprint of building materials. The objective of the study is to evaluate the potential benefits and limitations associated with incorporating these materials, thereby providing a sustainable alternative to conventional concrete. In this research, construction and demolition waste were recycled and used as RCA as a fractional switch of natural coarse aggregate (NCA) from 0% to 100%, with an increment of 20% replacement of NCA in concrete. The RP received from discarded tires generated as automobile industry waste were used as a volumetric fractional substitution of sand in concrete from 0% to 20%, with a 5% increment. No pre-treatment for RCA and RP was carried out before their utilization in concrete. A total of 26 mixes, including control concrete without NCA and RP, with a design strength of 40 MPa, were prepared and tested. Concrete mixes were examined for workability, density, mechanical, and durability properties. It was found that the concrete with 60% RCA and 10% RP showed satisfactory results in evaluation with the strength parameters of control concrete, as the compressive strength obtained for this concrete mix is 40.18 MPa, similar to the control mix. The optimization for RCA and RP was conducted using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The major concern observed was a rise in water absorption with an increase in the percentage replacement of NCA and natural sand by RCA and RP. Findings from the investigation illustrate a promising prospect for the use of RCA and RP in concrete applications, displaying competent mechanical properties and enhanced durability under certain conditions, offering a viable option for environmentally friendly construction practices. However, the research also sheds light on some constraints and challenges, such as the variability in the quality of RCA and the necessity for meticulous quality control to ensure the reliability and consistency of the end product. It is discerned that further refinement in processing techniques and quality assurance measures is pivotal for mainstream adoption of RCA and RP in concrete construction.

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  • 5.
    Aho, Joel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Användning av 5D-BIM för planering av både industriellt och traditionellt byggande2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BIM – Building information modelling is used today by architects, structural engineers,contractors and property owners among others. BIM is a tool where a 3D-model of the projectcan be used as a source of information.When the 3D-model contains measurements/quantities and types of material it becomes apowerful tool when doing cost estimations/quantity takeoffs and production planning. The usageof BIM-models for these activities is a relatively new way of working and there are very fewstandards and proven methods. To have use of the BIM-model it also takes an implementation ofcost estimate- and planning programs that supports the use of BIM. Also, there are no standardsor guidelines for the configuration of the BIM-model.Research show that the use of BIM-models in quantity takeoff and production planning is bothtime-saving and more cost efficient then the use of the traditional ways where 2D-CAD drawingswith included descriptions is the only source of information. Earlier reports and master thesis’salso show how 5D-BIM is used today and how it can be implemented for companies with eitherindustrial- or more traditional concepts. 5D-BIM is a method where beyond the 3D-model, timeand cost are also included as dimensions 4, and 5.This report aims to evaluate under what conditions an implementation of 5D-BIM is possible fora contractor with a concept that includes both industrial- and traditional building, and alsoevaluate the possibilities and problems that occur during implementation. The use of BIM differsbetween industrial “off-site construction” and traditional “on site construction”. The author ofthis thesis therefor wants to study a company with a concept that includes both industrial andtraditional practices and also evaluate what information is requested in the BIM-model.An explorative case study has been conducted at a partially industrial contractor that produceshouses. The method 5D-BIM has been implemented and current workflow has been studied thrumodel configuration-, cost estimation to production planning. The study of the current workflowis the foundation for the implementation of 5D-BIM and the evaluation of § model configuration.The study shows how 5D-BIM as a method can be implemented for a company that has both onandoff site construction as a concept, and used to increase predictability in the projects.

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  • 6.
    Alanne, Kari
    et al.
    Aalto University.
    Schade, Jutta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Martinac, Ivo
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Saari, Arto J.
    Aalto University.
    Jokisalo, Juha
    Aalto University.
    Kalamees, Targo
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Economic viability of energy-efficiency measures in educational buildings in Finland2013In: Advances in Building Energy Research, ISSN 1751-2549, E-ISSN 1756-2201, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The economic viability of novel energy-efficient design concepts has been evaluated in Finnish educational buildings. The total energy consumption of representative target buildings with each design concept has been found using the whole-building simulation tool IDA Indoor Climate and Energy 4.0, and the financial viability has been assessed using the discounted payback period method. Different thermal insulation and air tightness properties of the building envelope, and different ventilation's heat recovery efficiency assumptions and heat distribution options have been investigated. The results suggest that a prudent attitude should be taken toward the investments in ultra-low-energy designs. Total energy-saving potential of 25-32% can be obtained. The payback periods varied from 15 to more than 40 years. The results can be generalized in cold climates and techno-economic conditions similar to Finland

  • 7.
    Aldenlöv, Jens
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    Söderholm, Peter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Gustavsson Kärrbom, Tina
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Public procurement of railway infrastructure maintenance: a literature review2017In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Buser, M; Lindahl, G; Raisanen, C, Lyngby: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, p. 10-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance of railway infrastructure has in several instances been changed from government-based to being based on public procurement, with varying degrees of flexibility for the contractor to design their maintenance work. The purpose of-giving contractors a larger freedom of choice of how to perform maintenance is to stimulate them to innovate and develop their maintenance processes. Since the contracts differ in between and there are changes in government policies over time that affects both existing and new contracts, a comparison between different contracts becomes challenging. A literature review has been conducted to understand the change in procurement strategy and how to encourage contractors to innovate. The research questions include: What procurement strategies are there? How is maintenance evaluated? How does procurement affect the innovation opportunities for entrepreneurs? The literature review focuses on railway maintenance and contract design between client and contractor. In total, 17 articles matched the search criteria and were selected for the review. To have successful maintenance service, five articles suggested partnering as a strategy with common goals in combination with good communication during the entirety of the contract. When selecting incentive plan, four articles mentions that a focus on performance-based incentives in combination with risk management is better rather than actual payment schemes. The reason being that payment is often the main cause of conflicts between client and contractor. The scientific literature suggests that improvement in incentives improves quality of maintenance, decreases delays and technical failures. The conclusion from the literature review is that partnering in railway maintenance is considered successful. With accurate knowledge about railway assets the incentive plan becomes accurate which reduces costs. The literature review is a part of a research project with an overall goal to develop a model to guide the selection of appropriate type of procurement strategy, contract and control of maintenance for a more sustainable railway system.

  • 8.
    Al-Gburi, Majid
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Jonasson, Jan-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Reducing Thermal Crack Risks Caused by Restraint in Young Concrete - A Case Study on Walls of Water Tanks2022In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 41-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete cracks in structures such as water tanks and nuclear power stations cause anxiety to owners, contractors and engineers. These cracks may significantly increase the structure’s permeability and thus increase leakage, reduce durability, and eventually lead to loss of structural functionality. Therefore it is important to minimize their occurrence and size. To identify effective ways of minimizing cracking in young concrete segments, a parametric study was conducted using the finite element method (FEM). Parameters considered include casting sequence, joint position, wall height, and cooling. The study examined continuous and jumped casting approaches to the casting of a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank for a sewage-treatment plant, with and without the application of the ‘kicker’ technique in which the lower part of the wall is cast with the slab. The main cause of cracking is thermal change and restraint imposed by adjacent older structures, and the FEM predictions agree well with experimental observations. Continuous casting is most effective at minimizing cracking because it creates only two contact edges between newly cast and existing structures producing the lowest level of restraint. The kicker technique is shown to be very effective for reducing restraint and consider rephasing.

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  • 9.
    Al-Sarafi, A. H.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Alias, A. H.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Jakarni, F. M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Shafri, H. Z. M.
    Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Building Information Modelling: Challenges, Benefits, and Prospects for Adoption in Developing Countries2023In: International Conference on Information Systems and Intelligent Applications: ICISIA 2022 / [ed] Mostafa Al-Emran; Mohammed A. Al-Sharafi; Khaled Shaalan, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 551-566Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the fast-expanding construction industry worldwide, building information modelling (BIM) is a robust process. However, to date, developing countries are not very well adopting the techniques proven to help significantly produce effective management of construction projects. This study reviews numerous current studies conducted on the challenges and benefits of adopting BIM. It aims to identify the challenges and benefits of BIM. Additional focus was given to developing countries since fewer documented articles were found in the literature. However, many challenges are identified which hinder BIM adoption to full potential, particularly in developing countries. The most common findings proposed five critical benefits of BIM adoption, namely: i) improved data management (rich) information; ii) improved visualization of project execution; iii) clash detection; iv) reducing waste in the material; v) reducing the financial risk associated with the project in order by obtaining earlier reliable cost estimates. Likewise, the most common findings defined five major BIM adoption obstacles are: i) resilience to change industry culture; ii) high Investment cost; iii) lack of client demand; iv) absence of stakeholder collaboration; v) lack of awareness. It was found that there is a considerable benefit gained by those construction organizations already practicing the information modelling. Most of the organizations that adopted BIM are situated in European countries, followed by the united states of America. Thus, future work should focus on how to raise the level of awareness and general adaptability, especially in developing nations.

  • 10.
    Alva, Vennström
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Säkerställa vätgassäkerhet genom användning av hållbar glutenplast: En laborativ och teoretisk studie om egenskaper hos olika kombinationer av glutenplast2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 11.
    Anders, Viking
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Institutional complexity in Swedish built environment regulation: exploring the interface with industrialized house-building2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrialized house-building movement has emerged as aresponse to recurring criticism of the construction sector. It seeks toemulate management practices prevalent in manufacturing industries,including the use of standardized work processes and building systems.This approach does, however, make industrialized house-buildingcontractors susceptible to unpredictable variations. Swedish localplanning authorities have a legal and democratic mandate to regulatethe built environment within its borders and views variations betweendifferent municipalities as a desirable consequence of a functional localdemocratic system. Meanwhile, industrialized house-buildingcontractors have highlighted variations in regulation of the builtenvironment as obstructive to their intended methods of managing thebuilding process. The aim of this thesis is to increase understanding ofhow local planning authorities make interpretations when regulatingthe built environment and how those interpretations influenceindustrialized house-building contractors and to, within the ongoingresearch process, identify theoretical perspectives suitable for describingtensions in the interface between industrialized house-building andlocal planning authorities. The theoretical frame of reference for thisthesis consists of two major streams of organizational literature:organizational coordination, operationalized though the concept ofcoordination mechanisms, and neo-institutional theory, operationalizedthrough institutional logics and institutional complexity. Theoverarching research strategy is best described as a case study approachinvestigating cases of institutional complexity in regulation of theSwedish built environment. The design consists of one multi-casestudy relying on interviews with representatives of industrializedhouse-building contractors and local planning authorities and onesingle-case study investigating a longitudinal land development processusing a combination of interviews, direct observations and documentanalysis. Findings indicate that local planning authorities faceinstitutional complexity stemming from three semi-compatibleinstitutional logics that each prescribe different roles for planningpractitioners and expectations for their behaviour. As some planningpractitioners are more attuned to particular logics than others, it is difficult to predict, for each given situation, which logic will beactivated. Furthermore, findings indicate that institutional logics can beviewed as coordination mechanisms, thereby highlighting afundamental tension between the coordination preferences ofindustrialized house-building contractors and local planning authorities.This tension causes a lack of accountability, predictability and commonunderstanding resulting in an inability for industrialized house-buildingcontractors and local planning authorities to coordinate theircontributions in the planning and building process. The findings implythat industrialized house-building contractors and local planningauthorities should attempt to acknowledge each other’s participation inand contributions to the planning and building process. The findingsalso highlight the importance of interpretations for regulation of thebuilt environment, which implies that not all sector-wide problems canor need be solved through legislative action.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Lucas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Shadow effects in open cross-sections: An analysis of steel temperatures with COMSOL Multiphysics, TASEF and Eurocode2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Steel is a material commonly used in various constructions such as high-rise buildings, sport arenas, ships etc. Steel is a versatile building material due to its isotropic characteristics, e.g. both high tensile- and compressive strength. This allows steel to be formed into open section profiles which reduces material usage but simultaneously allows the tensile- and compressive stress resistance to be high in directions were loads are applied. Although steel has a high stress resistance its sensitivity to fire is larger than other building materials due to its high thermal conductivity. The strength of the material is reduced at higher temperatures and thereby makes the dimensioning of beams in fire cases vital in fire safety design of structural elements.

    An aspect to consider when dimensioning open section building elements in steel is the shadow effect. The shadow effect is the result of the open cross-section geometrical shape of beams and columns, e.g. H-profiles. The interior of the profile is screened from thermal radiation caused by fire which makes the characteristics of the thermal exposure different from closed cross-section profiles. A common way to estimate the temperatures of steel after a certain time of fire exposure is to use numerical calculations described in Eurocode. In these calculations the shadow effect is applied as a reduction of the total heat exchange, i.e. both convection and thermal radiation, from the fire exposure.

    A more realistic approach is to separate these boundary conditions and treat them as independent quantities. Wickström (2001) argues that a void is created within the flanges and that reduction factor thereby only should be applied to the radiative part of the total heat exchange, acting as a reduction of surface emissivity within the profile. This, since the convection is not affected by the shadow effect. Wickströms (2001) suggestion of application has been investigated in this thesis and has showed a better correlation than the approach suggested in Eurocode when compared to experimental tests.

    Shadow effects calculated on the premises of separated boundary conditions for the total heat exchange has of yet only been investigated in detail with TASEF+-simulations, but these simulations predicts steel temperatures with satisfactory results. It is possible to reproduce a similar setup in the program COMSOL Multiphysics in two-dimensional simulations, and further three-dimensional simulations. This possibility has been investigated in this thesis.

    COMSOL Multiphysics has proven to be an adequate tool when it comes to simulate fire exposure on slender steel beam with shadow effects considered. Both three- and two-dimensional models produced simulation results correlating well to simulations conducted in TASEF. Additionally, adequate correlations with experimental tests were obtained for COMSOL Multiphysics as well. Further work regarding fire simulations with the utilisation of COMSOL Multiphysics is thereby suggested.

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  • 13.
    Anglöv, Oliver
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Systematiskt brandskyddsarbete för badhus - en norrbottnisk jämförelse2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bränder inom verksamheter med stort antal gäster kan få förödande konsekvenser. Därför är det viktigt att brandskyddsarbetet bedrivs på ett korrekt sätt. Målet med denna studie är att undersöka det systematiska brandskyddsarbetet på några av badhusen i Norrbotten. Deltagande badhus i arbetet är avgränsat till Nordpoolens äventyrsbad i Bodens kommun, Pontusbadet och Gammelstads badhus i Luleås kommun samt Pite havsbads äventyrsbad lokaliserat i Piteås kommun. Ett systematiskt brandskyddsarbete ska bedrivas i anläggningar som bedriver verksamheter där omfattningen av brandskyddet beror på vilken typ av verksamhet som bedrivs. Det är viktigt att varje verksamhet har en brandskyddsdokumentation vilket bör innehålla tydlig ansvarsfördelning, instruktioner, utbildning, underhåll och information gällande det egna brandskyddet. Brandskyddet ska hålla tillräckligt god standard så att lagstiftningens krav gällande verksamhetens säkerhet och brandskydd uppnås. Med hjälp av enkäter, tillgång till brandskyddsdokumentation, studiebesök, intervjuer och dialoger samlas information in för att undersöka hur väl brandskyddsarbetet bedrivs och fungerar i praktiken. Med denna typ av information kan skillnader i brandrutinerna för badhusen urskiljas och eventuella förbättringsmöjligheter tydliggöras. All personal bör enligt badhusens respektive brandskyddsdokumentation bli utbildade kring verksamhetens brandskydd i samband med anställning. 24 % av enkätdeltagarna hävdar att de inte fått tillgång till varken någon teoretisk eller praktisk brandskyddsutbildning. Trots detta anser majoriteten av personalen att de har tillräckligt med kunskap för att kunna agera vid brand. Den personal som har erfarenhet av brandincidenter har aldrig varit med om att någon har blivit skadad vid ett sådant scenario. Trots att ingen har blivit skadad tycker hela 90 % av deltagarna i enkäten att fler brandskyddsutbildningar bör genomföras för att känna sig trygga i brandskyddet. Brandskyddet och rutinerna är väldigt lika mellan badhusen som deltar i studien. Det som skiljer dem åt är att Bodens badhus har ett räkningssystem medan Luleå inte har något sådant system. Det rekommenderas att det finns ett räkneverk tillgängligt vid entrén för att säkerställa att antalet badgäster inte överstiger det antal badhuset är dimensionerat för. Om antalet gäster inte går att bekräfta går det inte heller att säkerställa att kraven kring Lagen om skydd mot olyckor (2003) och Arbetsmiljölagen (1977) uppfylls eftersom antalet gäster då kan vara mer än vad badhuset är dimensionerat för. Det finns ett antal förbättringsmöjligheter inom badhusverksamheternas brandskyddsarbete. I Luleå rekommenderas det att ett räkningssystem installeras. Även flerspråkiga utrymningslarm rekommenderas så att utländska gäster förstår vad de ska göra vid utrymning. Fler brandskyddsutbildningar är även ett önskemål men med fler utbildningar är det inte säkert att kunskapen blir bättre. För att kunna bekräfta att personalen besitter god kunskap kan kunskapstest införas. Genom godkända kunskapstest kan brister och osäkerhet inom personalens kunskap undvikas. Studiens resultat tyder på att det teoretiska brandskyddsarbetet för badhusen bedrivs på en tillfredställande nivå. Detta eftersom det finns tydliga instruktioner gällande brandskyddskrav samt att det finns tillgång till en god brandskyddsdokumentation. Däremot finns det brister i det praktiska brandskyddsarbetet eftersom det är 24 % avdeltagande personal som inte fått någon brandskyddsutbildning.

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  • 14.
    Anheim, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Entreprenörens lärande: drivkrafter för lärande i och mellan projekt2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kostnaderna i byggsektorn har ökat jämfört med andra industrier i Sverige. Under 90- talet gjordes flera försök att sänka kostnadsnivån. För att företagen i branschen skall bli mer lönsamma kan systematiskt lärande vara en faktor. Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att öka förståelsen för hur en utförare av byggnadsverk skall kunna lära av de erfarenheter som görs i byggprojekt och hur dessa lärdomar skall kunna användas i framtida projekt. Forskningsprojektet har utförts genom litteraturstudier, fallstudier av två byggprojekt samt benchmarking med ett stort industriföretag utanför byggsektorn. Studierna har genomförts inom ramen för Competitive Building i syfte att svara på forskarfrågorna; "Hur tar en entreprenör tillvara på och lär sig av erfarenheter som görs i ett byggprojekt?" och "Hur påverkar strategiska drivkrafter entreprenörens möjlighet att lära i och mellan byggprojekt?". Forskningsmetoden som använts är huvudsakligen kvalitativ genom analys av intervjuer och observationer. Resultaten från projektet visar att entreprenörerna har svårt att lära av erfarenheter. De möjliga positiva lärandeeffekter som teamarbete, gemensamma mål, reflektion och dialog samt att öka personalens motivation för lärande ger utnyttjas inte fullt ut. Jämförelsen med industriföretaget ger flera goda exempel som skulle kunna användas i byggprojekt. I forskningsprojektet utvecklas en teoretisk modell för analys av erfarenheter. Ett teoretiskt ramverk för lärande byggt på de strategiska drivkrafterna teamarbete, gemensamma mål, dialog och reflektion samt motivation formas.

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  • 15. Apleberger, Lennart
    Betongens utmaningar: några utvecklingstendenser i byggandet1997In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 4, p. 19-21Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Man talar mycket idag om den förändringsprocess som byggbranschen genomgår. Att diskutera tendenser för branschens framtid fångar lätt intresset. Men det är en komplicerad utveckling som pågår med många osäkra variabler. Detta inlägg avser att lyfta fram de tendenser i byggandet som kan vara av särskilt intresse för betongområdet och klargöra de utmaningar som där kan uppkomma.

  • 16. Apleberger, Lennart
    Framtidens samhälle: bygg- och fastighetssektorns utmaning2005In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 4, p. 5-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17. Apleberger, Lennart
    Grundförstärkningen av Ullevi1994In: Betong, ISSN 1101-9190, no 2, p. 11-13Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett omfattande förstärkningsarbete genomföres på Nya Ullevi i Göteborg. När det är slutfört skall rockgalor kunna genomföras fullt ut igen. Det var nämligen vid en Bruce Springsteen-gala sommaren 1985 som problem med Ulleviarenan uppdagades. Den hoppande publiken fick lermassan i svängning och detta gav skadliga vibrationer i läktarkonstruktionerna

  • 18. Apleberger, Lennart
    et al.
    Cederwall, Krister
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Massiva betongkonstruktioner i varmt klimat: fältmätningar och teoretisk analys av väggsektioner : D. 1 Rapportdel1985Report (Other academic)
  • 19. Apleberger, Lennart
    et al.
    Cederwall, Krister
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Emborg, Mats
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Massiva betongkonstruktioner i varmt klimat: fältmätningar och teoretisk analys av väggsektioner : D. 2 Tabelldel1985Report (Other academic)
  • 20. Apleberger, Lennart
    et al.
    Dahlöf, Peder
    Edholm, Gillis
    Effektivare projektrelationer byggherre - entreprenör - installatör: förstudie2005Report (Other academic)
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  • 21. Apleberger, Lennart
    et al.
    Jonsson, Rolf
    Åhman, Pär
    Byggandets industrialisering: nulägesbeskrivning2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten belyser definitionsfrågor samt olika förutsättningar och utgångspunkter som behöver beaktas då man diskuterar industrialisering av byggandet. En genomgång av utvecklingsläget i byggbranschen redovisas inklusive en internationell utblick samt forskningsinsatser och utbildning. Industrialiseringsgraden och implementeringsnivån har bedömts för tio olika svenska koncept. I rapporten föreslås också prioriterade områden för fortsatta utvecklingssatsningar.

  • 22. Apleberger, Lennart
    et al.
    Nilsson, Ulla-Märta
    Markbyggande med datorstöd på arbetsplatsen1991In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 5, p. 35-37Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Aronsson Edström, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Lundberg, Oskar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Effect of infill density on mechanical and fire properties of polylactic acid composites produced by FDM 3D-printing technology2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D-printing is a new and upcoming manufacturing technique that can significantly reduce time and material losses in production. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is one of the most commonly used 3D-printing methods for processing conventional thermoplastic polymers. To reduce the printing time and usage of material via FDM technology, a user typically specifies infill density. Therefore, it is important to understand how this printing parameter affects the fire and mechanical properties of the 3D-printed object. 

    This study aims to investigate the effect of various infill densities on mechanical and fire properties of polylactic acid (PLA) composites produced by FDM 3D-printing technology. PLA composites of five different infill densities were 3D-printed: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The samples for all tests were designed in AutoCAD and then imported into the slicing software, Ultimaker Cura. The 3D-printer used for printing was the Ultimaker S3 which uses FDM technology. To test the fire and mechanical behavior of 3D-printed PLA composites three tests were conducted: cone calorimeter test, tensile test and UL-94 flammability test.

    The cone calorimeter testing was done using the incident radiation of 35 kW/m2. The results showed that the trend of HHR curves of all infill densities are akin to each other, though the peak heat release rate and total heat released increases with higher infill density. Time to ignition was also longer for samples with higher infill density. Tensile testing was conducted according to the ASTM D638 standard. The results showed that with increasing infill density mechanical properties improved, with 100% infill density having the highest tensile strength (58.15 MPa) and elastic modulus (1472.1 MPa). From the UL-94 test results no difference in flammability could be observed. Every sample had no rating, which implies that PLA specimens of all infill densities are very flammable, with long afterflame and heavy flammable dripping.

    The study concludes that among the examined infill densities, no ideal percentage of infill density could be found. Requirements based on application will determine what infill density is most appropriate. Nevertheless, the data collected can hopefully provide a useful reference in designing and manufacturing 3D-printed PLA composites. 

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  • 24.
    Ask, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Silfwerbrand, Johan
    Kungliga Tekniska högskolan.
    Thelandersson, Sven
    Lunds tekniska högskola.
    Tio år med Sveriges bygguniversitet2021In: Samhällsbyggaren, E-ISSN 2002-956XArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Atkin, Brian
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Reading, UK.
    Borgbrant, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Preface2009In: Performance Improvement in Construction Management / [ed] Brian Atkin, Jan Borgbrant, CRC Press , 2009, p. x-xiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26. Atkin, Brian
    et al.
    Borgbrant, Jan
    Proceedings of 4th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organisation: Development Processes in Construction Management. 14th-15th June 20072007Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The conference was organised by the Swedish national research and development programme for construction, Competitive Building, and the Construction Management Research Group, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.

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  • 27. Atkin, Brian
    et al.
    Borgbrant, JanLuleå University of Technology.Josephson, Per-Erik
    Construction process improvement2003Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Babic, N.C.
    et al.
    University of Maribor.
    Rebolj, D.
    University of Maribor.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Schumacher, S.
    P3 Ingenieurgesellschaft.
    InPro training environment and model based working in construction2009In: Improving Construction and Use through Integrated Design Solutions: First International Conference on CIB IDS 2009 / [ed] Kaisa Belloni; Jun Kojima; Isabel Pinto Seppä, Espoo: Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tie- ja liikennelaboratorio , 2009, p. 72-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    InPro project is European initiative which is developing a model based and collaborative way of working in early design phase in construction. To support project goals and facilitate the industrial transformation and industrial technology take-up, the project implemented tools and developed curricula and materials for training and education of management, architects, engineers, and construction workers, as well as university students. The paper presents training environment architecture with BIM laboratory that was developed to support training on model based work practices and enhancement of hands-on skills. Development process, technical solutions and experiences are described. Content of training courses and curricula is based on experiences from live project demonstrations and use cases. The paper presents one of the answers that address the problem of insufficient skills in construction industry that prevent adoption of novel methods of working and technology.

  • 29.
    Bektic, Mirsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Kalkylen under produktionsfasen: En studie om hur kalkylen används under produktionsfasen på Skanska2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 30.
    Bengtsson Hedborg, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Gustavsson Kärrbom, Tina
    KTH, Depteartment of Real Estate & Construction Management.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Innovation and Design.
    The influence of construction project actors' motivation on externally initiated systemic innovation2017In: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Construction Economics and Organization / [ed] Buser, M; Lindahl, G; Raisanen, C, Lyngby: Polyteknisk Boghandel og Forlag, 2017, p. 208-219Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanization and climate change are central challenges for urban development today, why a need for substantial innovation, e.g. systemic innovation, can be identified. The large amount of interdependent actors and their fragmented processes are among the key factors that hamper innovation in the construction industry. Two key actors in the industry, property developers and contractors, can be identified as important when developing innovation, due to their central roles in the construction project process. Therefore, it should be important to make them dedicated towards innovation, i.e. create motivation. This is in line with research on successful innovation development highlighting the importance of commitment and collaboration. A need seems to be present to create motivation towards innovation for key actors in the industry. Based on this, the purpose of this paper is to explore how motivation of key actors can influence development for systemic innovation in the construction industry. To explore this, a case study of the urban development project Stockholm Royal Seaport and its developed building logistic center was analyzed, adopting a model for receptive change context. Tentative findings suggest that actors' motivation for innovation is important for the development. Developers' possibility to influence through procurement strategies, to increase awareness and collaboration, can be used to create motivation for contractors.

  • 31. Bennitz, Anders
    et al.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Kronborg, A.
    Wahlberg, A.
    Dynamic behaviour of the Vindel River railway bridge2006In: Condition Monitoring and Diagnostic Engineering Management: COMADEM 2006: proceedings / [ed] Uday Kumar; Aditya Parida; Raj B. K. N. Rao, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2006, p. 721-729Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Railway administration has launched several projects aimed at increasing the accessibility of the railway lines in northern Sweden to meet future demands. One of these lines connects the southern and northern parts of Sweden and constitutes one of the major arteries for the transportation of heavy goods. Major investment are planned to upgrade the load bearing capacity of this railway line. The work is mainly focused on the larger structures and their dynamical properties. These properties can be used to assess existing infrastructure and to evaluate the performance. Advantages are obvious since the existing structural integrity form the base for investments in structural repair and upgrade of bridges. The Vindel River Railway Bridge situated 55 kilometers northwest of Umeå came into focus when large motion was discovered during train passages. The behaviour of the bridge crossing the river of Vindeln has been measured two times. Measurements of displacements and acceleration of the bridge during train passages has been conducted, the first measurements was done to give more experience on the motion of the bridge and to try out new sensors. The second measurement gave more information about the bridge's motion, results that could be used to calibrate a 3D FE-Model of the bridge used in the study. Based on the measurements, eigenfrequencies in the range of 0 to 8 Hz could be detected, modal shapes up to the ninth order could be extracted, deflections and transverse displacements for different sets of train and different train speeds were also found. However, new measurements are planned for this summer and will hopefully reinforce the already attained result and give answers to some of the unresolved questions.

  • 32.
    Berg, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Hur platschefens engagemang påverkar ekonomin i ett byggprojekt: Kan Lean driva engagemanget i en positiv riktning?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn har generellt sett små ekonomiska marginaler att spela på. Det medför att projektets ekonomiska styrning är en viktig del i platschefens dagliga arbete. Det har tidigare genomförts studier som visar på att företagen ofta är medvetna om vad som är karakteristiskt för projekt med goda resultat. En av anledningarna till att projekten inte uppnår det önskade resultatet kan bero på att företagen lägger större vikt vid processerna jämfört med människorna som ska utföra arbetet.

    Examensarbetet är skrivet hos Peab Sverige AB, Region Bygg Nord, Luleå, och grundar sig i ett grupparbete som genomfördes bland tjänstemännen med fokus på att identifiera de faktorer som i byggprocessen påverkade det ekonomiska resultatet. Även på Peab fanns en medvetenhet för hur arbetet ska utföras för att nå goda resultat. Det har visat sig att engagemang är en faktor som finns med i alla processteg och som påverkar arbetet. Det är där som det här arbetet tar vid. Syftet med examensarbetet är att koppla ihop projektets ekonomi med gruppens engagemang samt redogöra för hur Lean kan användas som synsätt för att driva engagemanget i en positiv riktning.

    I arbetet presenteras dels de faktorer som i produktionen påverkar ekonomin, där störst fokus hamnar på tidsplanering och uppföljning av förbrukade timmar på arbetsplatsen. I arbetet presenteras också vilka faktorer som driver engagemanget. Resultatet av detta baseras på dels den genomförda litteraturstudien men framför allt på de tre intervjuerna som genomförts med platschefer på Peab. Faktorerna som i första hand belyses är vikten av medarbetarnas känsla av delaktighet och möjlighet att påverka sin egen arbetssituation. Även den personliga utvecklingen är en påverkande faktor som uppnås när medarbetare tilldelas ett ansvar eller får uppmuntran från ledaren till det egna initiativet. Slutligen belyses även vikten av att arbeta med målsättningar i projekt, vilket bidrar till ett gemensamt synsätt och en möjlighet att skapa ett starkt lag.

    Utifrån resultatet så har Lean använts som synsätt för att beskriva hur engagemanget kan drivas i en positiv riktning och vilka tankesätt som kan omsättas till Peabs sätt att arbeta. Inom Lean är filosofin och företagskulturen grunden i ett företag. Filosofin ska speglas i alla beslut och i det arbetssätt som används. Filosofin ska även bidra till medarbetarnas engagemang eftersom medarbetarna är företagets viktigaste verktyg. Engagemanget inom Lean drivs även av det standardiserade arbetssättet som är en viktig princip inom filosofin. Resultatet visade att Peabs verksamhetsledningssystem kan liknas med ett standardiserat arbetssätt eftersom i båda fallen så är syftet att arbeta enhetligt inom företaget och möjliggöra att arbeta med ständiga förbättringar. Resultatet visade dock att Peabs verksamhetsledningssystem anpassas till varje projekt vilket försvårar möjligheten att arbeta med förbättringar.

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  • 33.
    Bergbom, Axel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Slöseri i anläggningsbranschen: En fallstudie av produktionsprocessen för vägentreprenader2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish infrastructure will receive large investments until year 2029. This leads to big opportunities for construction companies within the industry to grow and increase their profitability. To generate good profit, it is important that the available resources are used in the best possible way so waste can be minimized, and efficient processes can be achieved. Taking the sustainability aspect in consideration, 40% of the global emissions can be linked to the construction sector. In order to reduce the environmental impact and contribute to sustainable development, the construction sector needs to minimize waste and achieve efficient processes. The focus of this thesis is regarding waste within construction industry and civil engineering projects, because of the limited research conducted within the field.

     

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate waste for the production process regarding road projects. Further, their causes have also been investigated. This has been done by a case study on a construction company. By mapping the waste and their causes the aim has been to produce a recommendation to streamline the company´s operation. Further, the goal for this study has also been to contribute to the research on waste in the construction industry, with a focus towards road construction projects.

     

    An exploratory researched been used for this thesis, to achieve the aim. This to increase the understanding for the field of study. The research approach is inductive hence, the study is based on observations from interviews and focus group, to a generalization of a theoretical model. A qualitative strategy has been applied for the thesis since the aim has been to create a deeper understanding for the field of study and give the possibility to adjust the research depending on what is found in the data collection. To collect data for this thesis a literature study, interviews, focus group and qualitative secondary data has been used. Further, triangulation and review by the supervisors has been used to ensure the credibility and quality for the thesis.

     

    The study identifies waste in waiting, unnecessary transportation and improperly execution for the production process in road projects. The waste arises primarily for the activities excavation, blasting and transportation. The causes can be divided into two categories: external and internal. External causes emerge from clients, suppliers and geographical location. This in the form of long mass haul distances, resource shortage, provision of construction documents & decisions and competence & routine by the machine operators. Internal causes arise from guiding and control over the production. The proposal for the production process was developed through the software DynaRoad to be able to create a mass haul plan in order to reduce the unnecessary transports and increase the resource efficiency.

     

    The recommendation for the company where this thesis has been conducted is to put a lot of effort into their planning process. This will result in better project basis, which leads to increased efficiency when the waste can be minimized.

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  • 34.
    Berggren, Kajsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Risk management in small sized construction projects2005In: Global Perspectives on Management and Economics in the AEC Sector: Proceedings. CIB 2005 / [ed] K. Kähkönen; J. Porkka, Helsinki: Valtion teknillinen tutkimuskeskus. Tie- ja liikennelaboratorio , 2005, p. 383-393Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Berglund, Leif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Nygren, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Samuelson, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Stenberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    A Post-Analysis of the Introduction of the EU Directive 92/57/EEC in the Swedish Construction Industry2022In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU directive 92/57/EEC focuses on ensuring that health and safety-related matters are taken into consideration during every stage of construction-related work and has been introduced into the regulations of the member countries. In 2006, Sweden was tasked by the European Commission to clarify its implementation of the directive, including which management roles and responsibilities were to come into effect during both the planning and eventual execution of construction work—changes that ultimately were introduced into the national regulations in 2009. Focusing on the accident trends in the construction industry in the years immediately following these regulatory changes, we find that the new management roles and responsibilities had no apparent effect on the accident rates. Furthermore, we argue that there is a need to broaden the analysis regarding the implementation of the EU directive 92/57/EEC to also include nation-specific changes to health and safety management and policy. These qualitative studies should also include a dedicated focus on how changes to management structures and processes may affect the prevalence of occupational diseases specifically.

  • 36.
    Bergroth, Elin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Torstensson, Greta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Solar Photovoltaic Fire Risks: FE-analysis of fire exposed solar photovoltaic systems and comparison of current legislation and recommendations from different countries2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The global use of energy increases every day and to meet the growing demand, energy sources are constantly being developed to become more efficient and reliable. During the last decade, the global solar photovoltaics (PV) capacity has increased every year and in 2017, solar PV was the global leading power source of renewable energy. However, hazards and risks regarding fire have been connected to the installation and use of solar PV systems. An Italian study showed an increase of fires in solar PV systems following the increase of installed PV systems. A German report estimated that integrated solar PV systems have 20 times higher fire risk than non-integrated systems. The fire risks of solar PV systems are related to their electrical components, the fact that they produce power as long as a light source is shining and the changed fire dynamic of e.g. roofs when systems are installed. To reduce risks and create standards, several countries have legislated and published recommendations of installation and maintenance of solar PV systems. However, the regulations and recommendations vary greatly between countries and a comparison has therefore been performed in this thesis with the purpose of identifying differences. Legislation and other recommendations from four countries as well as European guidelines have been investigated and compared to see how solar PV systems are regulated. The difference between non-integrated and integrated solar PV systems has been examined as well as the fire risks connected to each system. Furthermore, the impact of solar PV systems during a fire rescue operation have been investigated. Finally, computer simulations have been performed to see what temperatures can be expected at the presence of a solar PV system at a façade. 

    The result shows a great difference in the level of details in the regulations and recommendations. Some countries have more general requirements while others are very specific in distances between PV systems and fire walls etc. The only requirement found in every countries’ regulations or guidelines is of informative signage. The requirements regarding placement of solar PV systems is also similar between the countries. Such requirements can refer to clear pathways between panels for fire fighter access and distances between modules and smoke/heat exhaust ventilation. The regulations and recommendations found are mostly for non-integrated solar PV system wherefore a suggested further work is to investigate the need for specific regulations regarding integrated systems. Another conclusion is that reports regarding integrated systems are rather common but very few experiments have been performed. A commonly mentioned aspect of fire investigations regarding PV systems is the need for professional planning and installation of the systems. Since the development of solar PV systems is highly increasing, investigations have found that low-quality components and installation faults have led to fires. 

    The computer simulations were performed using the computer code TASEF with a model representing a wall structure of an integrated PV-system. Two different fire scenarios were investigated where the first scenario represented fire exposure on the solar panel and the other scenario fire exposure within the void (created between the PV and insulation of the wall). The design fires used were the ISO 834-curve and a constant temperature of 800 °C. 

    The temperatures received in the computer simulation did not vary much between different design fires or the simulated fire scenarios. The highest temperatures were measured in the cavity of the model (between the timber studs and the insulation) and reached between 792 and 937 °C after 60 minutes. 

    The conclusions of this thesis indicate that the legislation of safety regarding solar PV system is not developing as rapidly as the development of the systems themselves. The difference and specific risks regarding non integrated and integrated PV systems also need to be further investigated, as the current state of the literature is largely unexplored. 

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  • 37.
    Bergström, Max
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Industrialiserad produktion av flervåningshus med trästomme: fallstudier av kundanpassning och processutveckling2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I och med införandet av Boverkets funktionsbaserade byggnads- och konstruktionsregler 1994 blev det åter tillåtet att bygga flervåningshus med trästomme i Sverige. Införandet av de nya reglerna innebar också en avreglering av den svenska bostadsmarknaden. Detta har inneburit att nya krav ställs på marknadsaktörerna. Kundanpassning och effektivare produktionsprocesser är två sätt för byggföretagen att möta de nya kraven. Denna forskning har med utgångspunkt från detta två syften avseende industrialiserad produktion av flervåningshus med trästomme. Det första är att utvärdera hur alternativa konstruktionslösningar avsedda att kundanpassa produkten påverkar produktionsprocessen. Det andra syftet är att utvärdera hur metoder för design och produktionseffektivisering kan tillämpas. Resultaten visar att alternativa konstruktionslösningar påverkar produktionsprocessen i begränsad omfattning om konstruktionslösningarna är anpassade till de randvillkor som den industrialiserade produktionsprocessen sätter. Resultaten visar också att metoder för design och produktionseffektivisering kan leda till en utveckling av produktionsprocessen för den industrialiserade produktionen av flervåningshus med trästomme.

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  • 38.
    Bernander, Stig
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Elfgren, Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Riverbank stability in loose layered silty clays: Comments on the North Spur Dam at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River, Labrador, Newfoundland2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The differences are outlined in landslide analysis between the classic limit equilibrium method with assumed plastic properties of the soil and a progressive analysis applying softening material properties.

    The risk for failure is studied in the dam at the North Spur riverbank ridge at Muskrat Falls in Churchill River in Labrador, Newfoundland, Canada. A sloping failure surface is much more critical than the horizontal surfaces which have hitherto been studied. Results from new analyses have now been obtained applying softening material properties probable for the ridge. The results indicate safety factors lower than 0.5, i.e. there is a high risk that the ridge will fail if the water level is raised to the proposed level.

    Three reports are appended where Stig Bernander argues in detail for the need for a proper progressive failure analysis based on measured material properties. He also proposes how such properties may be obtained and gives an example of a way to stabilize the ridge if the soil properties show a softening behaviour. Finally examples of progressive failure analyses are included using probable material properties.

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  • 39.
    Björnfot, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Application of line-of-balance and 4D CAD for lean planning2007In: Construction Innovation, ISSN 1471-4175, E-ISSN 1477-0857, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 200-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to suggest the application of the line-of-balance (LoB) scheduling technique in combination with a 4D CAD workspace model as a method to improve the management of the flow of resources through locations in construction projects, defined as work flow. Current scheduling methods fail to consistently manage work flow, which can disrupt the construction process, leading to waste such as conflicts in time and space by construction crews. Design/methodology/approach - LoB and 4D CAD are applied to a case study of multi-story timber housing project involving the construction of 95 apartments in five six-storey buildings. Based on the case study results, the benefits and limitations of the combined use of both methods are discussed. Findings - The majority of the problems experienced during the actual construction process quickly become evident from an analysis of a relatively simple LoB diagram. Furthermore, the 4D CAD workspace model provides additional insights in the scheduling of construction activities, such as workspace availability, the spatial context of workspaces and partial overlap of workspaces. Practical implications - Virtual design and construction methods based on principles from lean construction can contribute significantly to the value of the product and the elimination of waste in any construction project. Originality/value - The paper refers to the guiding principles from lean construction in relation to virtual design and construction methods, such as simulations with 4D CAD. Additional research and studies of practical applications are suggested to facilitate the combination of principles from lean construction with virtual design and construction methods.

  • 40.
    Blokpoel, Sjoerd
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Cooperation and product modelling systems2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Product modelling systems offer possibilities to that match relatively good with the needs of the construction industry. The potential benefits of the model are diverse and can be grouped in project management, communication process, organisational process and product development. The needs of the industry come from the main shortcomings in the construction industry; a lack of a common project view of the different parties involved, an inappropriate allocation of risks, firm contracts and price focussed organisations. Important consequences of these shortcomings are opportunistic behaviour, strategic communication, errors due to old, wrong or irrelevant documents, a mismatch between the client's requirements and the eventual product and time and budget exceeding projects. The application of modelling systems is not the ultimate solution because it does not focus on cooperation; solving the shortcomings of the construction sector is a relevant goal. The potentials of the models are the facilitation of open communication, configuration management, reuse of information and virtual prototyping in 4D, allowing numerous analyses on e.g. life cycle, energy use and accurate estimates of project costs. This can lead to better decision making, more insight for the client, more efficiency and better (performance) quality in a project Promising opportunities for facility management with as-build product model data could be the right initiator for a building owner. The modelling systems have prerequisites for application that are not fulfilled by the construction industry. Therefore, the potential benefits cannot be derived at the moment. Most unfulfilled prerequisites are related to the way of cooperation. New building process organisation types, like partnering, offer a better way to approach a project and a good basis to use the systems. The development of these organisation types should be integrated in the application of models because the systems could be a good tool, and maybe even an enabler. Legal issues are no roadblock for application, but need attention. The current contracts are sufficient, but need an add-on for procedures in the use of ICT. A third party should keep an encrypted logfile to ensure tracebility of changes. Model errors in exchange files can occur and cause problems. Producers of data should be responsible for the produced data and check it on consistency. Middleware is needed to exchange only core model information and to allow company based ICT systems that connect through a shared modelling system. The main strength of the application is configuration management and a database with information to improve communication. The main weakness is the lack of clear, measurable benefits and costs Key Performance Indexes (KPI's). The main opportunities are current developments in partnering, which make the application of systems better possible. Main threats are the fragmentised view in the sector, both in phases, in a project and of projects by a company and the lack of good cooperation. The first steps should be taken in an individual company; where internal benefit must be reached. ICT strategies and employee training should set a basis for changes. KPI's are needed for business justification. In cooperation, especially the search for trust is important. Research on modeling systems should focus on following actual applications and supporting a stepwise introduction, developing a proper middleware with a definition of core models and solving practical legal issues. At all time, a company's internal ICT benefit should be started with.

  • 41.
    Blokpoel, Sjoerd
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Jongeling, Rogier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Cooperation and product modelling systems2004In: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference of Product and Process Modelling in the Building and Construction Industry / [ed] Attila Dikbas; Raimar Scherer, Balkema Publishers, A.A. / Taylor & Francis The Netherlands , 2004, p. 423-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the introduction of product modelling in today's building process. The main potentials of these systems are facilitating open communication, configuration management, reuse of information, virtual prototyping in 4D and allowing numerous analyses on e.g. life cycle, energy use and accurate estimates of project costs. The modelling systems have prerequisites for application that are not fulfilled by the construction industry. Therefore, the potential benefits cannot be derived at the moment. Most unfulfilled prerequisites are related to the way of cooperation. New building process organisation types, like partnering, offer a better way to approach a project and a good basis to use the systems. The development of these organisation types should be integrated in the application of models because the systems could be a good tool, and maybe even an enabler. Legal issues are no roadblock for application, but need attention. The current contracts are sufficient, but need an add-on for procedures in the use of ICT. A third party should keep an encrypted logfile to ensure tracebility of changes. Model errors in exchange files can occur and cause problems. Producers of data should be responsible for the produced data and check its consistency. Middleware is needed to exchange only core model information and to allow company based ICT systems that connect through a shared modelling system. The main strength of the application is configuration management and a database with information to improve communication. The main weakness is the lack of clear, measurable benefits and costs Key Performance Indexes (KPI's). The main opportunities are current developments in partnering, which make the application of systems better possible. Main threats are the fragmentised view in the sector, both in phases, in a project and of projects by a company and the lack of good cooperation.

  • 42. Borgbrant, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitets nya strategi: och ett år vid avdelningen för Produktionsledning vid Institutionen för väg- och vattenbyggnad2001In: V-byggaren : väg- och vattenbyggaren, ISSN 0283-5363, no 5, p. 21-25Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 43. Borgbrant, Jan
    et al.
    Andersson, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Byggforskning: processer och vetenskaplighet1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens Byggeforksningsinstitut i Danmark, SBI, etablerade kontakt med Institutionen för Byggnadsekenomi vid Lunds Tekniska Högskola, LTH, i januari 1995. Ett gemensamt behov identifierades av utvecklade strategier och metoder för forskningsverksameheten. En seminarieserie kring forskningsmetodiska frågor startades. I ett senare skede kom även Institutionen för Väg- och Vattenbyggnad vid Luleå tekniska universitet, LTU, att engageras i arbetet. Denna rapport beskriver de tre institutionernas samarbete och det resultat som framkom. Rapporten ger en översiktlig bild av institutionernas forksningsområden, med en systematisering av centrala forskningsbegrepp. Rapporten utgör en grund för fördjupade studier i annan forskningslitteratur

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  • 44. Borgbrant, Jan
    et al.
    Andersson, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Hyreskostnad, förvaltning och produktion i harmoni1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 1990-talet har bostadsbyggandet i Sverige nästan halverats orsakat av bl.a. högt kostnadsläge. Regeringen tillsatte en byggkostnadsdelegation vars övergripande mål var att bidra till långsiktigt sänkta produktions- och förvaltningskostnader för bostäder. Målet för hyresnivån var 800 kr/m2. Byggkostnadsdelegationen önskade en redogörelse för ett nyproducerat flerbostadsprojekt, det s k Wigral 2 som lyckats nå ovanstående kostnadsmål. Luleå tekniska universitet, avdelningen för produktionsledning, fick uppdraget att utvärdera byggprojektet. I rapporten redovisas förutsättningarna för byggprojektets genomförande samt hur involverade aktörer samverkat i en gemensam ambition att minska projektets totala kostnad. Vidare beskrivs hur förvaltare och byggentreprenörer tillsammans tagit ett helhetsgrepp om projektet och tidigt involverat samtliga aktörter i byggprocessen. Valet av bygmaterial och effektiv användning av IT- hjälpmedel har tillsammans med drift- och underhållskostnader varit i fokus under projektets alla faser.

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  • 45.
    Borneblom, Oliver
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Drönare som hjälpmedel åt räddningstjänsten vid skogsbränder: En genomförbarhetsstudie om effektivare metoder för slangdragning och släckningsarbete2022Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 46.
    Brette, Albin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Mattsson, Jonathan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Införandet av digitala hjälpmedel i byggproduktion2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of digitization in the Swedish construction industry is low, especially during the production phase. Several studies show the benefits of using more digital tools, such as BIM and digital tools for case management, at the construction sites.

    As a result of the increased energy requirements and complexity, the cost of installations in buildings increases. In some cases, the costs are as much as 50-60% of the total production cost, and there are great benefits to streamline the process using digital tools such as coordination of the various work moments and case management during the production phase. Despite the opportunities and benefits that a more digital way of working can create for the construction industry, the wide-fronted introduction of digital tools does not occur in the various projects.

    By mapping challenges when introducing digital tools in the construction phase and investigating how knowledge transfer can help streamline implementation, this study aims at investigating how construction companies can increase the use of digital tools during the production phase.

    To answer the purpose of the research, a qualitative case study was conducted with a focus on installation work during the production phase. To gain a better understanding of how digital tools are introduced and spread in the construction industry, as well as highlighting the role of knowledge transfer when introducing digital tools in building production, literature from two research areas has been studied in more detail in a literature study: Diffusion of innovation, and Knowledge transfer. The literature study appears in the theoretical reference framework, which was then used as the basis for the thematic analysis that was made in the study.

    The study's conclusion presents the challenges involved in the introduction of digital tools, which are a decentralized organizational structure, short-sightedness and adjustment of digital tools. In order to streamline the introduction, experience sharing, personal support during implementation, lessons learned from pilot projects and an even distribution of individuals with digital skills are important aspects of efficiency, thus increasing the use of digital tools during the production phase.

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  • 47.
    Brodén, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring för bättre byggbarhet och planering inom byggproduktion.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens upphandlingar av projekt konkurrerar byggföretag både om att bygga billigt men också om att bygga snabbt. Därför är god byggbarhet viktigt för en effektiv planering. För att utföra ett byggprojekt gäller det att alla delar i ett projekt samverkar. Alla människor i ett projekt sitter på erfarenheter som kan hjälpa för att undvika att misstag upprepas. Erfarenheter och kunskap är informationhållare som bör spridas mellan alla aktörer i ett projekt för en god byggbarhet och planering. Att utvärdera vad som går bra men också mindre bra är viktigt för förbättringsarbete av arbetsmoment och processer.

    Arbetets studie är att granska följande delar på några projekt hos Skanska Sverige Hus Stockholm.

    • Granska hur erfarenhetsåterföring används för att förbättra byggbarhet och planering inom kommersiell byggproduktion.

    • Granska hur organisatoriskt lärande och erfarenhetsåterföring sker mellan strategisk nivå till operationell nivå.

    • Granska hur olika former för organisatoriskt lärande mellan projekt kan utvecklas för god byggbarhet och planering.

    Fokus ligger på yrkesarbetarna, grunden i ett byggföretaget, som ofta inte sitter i beslutsfattande positioner.

    Studien lyfter i vilka faktorer som främjas av organisatoriskt lärande och vad det innebär med kunskap både som individ och som en organisation. Med hjälp av erfarenheter kan en organisation växa. En organisation är uppbyggt av sina anställda och deras erfarenheter bör ses som en resurs. Byggbarhet beskrivs vara det element som kan effektiviserar projekt och kan förändras i tidigt skede genom att få in erfarenheter om fungerande eller inte fungerande arbetsmoment eller byggnadsmaterial. De personer som sitter på denna kunskap är dem som praktiskt arbetar med det varje dag, det vill säga yrkesarbetarna.

    I dagsläget är det ofta projektledningens olika medlemmar som tar beslut på egen hand, utan en praktisk kunskap. Detta framkommer i både observationerna och intervjuerna. Projektledningen har en begränsad praktisk kunskap och yrkesarbetarna känner ett utanförskap. Yrkesarbetarna har åsikter men de vet inte vem de ska vända sig till. I vissa fall antar yrkesarbetarna att ingen bryr sig om deras åsikter ändå. Det är en tråkig inställning som tyder att det organisatoriska lärandet inte märks av i organisationens grund. Däremot säger organisationens mål och visioner att arbete för att dela erfarenheter är viktigt. Detta arbete mot organisationens mål sker till största del bara på strategisk nivå och har inte nått till yrkesarbetarna på operationell nivå.

    Resultates grundstenar i detta arbete är att börja prata och lyssna på varandra. För att förstå varandra behövs information och erfarenheter spridas mellan alla anställda i organisationen. Studien visar att det behövs strukturella medel för spridning av information, dokumentation och implementering. Det måste visas från organisationens strategiska sida att all kunskap är lika värd och alla bör känna att deras erfarenhet är viktig. I dagsläget har den operationella nivån svårt att veta hur den kan påverka och resultaten visar tydligt att YA har liten påverkan i beslut för bättre byggbarhet och planering

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  • 48.
    Broström, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    5D-modellering av ett anläggningsprojekt2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att utvärdera möjligheterna med bygginformationsmodellering,

    BIM, inom anläggningsbranschen genom att skapa en fullständig

    5D-modell som beskriver ett anläggningsprojekt. BIM är i praktiken definierat

    som en dynamisk modell där man använder sig av intelligenta objekt

    istället för linjer. För att den skapade modellen ska vara användbar vid

    kalkyl- och tidplanarbete ska de skapade objekten vara sammanlänkade

    med en mängdförteckning enligt AMA Anläggning 2013. Modellen representeras

    av en nybrytning av en väg med tillhörande schakt, bankfyll, vägöverbyggnader,

    krondikning, trumläggning samt en omkoppling av en befintlig

    åkerdränering. Dessa arbetsmoment medför att 23 stycken AMA Anläggning-

    kodsatta objekt modelleras i Auto Cad. Objekten har kontrollerats i

    Sketchup Pro innan import till Vico Office.

    I Vico Office visas de skapade objekten i en mängdlista samtidigt som en 3Dvy

    är tillgänglig. Objektens mängder tilldelas en mängdförteckning skapad

    enligt kodsystemet i AMA Anläggning. I denna process skapas en länk mellan

    objekten och mängförteckningen; sker någon ändring av objekten, uppdateras

    även mängdförteckningen. En kalkyl skapas sedan genom att

    mängdförteckningen tillsätts priser och resurser med kapaciteter genom

    manuell inmatning av data. Eftersom kalkylen innehåller resurser med kapaciteter

    för respektive mängd, skapas en tidplan löpande tillsammans med

    kalkylen. Den färdiga tidplanen möjliggör en 4D-simulering där aktiviteternas

    förlopp visas i en filmsekvens. Eftersom både kalkylen och tidplanen är

    länkad till objekten såväl som mängdförteckningen är modellen dynamisk.

    Ändras något i en vy, slår det igenom i alla led.

    Studien visar att en 5D-modellering av ett anläggningsprojekt är fullt möjlig.

    Problem uppstod dock vid import av modell med komplicerade geometrier

    från Auto Cad till Vico Office. Studien visar även att BIM-objekt bör skapas

    enligt en tydlig strukturell indelning. Vid modellering av anläggningsprojekt

    bör denna indelning följa AMA Anläggning då projektdokumenten som

    används under ett projekt är indelade och styrs av detta referensverk.

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  • 49.
    Bruun, Ludvig
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Trä och betonghus ur miljöperspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en fördjupning och jämförelse av trä och betonghus utifrån miljöperspektiv med koldioxidutsläpp i fokus. Rapporten har också vidrört hur människan påverkas av att bo i respektive hustyp. Då omfattningen av detta arbete inte är tillräckligt för att göra en egen livscykelanalys har tidigare arbeten studerats och rapporten har landat i ett utredningsarbete. 

    Utifrån de analyserade livscykelanalyserna för trä och betonghus har resultatet visat att betong orsakar minst utsläpp av koldioxid. Däremot har dessa livscykelanalyser haft lite annorlunda delar beräknade och kan därför inte jämföras rakt av. Vidare måste viktiga poänger så som träets fördelar vid förbränning och dess koldioxidneutrala kretslopp tas i åtanke vid jämförelsen. En livscykelanalys består av tre olika delar där trä presterar bättre än betong i vissa avsnitt och tvärt om.

    VOC (lättflyktiga organiska föreningar) och formaldehyd har utretts i syftet av att undersöka hur människan påverkas fysiskt av att bo i respektive hus genom tidigare studier. Testerna för dessa ämnen har dock skett på andra projekt än de som rör livscykelanalysen men ger en generell uppfattning om hur vardera typ av hus beter sig. 

    Slutsatserna av arbetet har landat i att det trots allt blev väldigt jämt mellan trä och betonghus utifrån miljöperspektiv. Dock är uppfattningen att trä har övervägande fördelar då det framförallt är en förnybar resurs som är av stor betydelse. Vad som också konstaterats är att trä och betong har olika för- och nackdelar och för att bygga så miljövänligt som möjligt kan det möjligtvis vara lämpligt att dr nytta av båda materialens fördelar.

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  • 50.
    Brännström, Gustaf
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
    Maskinnyttjande inom byggproduktion: Beräkningsverktyg för ökad kontroll av maskinkostnaderna inom produktion2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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