Ändra sökning
Avgränsa sökresultatet
1234567 1 - 50 av 918
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Träffar per sida
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Författare A-Ö
  • Författare Ö-A
  • Titel A-Ö
  • Titel Ö-A
  • Publikationstyp A-Ö
  • Publikationstyp Ö-A
  • Äldst först
  • Nyast först
  • Skapad (Äldst först)
  • Skapad (Nyast först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Äldst först)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyast först)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidigaste först)
  • Disputationsdatum (senaste först)
Markera
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Abaray, Lahcen
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Development and Characterization Of Ceramic Particles Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear is a significant challenge encountered in the mining industry, affecting the durability and performance of materials. Hadfield steel has emerged as a commonly used material in this field due to its favorable properties. However, there is a persistent need to enhance its service life. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) offer a potential solution to address this issue. By reinforcingHadfield steel with ceramic particles, MMCs aim to improve the material's wear resistance and extend its operational lifespan. This study specifically investigates the potential of MMCs, reinforced with Zirconia Toughened Alumina (ZTA) particles, to enhance the performance of Hadfield steel in mining applications. Notably, ZTA particles are chosen for their exceptional wear resistance and low cost, making them an attractive reinforcement option. The mechanical behavior and properties of ZTA particle reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs) were thoroughly investigated by conducting a comprehensive analysis. This analysis encompassed adetailed examination of the microstructure, composition, distribution, as well as the bonding between ZTA particles and the metallic matrix, along with rigorous measurements of hardness and wear resistance. The findings of the study reveal that the ZTA particle reinforced MMCs exhibit a uniform dispersion of ZTA particles throughout the composite material. This homogeneous distribution contributes to notable enhancements in the average hardness of the MMCs, surpassing that of Hadfield steel alone. However, the study did not observe a substantial enhancement in the wear resistance of the material.

  • 2.
    Abuhussain, Mohammed Awad
    et al.
    Architectural Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Ahmad, Ayaz
    Department of Civil Engineering, COMSATS University Islamabad, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
    Amin, Muhammad Nasir
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia.
    Althoey, Fadi
    Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia.
    Gamil, Yaser
    Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, 47500 Bandar Sunway, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Najeh, Taoufik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Data-driven approaches for strength prediction of alkali-activated composites2024Ingår i: Case Studies in Construction Materials, E-ISSN 2214-5095, Vol. 20, artikel-id e02920Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alkali-activated composites (AACs) have attracted considerable interest as a promising alternative to reduce CO2 emissions from Portland cement production and advance the decarbonisation of concrete construction. This study describes the data-driven predictive modelling to anticipate the compressive strength (CS) of AACs. Four different modelling techniques have been chosen to forecast the CS of AACs using the selected data set. The decision tree (DT), multi-layer perceptron (MLP), bagging regressor (BR), and AdaBoost regressor (AR) were employed to investigate the precision level of each model. When it comes to predicting the CS of AACs, the results show that the AR model performs better than the BR model, the MLP model, and the DT model by providing a higher value for the coefficient of determination, which is equal to 0.91, and a lower MAPE value, which is equal to 13.35%. However, the accuracy level of the BR model was very near to that of the AR model, with the R2 value suggesting a value of 0.90 and the MAPE value indicating a value of 14.43%. Moreover, the graphical user interface has also been developed for the strength prediction of alkali-activated composites, making it easy to get the required output from the selected inputs.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Ait ouakrim, Abderrahim
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Microstructure and Mechanical Investigation ofCarbides Particles Reinforced High AusteniticManganese Steel2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to produce a metal matrix composite (MMC). This compositematerial proves highly suitable for scenarios involving abrasive wear, owing to the exceptionalhardness of carbide particles, in conjunction with the remarkable ductility and capacity for workhardening found in Hadfield steel. Therefore, the effect of WC and TiC on the microstructure,mechanical properties, and wear resistance was investigated. The X-Ray Diffraction (XRD)technique and Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy X-ray Dispersive Spectroscopy(SEM-EDS) were employed to examine the phase transformation and microstructurecharacteristics of the MMCs. The grain size of carbides was calculated using ImageJ software.The wear test was conducted using a mini jaw crusher equipped with a stationary jaw (SJ) andmovable jaw (MJ). The wear characterization involved assessing volume loss, hardness profile,and the worn surface. The microstructures showed the formation of carbides particles dispersedwithin the matrix. Compared to the hardness of the manganese steel matrix, the MMCs exhibiteda significant increase in hardness. Regarding the wear performances, the movable jaw (MJ)demonstrated greater resistance (lower volume loss) compared to the stationnary jaw (SJ), indicatingdifferent wear mechanisms between the two jaws. The worn surface exhibited a texturedappearance with visible grooves, scratches, and embedded abrasive fragments. The hardnessprofile from the worn surface towards the core displayed a gradual decrease for both the SJ andMJ, indicating the work hardening capacity of manganese steel.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Aitomäki, Yvonne
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Westin, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics.
    Korpimäki, Jani
    CSI Composites.
    Oksman, Kristiina
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Nanofibre distribution in composites manufactured with epoxy reinforced with nanofibrillated cellulose: model prediction and verification2016Ingår i: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 139, artikel-id 012011Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a model based on simple scattering is developed and used to predict the distribution of nanofibrillated cellulose in composites manufactured by resin transfer moulding (RTM) where the resin contains nanofibres. The model is a Monte Carlo based simulation where nanofibres are randomly chosen from probability density functions for length, diameter and orientation. Their movements are then tracked as they advance through a random arrangement of fibres in defined fibre bundles. The results of the model show that the fabric filters the nanofibres within the first 20 µm unless clear inter-bundle channels are available. The volume fraction of the fabric fibres, flow velocity and size of nanofibre influence this to some extent. To verify the model, an epoxy with 0.5 wt.% Kraft Birch nanofibres was made through a solvent exchange route and stained with a colouring agent. This was infused into a glass fibre fabric using an RTM process. The experimental results confirmed the filtering of the nanofibres by the fibre bundles and their penetration in the fabric via the inter-bundle channels. Hence, the model is a useful tool for visualising the distribution of the nanofibres in composites in this manufacturing process.

  • 5.
    Alagumalai, Vasudevan
    et al.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Shanmugam, Vigneshwaran
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Balasubramanian, Navin Kumar
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Krishnamoorthy, Yoganandam
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, ARM College of Engineering and Technology, Kanchipuram 603209, India.
    Ganesan, Velmurugan
    Department of Agricultural Engineering, Saveetha School of Engineering, SIMATS, Chennai 602105, India.
    Försth, Michael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Sas, Gabriel
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Berto, Filippo
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 13 7491 Trondheim, Norway.
    Chanda, Avishek
    Centre for Advanced Composite Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Impact response and damage tolerance of hybrid glass/kevlar-fibre epoxy structural composites2021Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 13, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is aimed at investigating the effect of hybridisation on Kevlar/E-Glass based epoxy composite laminate structures. Composites with 4 mm thickness and 16 layers of fibre (14 layers of E-glass centred and 2 outer layers of Kevlar) were fabricated using compression moulding technique. The fibre orientation of the Kevlar layers had 3 variations (0, 45 and 60°), whereas the E-glass fibre layers were maintained at 0° orientation. Tensile, flexural, impact (Charpy and Izod), interlaminar shear strength and ballistic impact tests were conducted. The ballistic test was performed using a gas gun with spherical hard body projectiles at the projectile velocity of 170 m/s. The pre-and post-impact velocities of the projectiles were measured using a high-speed camera. The energy absorbed by the composite laminates was further reported during the ballistic test, and a computerised tomographic scan was used to analyse the impact damage. The composites with 45° fibre orientation of Kevlar fibres showed better tensile strength, flexural strength, Charpy impact strength, and energy absorption. The energy absorbed by the composites with 45° fibre orientation was 58.68 J, which was 14% and 22% higher than the 0° and 60° oriented composites. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 6.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Development of Constituents for Multi-functional Composites Reinforced with Cellulosic Fibers2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Bio-basedcomposites are being increasingly used in applications where weight saving,and environmental friendliness is as important as structural performance. Obviously, bio-based materials have their limitations regarding durability and stability of the properties,but their potential in use for advanced applications can be expanded if they were functionalized and considered beyond their structural performance.

    Multifunctionalityincomposites can be achieved by modifyingeither of the composite constituents at different levelsso that they can perform energy-associated roles besides their structural reinforcement in the system. For the fibers, this can be done at the microscale by altering theirmicrostructure during spinning process or by applying functional coatings. As for the matrix, it is usually done by incorporating additives that can impart the required characteristics to the matrix. The nano-sized additives that mightbe considered for this objective are graphene and carbon nano-tubes. A big challenge with such materials is the difficulty to reachthe dispersionstate necessary for formation ofstable network to overcome the percolation threshold for conductivity. However, once the network is formed, the composite can have improved mechanical performance together with one or more of the added functionalities such as barrier capabilities,thermal and/or electrical conductivities or electromagnetic interference ability.

    Enormous work has been done to achieve the functionality incomposites produced with special care in laboratories. However, when it comes to mass production, it is both cost and energy inefficient to use tedious,complex methods for the manufacturing. Hence there is a need to investigate the potential of using scalable and industrial-relevant techniques and materials with acceptable compromise between cost and properties.

    The work presented in this thesis is performedwithin two projects aiming to achieve functional composites based on natural and man-made cellulosic fibers suitable for industrial upscaling. Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers (RCFs) were produced by coating them with copper by electroless coating process using commercial materials. On the other hand, commercial masterbatches based on Graphene Nano-Platelets (GNPs) were used to produce wood polymer composites (WPC) with added multifunctionality by melt extrusion process. The process is one of the conventional methods used inpolymerproductionand needsno modifications for processingfunctional composites. Both materials together can be used to produce hybrid functional composites.

    The incorporation of the GNP into HDPE has resulted in improvement in the mechanical propertiesof polymer as well as composite reinforced with wood fibers. Stiffness has increased to a large extent while effect on the strength was less pronounced(>100% and 18% for stiffness and strength at 15%GNP loading). The enhancement of thermal conductivityat higher graphene loadingswas also observed. Moreover, time-dependent response of the polymer has also been affected and the addition of GNP has resulted in reduced viscoplastic strains and improved creep behavior.

    The copper-coated cellulose fibers showed a significant increasein electrical conductivity(<1Ω/50mm of coated samples) and a potential in use as sensor materials. However, these results come with the cost of reduction in mechanical properties of fibers (10% and 70% for tensile stiffness and strength, respectively) due to theeffect ofchemicals involved in the process.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Multifunctionality and Durability of Cellulosic Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this thesis is to develop and evaluate cellulose-based fiber composites with added multifunctionality for advanced applications. In the strive towards sustainable societies and industries, materials as well as production processes need to be assessed against the sustainability criteria and selected accordingly. Cellulosic fibers reinforced polymer composites are being increasingly used in applications where weight saving, and environmental friendliness is as important as structural performance. Nonetheless, these materials have their limitations regarding durability and stability of the properties, but their potential in use for advanced applications can be expanded if functionalized and considered beyond their structural performance. Such multi-functionality of composites can be achieved by the coating of fibers and/or modifying the matrix with functional reinforcement, or by both of these routes combined. Coating of fibers and modifying the matrix with nano-reinforcement are two selected approaches for imparting functionality to the cellulosic fiber composites in the current study. 

    Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers (RCFs) were produced by coating commercial RCFs with copper via electroless plating process. Electrical conductivity and mechanical performance were evaluated, and the coated fibers were transformed into an embedded strains sensor-like assembly that could be used as structural health monitoring system in composites structures. A noticeable degradation in the mechanical strength of fibers was realized and it was attributed to the influence of the chemicals of the final plating step of process on the chains of cellulose as well as the loss of crystalline order in the RCF. 

    In order to obtain modified matrix (nanocomposites) for multifunctional wood polymer composites (WPC), the commercial masterbatches based on Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) were utilized by melt extrusion process. Effect of the processing parameters in terms of change in screw configurations and the change in composition of the constituents on the structure and mechanical performance of the nanocomposites was studied.  Results showed that there is insignificant effect of the change in the screw configuration in comparison with the effect of increasing the content of the GNPs. Stronger shear forces did not result in better dispersion of the nanoparticles. Addition of the compatibilizer, on the other hand, resulted in an adverse effect on the properties compared to the formulations where it is absent. The use of GNPs with larger aspect ratio resulted in much better improvement in the mechanical performance. Addition of the nanoparticles did not only improve mechanical performance but also resulted in increased thermal conductivity and diffusivity, especially when micro-scale reinforcement was added because of synergy between wood fibers and the GNPs. This synergy was reflected also in the significant 99% improved wear resistance and the >80% reduction in the creep strains of wood and graphene reinforced composites. 

    During the design and selection of materials, quasi-static properties are often used as a selection criterion. However, in reality structures in use are often loaded during lengthy periods of time which are followed by multiple steps of unloading/reloading, depending on the service conditions.  In such cases their time-dependent response becomes more crucial than instantaneous mechanical response. Typically, characterization of these properties requires a lot of time, but it may be significantly shortened if proper modeling and analysis are employed. The effect of addition of GNPs to the polymer and wood composites has been studied experimentally by short term creep tests. The materials showed highly nonlinear response even at very low loading stresses, but the addition of the nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the nonlinearity and in the irreversible strains due to plasticity. Modelling approaches have been used to extract parameters from experimental data that could be used in predicting long term performance using Zapas model for viscoplasticity and Schapery’s model for nonlinear viscoelasticity. 

    Overall, the results of the performed work contribute to enriching the research field with the potential the bio-based composites have to offer in the advanced application and how nano-scale reinforcement can interact synergistically with the micro-sized fibers to improve the overall performance of WPC and under different loading scenarios.  

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE SICOMP AB, Fibervägen 2, 943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mechanical Performance of PE Reinforced with Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs): Effect of Composition and Processing ParametersManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Gong, Guan
    Rise Sicomp AB, Fibervägen 2, SE-941 26 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Skylvägen 1, SE-943 33 Öjebyn, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites2020Ingår i: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, nr 9, artikel-id 2089Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 10.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Gong, Guan
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, SWEDEN.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, SWEDEN.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Swerea SICOMP AB, Box 271, SE 941 26, Piteå, SWEDEN.
    Wood Fiber Composites With Added Multi-Functionality2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are used to enhance the mechanical properties and functionality of wood plastic composite (WPC) targeting applications such as de-icing or anti-icing and fast thermal diffusivity. The GNPs are integrated into neat polymer using a masterbatch containing functionalized graphene by melt compounding through a twin-screw extruder without the use of any coupling agent or compatibilizer. The same manufacturing process (melt compounding) but with the use of compatibilizer is employed to produce WPC with nano-doped matrix. The effect of different GNP loadings (up to 15 wt.%) on morphology, crystallinity, mechanical and thermal conductivity of the nanocomposites and the WPCs was investigated. It was found that both strength and modulus of nanocomposites, in tension and bending, were increased with the addition of GNPs. With the aid of MAPE compatibilizer WPCs show higher flexural strength and modulus than neat polymer. GNP has marginal effect on the flexural stress but further increases flexural modulus of WPC. The preliminary results related to the thermal conductivity of studied materials indicate that the incorporation of GNP may be beneficial for faster and more uniform heat distribution in WPC.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    WOOD FIBER COMPOSITES WITH ADDED MULTI-FUNCTIONALITY
  • 11.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Hajlane, Abdelghani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Materials Science and Nano-engineering, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Morocco.
    Renbi, Abdelghani
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Ouarga, Ayoub
    Materials Science and Nano-engineering, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University, Benguerir, Morocco.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers by Electroless Plating2019Ingår i: Fibers, ISSN 2079-6439, Vol. 7, nr 5, artikel-id 38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous metallized regenerated cellulose fibers for advanced applications (e.g. multi-functional composites) are produced by electroless copper plating. Copper is successfully deposited on the surface of cellulose fibers using commercial cyanide-free electroless copper plating package commonly available for manufacturing of printed wiring boards. The deposited copper is found to enhance the thermal stability, electrical conductivity and resistance to moisture uptake of the fibers. On the other hand, involved chemistry results in altering the molecular structure of the fibers as is indicated by the degradation of their mechanical performance (tensile strength and modulus).

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Jantel, Ugo
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Tribological Study on Wood and Graphene Reinforced High Density Polyethylene2022Ingår i: ECCM 2022 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Composite Materials: Composites Meet Sustainability / [ed] Vassilopoulos, Anastasios; Michaud, Véronique, Lausanne: EPFL Lausanne, Composite Construction Laboratory , 2022, Vol. 1, s. 585-592Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Wear rate (WR) and coefficient of friction (COF) for high-density polyethylene (HDPE)and its composites of wood flour (WF) and/or graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are studied. Theinvestigation is performed by pin-on-disc test configuration on samples with different moisturecontents (dry, and samples saturated at RH of 33% and 79% in room temperature). The effect ofthe different scales of reinforcement (GNPs and WF) on these properties is discussed. Themorphological/microstructural changes in the materials induced by the motion in contact and/ormoisture content are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results show thatreinforcing the polymer with WF or GNPs reduces the WR significantly, compared to neat HDPE.The hybrid reinforcements contribute to maximum improvement in wear resistance (>98%) andin the reduction of COF (>11%). The improvement in the tribological behavior of bio-basedmaterials has a significant impact on sustainable development through the improved design,durability, and environmental impact.

  • 13.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Synergistic Effect of Multiscale Reinforcement on Wear of Wood Polymer Composites2022Ingår i: PolyTrib 2022, 2022, s. 34-35Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Ouarga, Ayoub
    High Throughput Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University (UM6P), Lot 660—Hay Moulay Rachid, 43150 Benguerir, Morocco.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Chouhan, Shailesh Singh
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, EISLAB.
    Landström, Anton
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Hajlane, Abdelghani
    Laboratory of Crystallography and Materials Sciences, National Graduate School of Engineering of Caen, 6 Boulevard Maréchal Juin, 14000 Caen, France.
    Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers for Multi-Functional Composites: Mechanical and Structural Investigation2021Ingår i: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikel-id 1746Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regenerated cellulose fibers coated with copper via electroless plating process are investigated for their mechanical properties, molecular structure changes, and suitability for use in sensing applications. Mechanical properties are evaluated in terms of tensile stiffness and strength of fiber tows before, during and after the plating process. The effect of the treatment on the molecular structure of fibers is investigated by measuring their thermal stability with differential scanning calorimetry and obtaining Raman spectra of fibers at different stages of the treatment. Results show that the last stage in the electroless process (the plating step) is the most detrimental, causing changes in fibers’ properties. Fibers seem to lose their structural integrity and develop surface defects that result in a substantial loss in their mechanical strength. However, repeating the process more than once or elongating the residence time in the plating bath does not show a further negative effect on the strength but contributes to the increase in the copper coating thickness, and, subsequently, the final stiffness of the tows. Monitoring the changes in resistance values with applied strain on a model composite made of these conductive tows show an excellent correlation between the increase in strain and increase in electrical resistance. These results indicate that these fibers show potential when combined with conventional composites of glass or carbon fibers as structure monitoring devices without largely affecting their mechanical performance.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Pupure, Liva
    Riga Technical University, Kalnciema Iela 6, Rīga, LV-1048, Latvia.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Analysis of long-term performance of wood polymer composites with added multifunctionality2022Ingår i: 80th International Scientific Conference of the University of Latvia - Advanced Composites and Applications: Book of Abstracts, Riga: University of Latvia , 2022, s. 9-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 16.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Time-dependent properties of graphene reinforced HDPE2019Ingår i: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Composite Testing and Model Identification: Book of Abstracts / [ed] R. Joffe; L. Pupure; J. Varna; L. Wallström, 2019, artikel-id 163Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 17.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Pupure, Liva
    Department of Structural Engineering,Riga Technical University, Rīga, Latvia.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Time-dependent properties of high-density polyethylene with wood/graphene nanoplatelets reinforcement2023Ingår i: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 44, nr 1, s. 465-479Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the long-term performance of wood fiber/high-density polyethylene (HDPE) composite is investigated by using short-term creep tests with an efficient, faster data analysis approach. Previously, it was shown that the addition of GNPs at 15 wt% into HDPE reduces the viscoplastic (VP) strain developed during 2 h creep by ~50%. The current study shows that 25 and 40 wt% wood content in HDPE reduce the VP strains developed during 2 h creep time by >75% with no noticeable effect of the increased wood content. However, further addition of GNPs results in more than 90% total reduction in the VP strains. The current study shows that the development of the VP strains in the hybrid composites follows Zapas model. Viscoelastic (VE) response of these composites is nonlinear and thus is described by Schapery's model. Parameters for VP and VE models are obtained from the creep experiments and were validated in a separate loading-unloading test sequence. Results show a very good agreement between experiments and predictions for the studied materials as long as the micro-damage is not present.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Riga Technical University, Institute of Construction and Reconstruction, Riga, Latvia.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE SICOMP AB, Composite materials and product development, Piteå, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Maskinelement.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Time‐dependent properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced high‐density polyethylene2021Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, nr 30, artikel-id 50783Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of polymers at constant applied stress is one of their major drawbacks, limiting their use in advanced applications. The study of this property using classical techniques requires extensive testing over long periods of time. It is well known that reinforced polymers show improved behavior over time compared to their neat counterparts. In this study, the effect of adding different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the time‐dependent properties of high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) is investigated using short‐term creep tests and load/unload recovery tests. The results are discussed in terms of the test profile and the influence of loading history. Viscoplasticity/viscoelasticity analysis is performed using Zapas model and by comparing creep, creep compliance and pure viscoelasticity curves. The results show that the reinforcement of 15 wt% GNP have the most significant effect on the time‐dependent behavior, reducing the strain by more than 50%. The creep compliance curves show that nano‐reinforced HDPE behaves nonlinearly viscoelastically even at very low stresses. In addition to demonstrating the effect of nano‐reinforcement, the discussion of the results concludes that the influence of loading history can be quite significant and should not be neglected in the design and evaluation of material behavior.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Sott, Richard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mölndal, 431 22, Sweden.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mölndal, 431 22, Sweden.
    André, Alann
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Mölndal, 431 22, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Performance of recycled glass fibers from composite parts by different treatments2022Ingår i: ECCM 2022 - Proceedings of the 20th European Conference on Composite Materials: Composites Meet Sustainability / [ed] Vassilopoulos, Anastasios; Michaud, Véronique, Lausanne: EPFL Lausanne, Composite Construction Laboratory , 2022, Vol. 6, s. 77-84Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, glass fibers have been retrieved from decommissioned composite parts by three different methods. Namely, (i) pyrolysis, (ii) a novel solvolysis and (iii) a combination of solvolysis followed by pyrolysis. The techniques allowed successful recovering of sufficiently long fiber bundles (> 30 mm) that enabled separating single fibers for manual handling and testing. Single fiber tensile tests were performed to evaluate the efficiency of different recovery methods to preserve properties in comparison to the virgin fibers. The mechanical test results revealed that the stiffness of the recovered fibers has not been affected by the treatments. On the other hand, around 45% of the fiber’s strength was retained after the solvolysis process which is a comparable value to that found in literature. 

  • 20.
    Almgren, Karin M
    et al.
    STFI-Packforsk AB, Box 5604, SE-114 86 Stockholm.
    Gamstedt, Kristofer
    Department of Fiber and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology - KTH.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Contribution of wood fiber hygroexpansion to moisture induced thickness swelling of composite plates2010Ingår i: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 31, nr 5, s. 762-771Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main drawbacks of wood fiber-based composite materials is their propensity to swell due to moisture uptake. Because the wood fibers are usually the main contributor to hygroexpansion, it is of interest to quantify the hygroexpansion coefficient of wood fibers, to compare and rank different types of fibers. This investigation outlines an inverse method to estimate the transverse hygroexpansion coefficient of wood fibers based on measurements of moisture induced thickness swelling of composite plates. The model is based on composite micromechanics and laminate theory. Thickness swelling has been measured on polylactide matrix composites with either bleached reference fibers or crosslinked fibers. The crosslinking modification reduced the transverse hygroexpansion of the composites and the transverse coefficient of hygroexpansion of the fibers was reduced from 0.28 strain per relative humidity for reference fibers to 0.12 for cross-linked fibers.

  • 21.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    Mechanical Department, Institute of Technology-Baghdad, Foundation of Technical Education.
    Failure Impact Energy in Curved Composite Plates2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of low velocity impact characteristics of curved composite plates have been presented. The plates represent parts of car's bumpers with radii of curvature of 120mm,200mm, 300mm, 450mm and infinity.

    Two types of composite materials are used, unidirectional 0° and woven 0°/90° types with five layers of 3mm thickness and ten layers of 6mm thickness of each type.

    The results showed that larger plates curvatures can absorb more impact energy and the ten layer woven 0°/90° composite are superior to similar unidirectional 0° composite. On the other hand the five layer unidirectional 0° plates are superior in absorbing energy compared to similar woven 0°/90° plates.

    An investigation of the failure patterns and development for both types of composite has been presented and discussed.

    The effects of multi-strike on the energy absorbtion of both type of composite have showed different pattern of energy absorbtion behavior.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Numerical stress analysis in hybrid adhesive joint with non-linear materials2018Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents systematic numerical study of stresses in the adhesive of a single-lap joint subjected to various loading scenarios (mechanical and thermal loading). The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the main material and geometrical parameters determining performance of adhesive joint for the future analysis of failure initiation and development in these structures.

    The first part of the thesis deals with development of a 3D model as well as 2D model, optimized with respect to the computational efficiency by use of novel displacement coupling conditions able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates). The model takes into account the nonlinearity of materials (adherend and adhesive) with geometrical nonlinearity also accounted for. The parameters of geometry of the joint are normalized with respect to the dimensions of adhesive (e.g. thickness) thus making analysis of results more general and applicable to wide range of different joints. Optimal geometry of the single-lap joint is selected based on results of the parametric analysis by using peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer as a criteria and it allows separation of edge and end effects. Three different types of single lap joint with similar and dissimilar (hybrid) materials are considered: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). The influence of the abovementioned parameters is carefully examined by analyzing peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer. Discussion and conclusions with respect to the magnitude of the stress concentration at the ends of the joint overlap as well as overall level of stresses within overlap are presented. Recommendations concerning use of nonlinear material model are given.

    The rest of the work is related to the various methods of manufacturing of joint (curing) and application of thermo-mechanical loading suitable to these scenarios. The appropriate sequences of application of thermal and mechanical loads for the analysis of the residual thermal stresses developed due to manufacturing of joints at elevated temperature required to cure polymer (adhesive/composite) are proposed. It is shown that the most common approach used in many studies of simple superposition of thermal and mechanical stresses works well only for linear materials and produces wrong results if material is non-linear. The model and simulation technique presented in the current thesis rectifies this issue and accurate stress distributions are obtained. Based on the analysis of these stress distributions the following conclusions can be made: joint processing at elevated temperature causes high stresses inside the adhesive layer; the residual thermal stresses will reduce the peel stress concentration at the ends of overlap joint and the shear stress within the overlap, moreover, this effect is more pronounced for the case of the one-step joint manufacturing in comparison with two-step processing technique.

    This study has generated a lot of results for better understand of behavior of adhesive joints and it will help in design of stronger, more durable adhesive single-lap joints in the future.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres J.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Numerical analysis of stresses in double-lap adhesive joint under thermo-mechanical load2021Ingår i: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 233, artikel-id 111863Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study for the double-lap adhesive joint made of similar adherends subjected to tensile and thermal loads is presented. A novel displacement coupling conditions which are able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates) are used to build a comprehensive numerical model. Two types of double-lap joints are considered in this study: metal–metal and composite-composite. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: unidirectional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/−45]S and [90/45/0/−45]S). The effect of different parameters (adherend stiffness, ply stacking sequence, adherend thickness, one-step or two-step manufacturing of the joint) on peel and shear stress distribution in the middle of the adhesive is studied. The comparison of the behaviour of single-lap and double-lap joint in relation to these parameters is made. The maximum peel and shear stress at the ends of the overlap with respect to the axial modulus of the adherends are presented in a form of the master curves. The analyses of results show that: the maximum peel and shear stress concentration at the overlap ends is reduced with the increase of the axial modulus of the adherend; the stress distribution in the adhesive layer can be improved (lower stress concentrations and level-out the curve) by changing the fibre orientation (which affect the stiffness) in plies connected to the adhesive layer.

  • 24.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres J.
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Numerical stress analysis for single-lap adhesive joint under thermo-mechanical load using non-linear material2020Ingår i: The 3rd International Conference on Sustainable Engineering Techniques (ICSET20), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2020, artikel-id 012070Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A comprehensive stress analysis by means of Finite Element Method (FEM) for single-lap joint subjected to thermal and mechanical loads is presented in this paper. Simulation is used to predict the effect of residual thermal stresses (caused by difference of temperature of use and elevated temperature during the assembly of the joint) on stress distribution within adhesive layer. The residual thermal stresses are assigned to joint members as initial condition before the mechanical load is applied. The FEM model employs linear and nonlinear material model and accounts for geometrical nonlinearity. It is confirmed that the difference between the manufacturing and the ambient temperature results in high residual thermal stresses, especially in axial and lateral directions of the joint. The calculation of total stress as superposition of thermal and mechanical stresses works only for linear materials. Moreover, simultaneous application of temperature and mechanical load (applied strain in case of displacement controlled test) in FEM produces inaccurate results, since in real situation the strain is applied to already thermally loaded structure. It is also found that the residual thermal stresses may reduce the peel and shear stress concentration in the adhesive at the ends of overlap and the shear stress within the overlap.

  • 25.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres J
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Institute of Technology, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Numerical stress analysis in adhesively bonded joints under thermo-mechanical loading2020Ingår i: Advances in Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 1687-8132, E-ISSN 1687-8140, Vol. 12, nr 10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of residual thermal stresses, arising after assembling a single-lap joint at elevated temperature, on the inelastic thermo-mechanical stress state in the adhesive layer. The numerical analysis (FEM) employing linear and non-linear material models, with geometrical nonlinearity accounted for, is carried out. Simulating the mechanical response, the calculated thermal stresses are assigned as initial conditions to polymeric, composite and metallic joint members to reflect the loading sequence where the mechanical strain is applied to cooled-down structure. It is shown that the sequence of application matters and simulations with simultaneous application of temperature and strain give different result. Two scenarios for adhesive joints with composites are studied: joining by adhesive curing of already cured composite parts (two-step process) and curing the adhesive and the composite simultaneously in one-step (co-curing). Results show that while in-plane stresses in the adhesive are higher, the peaks of out-of-plane shear stress and peel stress (most responsible for the joint failure) at the end of the overlap are reduced due to thermal effects. In joints containing composite parts, the one-step joining scenario is more favorable than the two-step. The ply stacking sequence in the composite has significant effect on stress concentrations as well as on the plateau value of the shear stress in the adhesive.

  • 26.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres Jabar
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Comprehensive numerical analysis of stress state in adhesive layer of joint including thermal residual stress and material non-linearity2021Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this work is to improve understanding of the stress state in the adhesive layer of bonded joints and identify key parameters which govern performance of adhesive joints. This information is crucial for the prediction of the failure initiation and propagation with the further estimation of the durability and strength of adhesively bonded structures.

    A systematic numerical analysis of stress state in the adhesive layer of a single-lap and double- lap joint under various loading conditions (thermal and mechanical loading) and an alternative methodology to predict the direction for crack propagation within adhesive layer are presented in this thesis.  To identification of the most important parameters of joints is done based on the assessment of the peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer. The thermal residual stresses arising after assembling of joints at elevated temperature are accounted for in the analysis.

    Initially, accurate, realistic 3D finite element model with novel boundary conditions (displacement coupling) was developed and validated. The employed boundary conditions allow to eliminate the edge effect and simulate the behavior of an infinite plate of composite laminate with off-axis layers (monoclinic materials). It is also possible to decouple the edge effects induced by the finite specimen width from the interaction with ends of the joint overlap region. Due to these advanced setting it is possible to eliminate influence of some of the parameters as well as to reduce geometry of the model without losing precision. Thus, the model is optimized with respect to the number of elements as well as element size distribution and does not require excessive computational power to obtain accurate stress distributions even near to the possible sites with stress perturbations (e.g. corners, cracks, etc). Additionally to the geometrical parameters, various material models have been employed in simulations of adhesive joints. A linear and non-linear material models (adherend and adhesive) was used for the single-lap joint, while a linear material behavior was considered for double-lap joint. The geometrical non-linearity was also included in the analysis whenever required. To make results more general and applicable to a wide range of different joints the normalized (with respect to the thickness of adhesive layer) dimensions of joints were used. 

    Depending on the analyzed type of joint (single- or double- lap), combination of similar and dissimilar (hybrid) materials for adherends are considered: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of the composite adherend (carbon and/or glass fibers) different laminate lay-ups were selected: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). 

    In general, discussion and conclusions concerning the importance of various joint parameters are based on the magnitude of the peel and shear stress concentration at the ends of the overlap. In order to identify general trends with respect to the influence of mechanical properties of adherends the master curves for shear and peel stresses are constructed and analyzed. 

    To simulate effect of the residual thermal stresses on the behavior of joints different methods for assembly of joints were considered (using dedicated adhesive or employing co-curing method). The results of this investigation lead to the conclusions that the one of the most important factors affecting the simulation results is the sequences of application of thermo-mechanical loading for different assembly methods. It is shown that simple superposition of thermal and mechanical stresses (most common approach) in the adhesive layer works properly only for linear material but it gives inaccurate results if non-linear material is considered. The thesis demonstrates the appropriate way to combine thermal and mechanical loads to obtain correct stress distributions for any material (linear and non-linear). The analysis of the influence of residual thermal stresses has shown that the peel and shear stress concentration at the ends of overlap joint and the shear stress within the over-lap region are reduced due to thermal effect. In case of composite adherend the co-curing assembly method is more favorable (in terms of reducing stress concentrations) than using adhesive for joining the materials.

    Finally, the simulation of the crack propagation within the adhesive layer for the bi-material (steel and composite) DCB sample with thick adhesive layer was carried out. The alternative to traditional fracture mechanics approach is proposed for the prediction of the crack path in the adhesive layer: a maximum hoop stress criterion. The hoop stress on the perimeters of a relatively large circle around the crack tip is evaluated to predict the direction of the crack extension with respect to the existing crack. The fracture mechanics is used to validate this approach and it is proved that if the Mode I is dominant for the crack propagation the hoop stress criterion be successfully used to predict crack path in the adhesive layer. This methodology is much more effective (in terms of required time and resources) than energy release based criterion or even X-FEM.

    The main result of this thesis is a tool to obtain accurate stress distributions in the adhesive layer of joints. This tool provided better understanding of the behavior of adhesive joints and allowed to develop new approach for prediction of crack propagation in the adhesive layer. This is definitely a development in the design of stronger, more durable adhesive joints for lighter structural components.   

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Institute of Technology, Middle Technical University, Baghdad.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Swerea SICOMP AB.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    FEM analysis of stresses in adhesive single-lap joints with non-linear materials under thermo-mechanical loading2018Ingår i: ECCM18, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents comprehensive numerical stress analysis in the adhesive layer of a single-lap joint subjected to various loading scenarios (mechanical and thermal loading). For this purpose numerical model (finite element method) with novel displacement coupling conditions able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates) has been developed. This model includes nonlinear material model and geometrical nonlinearity is also accounted for. The effect of thermal residual stresses (in adhesive) is analysed for various methods of manufacturing of single lap joint. The sequences of application of thermal and mechanical loads for the analysis of the thermal residual stresses in joints are proposed. It is shown that the most common approach used in many studies of linear superposition of thermal and mechanical stresses works well only for linear materials and produces wrong results if material is non-linear. The present study demonstrates suitable method to apply combined thermal and mechanical loads to get accurate stress distributions. Based on the analysis of these stress distributions the conclusions concerning the effect of the thermal residual stresses on peel and shear stress concentrations are made. The comparison between effect of thermal stresses in case of the one-step and two-step joint manufacturing techniques is made.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Institute of Technology / Baghdad, Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap. Swerea SICOMP AB, Piteå, Sweden.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Investigation of end and edge effects on results of numerical simulation of single lap adhesive joint with non-linear materials2018Ingår i: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 87, s. 191-204Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents systematic numerical study of stresses in the adhesive of a single-lap joint with the objective to improve understanding of the main material and geometrical parameters determining performance of adhesive joints. For this purpose a 3D model as well as 2D model, optimized with respect to the computational efficiency by use of novel displacement coupling conditions able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates), are employed. The model accounts for non-linearity of materials (adherend and adhesive) as well as geometrical non-linearity. The parameters of geometry of the joint are normalized with respect to the dimensions of adhesive (e.g. thickness) thus making analysis of results more general and applicable to wide range of different joints. Optimal geometry of the single-lap joint allowing to separate edge effect from end effects is selected based on results of the parametric analysis by using peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer as a criterion. Three different types of single lap joint with similar and dissimilar (hybrid) materials are considered in this study: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). The influence of the abovementioned parameters on peel and shear stress distributions in the adhesive layer is examined carefully and mechanical parameters governing the stress concentrations in the joint have been identified, this dependence can be described by simple but accurate fitting function. The effect of the used material model (linear vs non-linear) on results is also demonstrated.

  • 29.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Model for numerical simulation and parametric analysis of composite adhesive joints under thermo-mechanical loading2017Ingår i: ICCS20: Proceedings : 20th International Conference on Composite Structures / [ed] Antonio J.M. Ferreira, W. Larbi, J.F. Deu, F. Tornabene, N. Fantuzzi, Paris: Società Editrice Esculapio, 2017 , 2017, , s. 662s. 234-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The current investigation focuses on development and verification of a modelfor numerical simulation of performance of adhesive joints under tensile loading. Differentcombination of materials in joints is considered: metal-metal, composite-composite andcomposite-metal. The objective of this paper is to present simulation results of joints usingan accurate finite element model including non-linear behaviour and large deformation.Moreover, several loading scenarios are analysed, including simultaneous application oftemperature and mechanical load. Not only the effect of temperature on mechanicalperformance of materials (adhesive as well as adherents) is analysed but also built up ofresidual thermal stresses during the manufacturing of joints are taken into account. Thisapproach is demonstrated by simulation of tensile tests of joints at several temperatures.Two scenarios of application of temperature and mechanical load using large deformationtheory are considered: 1) the thermal and mechanical loads are applied simultaneously (theproperties of the materials are adjusted accordingly to their performance at differenttemperatures); 2) temperature is applied on specimen which is not macroscopicallyconstrained and the obtained stress distribution is used as initial state for the nextsimulation of mechanical loaded joint. The influence of edge effects (due to limited widthof the joint) on the stress distribution within the joint are studied. In order to eliminatethese effects the periodic boundary conditions (BC) are used in the numerical model.These BC are adjusted to optimize numerical model and obtain efficient calculation routinefor analysis of stresses within interior part of the structure. The validity of these BCs isevaluated and verified by analysing number of case studies. The comparison between full3D FEM model and simplified 2D model is carried out. The resulting stress distributions inthe overlap region of joints are presented for different joints (the parameters are: materialcombinations, material models, geometry of adhesive layer, constraints and BCs) withcomprehensive analysis and recommendations for optimal numerical model that can beused in joint design.

  • 30.
    Al-Ramahi, Nawres
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Varna, Janis
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Numerical stress analysis in adhesive joints under thermo-mechanical load using model with special boundary conditions2019Ingår i: 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Engineering Techniques (ICSET 2019)6–7 March 2019, Baghdad, Iraq, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 3, artikel-id 032061Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A numerical study of the adhesive joint made of similar and dissimilar adherends subjected to thermo-mechanical loading is presented. A comprehensive numerical model was used for this purpose with the novel displacement coupling conditions which are able to correctly represent monoclinic materials (off-axis layers of composite laminates). The geometrical nonlinearity as well as nonlinear material model are also taken into account. Three different types of single-lap and double-lap adhesive joints are considered in this study: a) metal-metal; b) composite-composite; c) composite-metal. In case of composite laminates, four lay-ups are evaluated: uni-directional ([08]T and [908]T) and quasi-isotropic laminates ([0/45/90/-45]S and [90/45/0/-45]S). This paper focuses on the parameters which have the major effect on the peel and shear stress distribution within adhesive layer at the overlap ends. The comparison of behaviour of single- and double- lap joints in relation to these parameters is made. The master curves for maximum stress (peel and shear) at the ends of the overlap with respect to the bending stiffness and axial modulus of the adherends are constructed by analysing stress distributions in the middle of the adhesive. The main conclusions of this paper are: the maximum peel stress value for SLJ is reduced with increase of the adherend bending stiffness and for DLJ, similar behaviour was observed at the end next to the inner plate corner, while, at the end next to the outer plate corner peel stress is reduced with increase of adherend axial modulus.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Alvarez Mate, Ferran
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Microstructure and Mechanical Investigation of Reinforced Hadfield Steel2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 32.
    Aminoroaya, Alireza
    et al.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    Esmaeely Neisiany, Rasoul
    Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar, 9617976487, Iran.
    Nouri Khorasani, Saied
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    Panahi, Parisa
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, 84156-83111, Iran.
    Das, Oisik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Byggkonstruktion och brand.
    Madry, Henning
    Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University and Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrbergerstr. Bldg 37, D-66421, Homburg, Saar, Germany.
    Cucchiarini, Magali
    Center of Experimental Orthopaedics, Saarland University and Saarland University Medical Center, Kirrbergerstr. Bldg 37, D-66421, Homburg, Saar, Germany.
    Ramakrishna, Seeram
    Centre for Nanofibers and Nanotechnology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore, 117575, Singapore.
    A review of dental composites: Challenges, chemistry aspects, filler influences, and future insights2021Ingår i: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 216, artikel-id 108852Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resin-based dental composites are promising tooth-resembling materials in restorative dentistry. The limited longevity of dental composite restorations due to the bulk/marginal fracture and secondary caries as well as possible health risks are the critical challenges faced by such materials. Therefore, developments of resin-based dental composites received considerable attention in academic researches for clinical applications. A comprehensive review of the recent developments in the scientific literature on resin-based dental composites is presented in this article. Firstly, in the article, the challenges in dental composites are introduced and then the chemical aspects of the systems are classified through a review of employed resins. Subsequently, the different characteristics related to the fillers employed for the development of the resin-based dental composites are described. Finally, conclusions are drawn and future insights are proposed. This article provides an insight that paves the way for tailoring and designing resin-based dental composites for clinical applications.

  • 33.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Estimation of the tensile strength of an oriented flax fiber-reinforced polymer composite2011Ingår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 42, nr 9, s. 1229-1235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Unidirectional orientation of natural fibers in a polymer composite ensures the highest efficiency of reinforcement. Flax fiber reinforcement is discontinuous due to limited fiber length and heterogeneous due to the presence of elementary fibers and their bundles. In order to assess the upper limit of tensile strength of such slightly misoriented, nominally UD natural fiber composite, a statistical strength model of continuous UD fiber reinforced composites is applied. It is found that the experimental strength of UD flax composites, produced from rovings or manually aligned fibers, approaches the theoretical limit only at relatively low fiber volume fraction ca. 0.2, being markedly below it at higher fiber content.

  • 34.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Hojo, M.
    Ochiai, S.
    Kyoto University.
    Fibre fragment distribution in a single-fibre composite tension test2001Ingår i: Composites Part B: Engineering, ISSN 1359-8368, E-ISSN 1879-1069, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 323-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Single fibre fragmentation tests are performed for brittle fibres with Weibull strength distribution and different surface treatments. The fragmentation process is modelled and closed-form expressions for break spacing distribution are obtained. The model accounts for the effect of finite fibre length on the initial fragmentation as well as for break interaction on the advanced fragmentation stage. It is assumed that the exclusion zone due to fibre-matrix interface failure and stress recovery in the fibre is linearly dependent on the applied load. This assumption is validated experimentally. The derived theoretical average fragment length dependence on applied load is used to determine the fibre strength distribution parameters and the effective interfacial shear stress for carbon/epoxy single fibre composites with different fibre surface treatment and for glass/vinylester single fibre composite. Fragment length distribution is predicted for several load levels. Predictions are in good agreement with experimental data

  • 35.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Hojo, M.
    Mesoscopic Materials Research Center, Kyoto University.
    Ochiai, S.
    Mesoscopic Materials Research Center, Kyoto University.
    Glass fibre strength distribution determined by common experimental methods2002Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 131-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tensile strength of brittle fibres is routinely described by the Weibull distribution. The parameters of the distribution can be obtained from tests on single fibres and fibre bundles or from model composite tests. However, there is growing evidence that the distribution parameters obtained by different experimental techniques differ systematically. In order to investigate the possible causes of such discrepancies, single-fibre tension, fibre bundle, and single-fibre fragmentation tests are employed in this study to obtain strength distribution of commercial E-glass fibres. The results reveal parameter dependence on the approach used to extract the distribution parameters from experimental data. Particularly, in the case of single-fibre tension tests, the shape parameter obtained from average fibre strength vs. length data is larger than that obtained at a fixed gauge length. It is assumed that the apparent fibre strength scatter is caused by both the inherent flaw structure along a fibre and by the fibre-to-fibre strength variability within a batch, due to slightly differing processing and handling history of the fibres. Fibre fragmentation test results are used to derive the Weibull distribution parameters applicable to the fibre batch. The strength distribution obtained is compared with strength data for the single fibres, and reasonably good agreement is observed.

  • 36.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Sandmark, R.
    Materials division, SINTEF SI, Russia.
    Constrained fragmentation of composites under uniaxial loading1995Ingår i: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 26-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Weichert, D.
    Institute of General Mechanics, RWTH-Aachen University.
    Modeling the effect of reinforcement discontinuity on the tensile strength of UD flax fiber composites2011Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 46, nr 15, s. 5104-5110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To exploit the potential of natural fibers as reinforcement of polymer matrix composites, aligned bast fiber composite materials are being produced and studied. Bast fiber reinforcement is discontinuous due to the limited length of natural fibers, which needs to be reflected in predictive models of mechanical properties of composites. The strength in tension in the fiber direction of an aligned flax fiber-reinforced composite is modeled assuming that a cluster of adjacent fiber discontinuities is the origin of fracture. A probabilistic model of tensile strength, developed for UD composites containing a microdefect, is applied. It follows from the theoretical analysis that the experimental tensile strength as a function the fiber volume fraction can be described with acceptable accuracy assuming the presence of a cluster of ca. 4 × 4 elementary fiber discontinuities

  • 38.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Leterrier, Y.
    École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Statistical model of coating fragmentation under equibiaxial load1998Ingår i: Materials and Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1042-6914, E-ISSN 1532-2475, Vol. 13, nr 4, s. 597-602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A statistical model of coating cracking under equibiaxial tension is proposed based on a Weibull strength distribution for the coating. Crack length and spacing distributions are derived assuming that cracks initiate in random locations and propagate straight till stopping upon encountering a geometiical obstacle (another crack). The theoretical distributions are verified by comparing with simulated cracking patterns obtained by the Monte-Carlo method. An analysis of crack patterns of SiO2 coatings on a PET film under biaxial tension is performed. Qualitative agreement with the theoretical crack spacing distribution is observed.

  • 39.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, 23 Aizkraukles iela, LV-1006 Rīga, Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå tekniska universitet. Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, 23 Aizkraukles iela, LV-1006 Rīga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Prediction of crack onset strain in composite laminates at mixed mode cracking2009Ingår i: 5th International EEIGM/AMASE/FORGEMAT Conference on Advanced Materials Research, Bristol: IOP Publishing Ltd , 2009, Vol. 5Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Failure process of continuous fiber reinforced composite laminates in tension usually starts with appearance of intralaminar cracks. In composite laminates with complex lay-ups and/or under combined loading, intralaminar cracks may develop in plies with different reinforcement directions. A necessary part of mixed mode cracking models is the criterion of failure. For propagation-controlled fracture it is usually formulated in terms of energy release rates and their critical values of the particular composite material. Intralaminar fracture toughness of unidirectionally reinforced glass/epoxy composite was experimentally determined at several mode I and mode II ratios. It is found that the crack propagation criterion, linear in terms of the energy release rates, reasonably well approximates the test results. The determined mixed mode cracking criterion was applied to predict intralaminar crack onset in cross-ply glass/epoxy composite under tensile loading. The predicted crack onset strain values agree with test results at small off-axes angles of the cracking ply (on-axis and 15° off-axis loading), but underestimate crack onset at larger reinforcement angles with respect to the loading direction. The discrepancy is likely to be caused by the deviation of linearity in laminate response before cracking onset in these laminates, related to non-linear shear characteristics of unidirectional plies. The applicability of strength-based fracture criterion for initiation-controlled cracking is discussed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Andersons, J.
    et al.
    University of Latvia, Riga.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Stiffness and strength of flax fiber/polymer matrix composites2006Ingår i: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 221-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fiber composites with thermoset and thermoplastic polymer matrices have been manufactured and tested for stiffness and strength under uniaxial tension. Flax/polypropylene and flax/maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene composites are produced from compound obtained by coextrusion of granulated polypropylene and flax fibers, while flax fiber mat/vinylester and modified acrylic resin composites are manufactured by resin transfer molding. The applicability of rule-of-mixtures and orientational averaging based models, developed for short fiber composites, to flax reinforced polymers is considered.

  • 41.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Initiation and propagation controlled intralaminar cracking in cross-ply laminates: Chapter 102010Ingår i: Encyclopedia of Polymer Composites: Properties, Performance and Applications / [ed] Mikhail Lechkov; Sergej Prandzheva, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2010, s. 477-510Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Mechanical damage characteristics of elementary hemp fibers and scale effect of fiber strength2012Ingår i: High Performance Structure and Materials VI: papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Performance Structures and Materials held at the Wessex Institute of Technology in the New Forest, UK] / [ed] W.P. De Wilde; C.A. Brebbia; S. Hernandez, Southampton: WIT Press, 2012, s. 157-167Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ecological and economical considerations foster replacement of man-made fibers by natural renewable fibers in various industrial applications. Bast fibers of such plants as, e.g., flax, hemp, jute etc., are particularly attractive as a reinforcement of polymer-matrix composites due to their high specific stiffness and strength in the axial direction. The elementary bast fibers exhibit pronounced scatter of strength. It necessitates probabilistic description of their strength via a distribution function that reflects damage morphology and severity in fibers. Fiber fracture is shown to originate from mechanical defects of the bast cell wall, the most prominent of them being kink bands. While the number of kink bands in a fiber is easily determined by optical microscopy, direct experimental measurement of their strength is complicated. Therefore, alternative approaches are sought, enabling extraction of strength characteristics of the kink bands from fiber tests via appropriate probabilistic models. Analytical distribution function of bast fiber strength has been derived, allowing for the effect of mechanical damage in the form of kink bands. The fiber characteristics measured have been used to evaluate the kink band density and strength distributions. The theoretical distribution is verified against experimental tensile strength data of elementary hemp fibers at several gauge lengths and found to provide acceptable accuracy in predicting the scale effect of strength.

  • 43.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Statistical model of the transverse ply cracking in cross-ply laminates by strength and fracture toughness based failure criteria2008Ingår i: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 75, nr 9, s. 2651-2665Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ply laminate subjected to tensile loading provides a relatively well understood and widely used model system for studying progressive cracking of the transverse ply. This test allows to identify material strength and/or toughness characteristics as well as to establish relation between damage level and the composite stiffness reduction. The transverse ply cracking is an inherently stochastic process due to the random variability of local material properties of the plies. The variability affects both crack initiation (governed by the local strength) and propagation (governed by the local fracture toughness). The primary aim of the present study is elucidation of the relative importance of these phenomena in the fragmentation process at different transverse and longitudinal ply thickness ratios. The effect of the random crack distribution on the mechanical properties reduction of the laminate is also considered. Transverse ply cracking in glass fiber/epoxy cross-ply laminates of the lay-ups [02/902]s, [0/902]s, and [0/904]s is studied. Several specimens of each lay-up were subjected to uniaxial quasistatic tension to obtain crack density as a function of applied strain. Crack spacing distributions at the edge of the specimen also were determined at a predefined applied strain. Statistical model of the cracking process is derived, calibrated using crack density vs. strain data, and verified against the measured crack spacing distributions.

  • 44.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå tekniska universitet. Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Rubenis, Oskars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Riga, Latvia.
    Progressive cracking mastercurves of the transverse ply in a laminate2009Ingår i: Polymer Composites, ISSN 0272-8397, E-ISSN 1548-0569, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 1175-1182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, progressive cracking of a transverse layer in a cross-ply composite laminate subjected to tensile loading is considered. Using the results of a probabilistic cracking model, approximate relations for crack density as a function of stress are derived for initiation-controlled and propagation-controlled cracking. It is shown that the crack density evolution in the transverse ply can be represented by a mastercurve in suitably normalized coordinates. The mastercurve approach is applied to progressive cracking in glass/epoxy laminates.

  • 45.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Rīga, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Spārniņš, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Rīga, Latvia.
    Evaluation of interfacial shear strength by tensile tests of impregnated flax fiber yarns2012Ingår i: Journal of composite materials, ISSN 0021-9983, E-ISSN 1530-793X, Vol. 46, nr 3, s. 351-357Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Adhesion of flax fibers and polymer matrix as well as mutual bonding of elementary fibers in a technical fiber are among the principal factors governing the mechanical response of flax fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites. A method for evaluation of adhesion is proposed based on tension tests of impregnated fiber yarns, with subsequent characterization by optical microscopy of length distribution of fibers pulled out of the yarn fracture surfaces. An elementary probabilistic model is derived relating aspect ratio distribution of the pulled out fibers to the fiber tensile strength distribution and the effective interfacial shear strength. The method was applied to flax fiber/vinylester resin yarns and an estimate of interfacial shear strength at 17 MPa was obtained.

  • 46.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Modniks, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    An Improved Method For Identification Of The Interfacial Shear Strength By Tensile Tests Of Short-Fiber Composites2015Ingår i: Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Composites Testing and Model Identification / [ed] C. González; C. López; J. LLorca, Madrid, Spain: IMDEA, Madrid (SPAIN) , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 47.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Modniks, Janis
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Madsen, Bo
    Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Materials Research Division, Risø National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark.
    Nättinen, Kalle
    Bemis Flexible Packaging Europe, Bemis Valkeakoski Oy.
    Apparent interfacial shear strength of short-flax-fiber/starch acetate composites2016Ingår i: International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, ISSN 0143-7496, E-ISSN 1879-0127, Vol. 64, s. 78-85Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with an indirect industry-friendly method for identification of the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) in a fully bio-based composite. The IFSS of flax fiber/starch acetate is evaluated by a modified Bowyer and Bader method based on an analysis of the stress-strain curve of a short-fiber-reinforced composite in tension. A shear lag model is developed for the tensile stress-strain response of short-fiber-reinforced composites allowing for an elasticperfectly plastic stress transfer. Composites with different fiber volume fractions and a variable content of plasticizer have been analyzed. The apparent IFSS of flax /starch acetate is within the range of 5.5 to 20.5 MPa, depending on composition of the material. The IFSS is found to be greater for composites with a higher fiber loading and to decrease with increasing content of plasticizer. The IFSS is equal or greater than the yield strength of the neat polymer, suggesting good adhesion, as expected for the chemically compatible constituents.

  • 48.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    The onset of mixed mode intralaminar cracking in a cross-ply composite laminate2008Ingår i: Mechanics of composite materials, ISSN 0191-5665, E-ISSN 1573-8922, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 549-556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The intralaminar fracture toughness of a unidirectionally reinforced glass/epoxy composite is determined experimentally at several mode I and mode II loading ratios. The crack propagation criterion, expressed as a quadratic form in terms of single-mode stress intensity factors (alternatively, linear in terms of energy release rates), approximates the test results reasonably well. The mixed-mode cracking criterion obtained is used to predict the intralaminar crack on set in a cross-ply glass/epoxy composite under off-axis tensile loading.

  • 49.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Aizkraukles iela 23, Rīga, 1006, Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Luleå tekniska universitet. Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia, Aizkraukles iela 23, Rīga, 1006, Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Uniformity of filament strength within a flax fiber batch2009Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 685-687Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Andersons, Janis
    et al.
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Sparnins, Edgars
    Institute of Polymer Mechanics, University of Latvia.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Materialvetenskap.
    Wallström, Lennart
    Strength distribution of elementary flax fibres2005Ingår i: Composites Science And Technology, ISSN 0266-3538, E-ISSN 1879-1050, Vol. 65, nr 3-4, s. 693-702Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Flax fibres, along with a number of other natural fibres, are being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative of synthetic fibres in fibre-reinforced polymer composites. A common feature of natural fibres is a much higher variability of mechanical properties. This necessitates study of the flax fibre strength distribution and efficient experimental methods for its determination. Elementary flax fibres of different gauge lengths are tested by single fibre tension in order to obtain the stress-strain response and strength and failure strain distributions. The applicability of single fibre fragmentation test for flax fibre failure strain and strength characterization is considered. It is shown that fibre fragmentation test can be used to determine the fibre length effect on mean fibre strength and limit strain.

1234567 1 - 50 av 918
RefereraExporteraLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf