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  • 1.
    Alkaradaghi, Karwan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering. Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Ali, Salahalddin Saeed
    Department of Geology, College of Science, Sulaimani University, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq. Komar Research Center, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Al-Ansari, Nadhir
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Ali, Tara
    Kurdistan Institution for Strategic Studies and Scientific Research, Sulaimaniyah, Iraq.
    Laue, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
    Quantitative Estimation of Municipal Solid Waste in Sulaimaniyah Governorate, Iraq2021In: Recent Advances in Environmental Science from the Euro-Mediterranean and Surrounding Regions (2nd Edition): Proceedings of 2nd Euro-Mediterranean Conference for Environmental Integration (EMCEI-2), Tunisia 2019 / [ed] Mohamed Ksibi; Achraf Ghorbal; Sudip Chakraborty; Helder I. Chaminé; Maurizio Barbieri; Giulia Guerriero; Olfa Hentati; Abdelazim Negm; Anthony Lehmann; Jörg Römbke; Armando Costa Duarte; Elena Xoplaki; Nabil Khélifi; Gilles Colinet; João Miguel Dias; Imed Gargouri; Eric D. Van Hullebusch; Benigno Sánchez Cabrero; Settimio Ferlisi; Chedly Tizaoui; Amjad Kallel; Sami Rtimi; Sandeep Panda; Philippe Michaud; Jaya Narayana Sahu; Mongi Seffen; Vincenzo Naddeo, Springer, 2021, p. 265-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the world’s population has grown, waste generation has increased rapidly. Solid waste management requires a greater knowledge of the composition, generation quantity, physical properties, and impacts of economic aspects. This paper clarified the status of municipal solid waste management across Sulaimaniyah governorate and presented a comprehensive overview and implication of poor solid waste management in the study area. The core aspects covered were the future estimations of the cumulative solid waste amount with population growth by 2040 using brief calculations of the waste generation rate from 2016. The results revealed that the daily per capita waste generation in the Sulaimaniyah governorate is 1.32 kg by 2040, a cumulative solid waste of about 10,445,829 tons, and an estimated volume of 9,146,368 m3 which will be required for the disposal site in the future. 

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  • 2.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bauer, Torben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekman Burgman, Linus
    Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change at Linköping University, 58183, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Fifty years of sewage sludge management research: Mapping researchers' motivations and concerns2023In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 325, article id 116412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge management is torn between a desire for pollution prevention and reuse of a valuable resource. Reconciling these interests in sustainable management is a challenge for researchers. This study focuses on how research on sewage sludge management practices has evolved and scrutinizes how this research is interlinked with concerns and societal issues such as contaminants, economic efficiency, and legislation. Based on published academic papers on sewage sludge management between 1971 and 2019, this study found four trends in research focused on sewage sludge management: a decreasing interest in disposal (landfilling and sea dumping), a dominant interest in land application, a growing interest in sewage sludge as product, and a stable interest in energy recovery. Research on disposal focuses on increasing sludge volumes, legislative changes, and economic challenges with an interest in waste co-treatment. Research on land application concerns nutrient use and contaminants, mainly heavy metals. Research on sewage sludge as a product focuses on the extraction of certain resources and less on use of sewage sludge specifically. Research on energy recovery of sewage sludge focuses on volume reduction rather than contaminants. Two-thirds of the papers are detailed studies aiming to improve single technologies and assessing single risks or benefits. As management of sewage sludge is multifaceted, the narrow focus resulting from detailed studies promotes some concerns while excluding others. Therefore, this study highlights potential gaps such as the combination of nutrient use and disposal and energy recovery and nutrient use. 

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  • 3.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Introducing hydrothermal carbonization to sewage sludge treatment systems—a way of improving energy recovery and economic performance?2023In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 170, p. 131-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can mitigate the disposal costs of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. This study analyzes the impact of integrating HTC with anaerobic digestion (AD) and combustion from a combined energy and economic performance perspective. Net energy balance and investment opportunity are investigated for a number of technical scenarios considering i) different combinations of the technologies: AD + HTC, AD + thermal dryer + combustion, and AD + HTC + combustion, ii) different options for HTC process water treatment: wet oxidation (WO) + AD, and direct return to AD, and iii) different products: heat-only, heat and electricity, hydrochar, and phosphorus.

    The results show trade-offs between investment cost, self-supplement of heat, and output electricity when WO is used. In AD + HTC, net heat output decreases compared to the reference plant, but avoided disposal costs and hydrochar revenue result in profitable investment when the process water is directly returned to the AD. Although HTC has a lower heat demand than the thermal dryer, replacing the thermal dryer with HTC is only possible when AD, HTC, and combustion are connected, or when WO covers HTC’s heat demand. HTC may impair the electricity production because of the necessity for a high-temperature heat source, whereas the thermal dryer can utilize a low-temperature heat source. In conclusion, energy advantages of HTC in AD + HTC + combustion are insufficient to provide a promising investment opportunity due to high investment costs of HTC. The investment opportunity improves by co-combustion of hydrochar and external sludge.

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  • 4.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Scenarios on Energy and Phosphorus Recovery from Mono- and Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of energy and phosphorus (P) fertilizer (PF) recovery from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) through incineration in new combustion plants. We evaluated the economic impact of five critical process design choices: (1) boiler type, (2) fuel (MSS mono-combustion/co-combustion with wheat straw), (3) production scale (10/100 MW), (4) products (heat, electricity, PF), and (5) ash destination. Aspen Plus modeling provided mass and energy balances of each technology scenario. The economic feasibility was evaluated by calculating the minimum selling price of the products, as well as the MSS gate fees required to reach profitability. The dependency on key boundary conditions (operating time, market prices, policy support) was also evaluated. The results showed a significant dependency on both energy and fertilizer market prices and on financial support in the form of an MSS gate fee. Heat was preferred over combined heat and power (CHP), which was feasible only on the largest scale (100 MW) at maximum annual operating time (8000 h/y). Co-combustion showed lower heat recovery cost (19–30 €/MWh) than mono-combustion (29–66 €/MWh) due to 25–35% lower energy demand and 17–25% higher fuel heating value. Co-combustion also showed promising performance for P recovery, as PF could be recovered without ash post-treatment and sold at a competitive price, and co-combustion could be applicable also in smaller cities. When implementing ash post-treatment, the final cost of ash-based PF was more than four times the price of commercial PF. In conclusion, investment in a new combustion plant for MSS treatment appears conditional to gate fees unless the boundary conditions would change significantly.

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  • 5.
    Bauer, Torben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Sustainable Sewage Sludge Management: Addressing Multidisciplinary Challenges2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis focuses on multidisciplinary challenges in sewage sludge management and how they can be addressed to increase sustainability. 

    Sewage sludge is the residual from wastewater treatment. It contains both resources and contaminants making its management challenging. In the past sewage sludge was often used as a fertilizer in agriculture, a practice that is still used in several countries. Today, this practice gets questioned in Europe and especially in Sweden due to the presence of contaminants in the sludge. At the same time, the resources in the sludge get into a stronger focus as society moves towards a circular economy and food production should get more resilient in a world with geopolitical challenges. In sustainable sewage sludge management, the two goals of immobilising/destroying the contaminants and utilizing the resources in the sludge are combined. 

    This thesis identifies challenges in various disciplines and provides potential solutions to make sewage sludge management more sustainable. The discussed challenges cover the following areas: legislation (EU and Sweden), perception of sewage sludge (Sweden), research on sewage sludge management (international), and combinations of treatment methods. Results show that outdated legislation in Sweden creates insecurities, while the negative perception of sewage sludge in Swedish society further aggravates these insecurities. Although technical solutions are available or under development, e.g., treatment combinations that can separate resources and contaminants, actors in Sweden remain hesitant due to the aforementioned insecurities. This thesis emphasizes that interdisciplinary approaches, and dialogues between different actor groups and society are essential. The multitude of challenges requires solutions that combine technical and non-technical approaches. Therefore, this thesis provides recommendations for more sustainable sewage sludge management practices, including updating legislation.

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  • 6.
    Bauer, Torben
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Damgaard, Anders
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Integration of hydrothermal carbonisation into Swedish sewage sludge treatment systemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage pathways for sewage sludge are changing in Sweden but in contrast to other European countries Swedish legislation has no clear aim for phosphorus recovery from sewage sludge. Therefore, options like co-incineration and agricultural usage will become more important. Previous research identified hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) as a potential treatment prior to incineration as it can help to dewater the sludge. Literature also discussed HTC as a pre-treatment for agricultural usage. This study investigates how HTC can be integrated into existing sewage sludge treatment systems using lifecycle assessments (LCA) of six archetype scenarios involving co incineration and agricultural usage of the solid product (hydrochar) of HTC. The results show that HTC can be advantageous as a pre-treatment to co incineration, especially when used before transporting the material to the incinerator. Utilizing the liquid product of HTC for biogas production reduces the climate change impacts but on the other hand increases ecotoxicity impacts. Utilizing hydrochar in agriculture as a soil amendment instead of incinerating it, does not show clear benefits over land application of sewage sludge, as hydrochar, in contrast to biochar from pyrolysis, decays in the soil within few years and is therefore not suitable for carbon sequestration.

  • 7.
    Belkow, Teresa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Reim, Wiebke
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Circularity in healthcare - A promising entrepreneurial future for changemakers2022In: Medicinteknikdagarna 2022: Abstracts, Sveriges Medicintekniska Förening , 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 8.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Alive and kicking – but will Quality Management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective2012In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to describe how Quality Management (QM) is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years. Data were collected through structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field. The results show that QM currently is perceived as consisting of a set of core of principles, methods and tools. The future outlook includes three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines.

  • 9.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Teknikens ekonomi och organisation.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Avdelningen för Kvalitetsteknik.
    Vanhatalo, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Alive and kicking–but will Quality Management be around tomorrow?: A Swedish academia perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a lack of a recognized conception of quality management (QM) comprises of, as well as a clear roadmap of where QM is heading. The purpose of this article is to investigate how QM is perceived today by scholars at three Swedish universities, but also how and into what QM is expected to develop into in twenty years.Methodology: Data have been collected through three structured workshops using affinity diagrams with scholars teaching and performing research in the QM field affiliated with three different Swedish universities.Findings: The results indicate that current QM is perceived similarly among the universities today, although the taxonomy differs slightly. QM is described as a fairly wide discipline consisting of a set of core of principles that in turn guide which methods and tools that currently by many are perceived as the core of the discipline. The outlook for the future differs more where three possible development directions for QM are seen: [1] searching for a “discipline X” where QM can contribute while keeping its toolbox, [2] focus on a core based on the traditional quality technology toolbox with methods and tools, and [3] a risk that QM, as it is today, may seize to exist and be diffused into other disciplines. Originality/value: This article contributes with a viewpoint on QM today and its future development from the academicians’ perspective.

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  • 10.
    Beryani, Ali
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Österlund, Heléne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Viklander, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Blecken, Godecke-Tobias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Rening av organiska föroreningar i dagvattenbiofilter med och utan tillsats av biokol2024Report (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Böckin, Daniel
    et al.
    Divison of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Goffetti, Giulia
    Ecodynamics Group, Department of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, 53100 Siena, Italy.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Divison of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Divison of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Business model life cycle assessment: A method for analysing the environmental performance of business2022In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 32, p. 112-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces business model life cycle assessment (BM-LCA), a new method for quantifying the environmental impacts of business models. Such a method is needed to guide business decisions towards decoupling economic activity from environmental impact. BM-LCA takes the business model itself as the unit of analysis and its economic performance as the basis of comparison. It can be applied to any type of business model involving material or resource use. In BM-LCA, monetary flows are coupled to material and energy flows. The methodology expands on conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) by elaborating the goal and scope definition and dividing it into two phases. The first descriptive phase details the business models to be compared. It includes a mapping of product chain actors and identifying business operations and transactions related to the product. The second coupling phase defines a profit-based functional unit and sets up the coupling equations expressing the economic relations to the product. Thereafter, conventional LCA procedures are followed to assess environmental impacts. The key innovation on LCA methodology is the development of a functional unit that captures the economic performance of a business model and links it to a product system. BM-LCA provides thus an important link between LCA and business competitive advantage.

  • 12.
    Chen, Yuran
    et al.
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Li, Pan
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Bu, Xiangning
    School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116, Jiangsu, China.
    Chelgani, Saeed Chehreh
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.
    Kong, Yapeng
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Liang, Xuemin
    School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China; Zhengzhou Hongyue Environmental Protection Technology Co., Ltd., Zhengzhou 450001, Henan, China.
    Resource utilization strategies for spent pot lining: A review of the current state2022In: Separation and Purification Technology, ISSN 1383-5866, E-ISSN 1873-3794, Vol. 300, article id 121816Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During a long-term operation of the aluminum electrolysis cell, the molten salts continuously infiltrate and corrode the pot lining, resulting in a huge amount of hazardous waste after the overhaul. The first cut of spent pot linings (SPL) contains several carbon-rich materials with potential economic value and hazardous matters such as soluble fluorite and cyanide. The continuous accumulation and disposal of SPL in depots or landfills have created a severe challenge to the aluminum industry. Nowadays, the technologies of harmless disposal and resource utilization of SPL have been paid more attention. This work has explored and presented the properties of SPL (including chemical, physical, and thermodynamic properties, etc.) and methods for its detoxification and purification. In this regard, the resource utilization strategies of SPL are systematically sorted out from three aspects: traditional, co-processing, and high-value technologies. In the end, the current challenges and future perspectives for the environmental recycling of SPL have been analyzed and summarized.

  • 13.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    et al.
    Digital and Circular Industrial Services (DigiCircle) Research Group, Innovation and Product Realisation research environment, Mälardalen University, Box 325, 631 05, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Kulkov, Ignat
    Digital and Circular Industrial Services (DigiCircle) Research Group, Innovation and Product Realisation research environment, Mälardalen University, Box 325, 631 05, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Parida, Vinit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Digital and Circular Industrial Services (DigiCircle) Research Group, Innovation and Product Realisation research environment, Mälardalen University, Box 325, 631 05, Eskilstuna, Sweden; Future Energy Center, School of Business Society and Engineering, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Division of Product Development, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stefan, Ioana
    Digital and Circular Industrial Services (DigiCircle) Research Group, Innovation and Product Realisation research environment, Mälardalen University, Box 325, 631 05, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Enabling battery circularity: Unlocking circular business model archetypes and collaboration forms in the electric vehicle battery ecosystem2024In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 199, article id 123044Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate this transition, firms operating in the electric vehicle (EV) battery ecosystem must reassess their value creation, capture, and delivery methods. Although EV battery second life presents a promising solution for circularity, many vehicle manufacturers and stakeholders in the battery ecosystem struggle to adapt their organizations internally and externally due to a lack of insights into suitable circular business models. The purpose of this study is to identify viable archetypes of circular business models for EV battery second life and examine their implications on company collaborations within the EV battery ecosystem. Three main archetypes of circular business models are identified (i.e., extending, sharing, and looping business models) and further divided into eight sub-archetypes. These models are elucidated in terms of key business model dimensions, including value proposition, value co-creation, value delivery, and value capture. The paper provides visual representations of the necessary interactions and collaborations among companies in the EV battery ecosystem to effectively implement the proposed business model archetypes. This research contributes to the theory of circular business models in general, with specific relevance to EV battery circularity.

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  • 14.
    de Bruin, Jenny
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Georgsson, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts.
    Value Creation, Delivery, and Capture in Circular Business Models: The Distributor's Perspective2024Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores circular business models from the perspective of distributors, focusing on how they can create, deliver, and capture value within circular supply chains. Method: This study is an exploratory case study of a leading Nordic distributor. Qualitative data were gathered through 36 interviews conducted in three phases with the distributor, six customers, and six suppliers. Thematic analysis was utilized to analyze the data.

    Findings: The results indicates that there are multiple activities distributors can conduct to create, deliver, and capture value in a circular business model. Distributors can create value through these activities: create awareness, curate and develop products, ensure compliance with legislation and coordinate partnerships. Distributors can deliver value by manage transportation, manage warehouse logistics, provide reused, refurbished, and repaired products, provide rental and leasing models, offer service agreements, and recycle products and materials. Distributors can capture value by evaluate investments and costs, create pricing strategies, implement additional revenue streams, and manage warranties.

    Managerial implications: The result of this thesis concretizes activities that distributors can incorporate within a CBM regarding circular value creation, circular value delivery and circular value capture. The activities are either categorized as unique for distributors or activities that can be managed either by distributors or other parties such as suppliers, customers, or a third party. Distributors should execute activities unique for distributors within a CBM to contribute to a CSC. Furthermore, distributors can execute activities that are not unique for distributors when applicable and determined favorable for their CBM. Additionally, the listed activities concern different departments at distributors including sustainability, sales, purchasing, logistics, and management. The different departments should bear responsibility for their respective activities.

    Theoretical contribution: This study contributes to previously unexplored area within circular business models from the distributor perspective. First, it addresses the pivotal role of distributors in fostering collaboration within the circular supply chain, demonstrating how distributors are not just participants but enablers of the flow of goods, information, and money. Distributors can manage their own CBM or contribute to another party’s CBM. Secondly, it broadens the current understanding of value creation and value delivery in a circular business model. Our findings regarding circular value creation reveal that educating customers about the benefits of circular products is essential for fostering acceptance and driving circular value creation. Our findings regarding circular value delivery reveal critical and previously underexplored challenges in the logistics processes. Distributors face significant hurdles in handling products as specific units rather than in batches, complicating reverse logistics and exponentially increasing costs.

    Limitations and future research: The exploratory nature of our study highlights the nascent understanding of CBMs for distributors. Consequently, the results of this study are indicative rather than definitive. Future research can explore diverse company sizes to enhance generalizability. Additionally, deeper investigation into specific mechanisms of value creation, delivery, and capture within circular business models is recommended. Furthermore, the concept of whether distributors should create their own CBM or contribute to another party’s CBM could be further investigated since this a concept we introduced in this thesis. Additionally, further studies could therefore consider a perspective broader range of company sizes and types, of the research. Additionally, another area for future research could involve taking a global perspective, as practices and systems related to circular activities can differ significantly between countries.

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  • 15.
    Elnourani, Mohamed
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    School of Engineering, Jönköping University, 551 11 Jönköping, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Anna Öhrwall
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Enabling Factors for Circularity in the Metal Cutting Industry - With Focus on High-Value Circular Tools2024In: Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024) / [ed] Joel Andersson; Shrikant Joshi; Lennart Malmskold; Fabian Hanning, IOS Press, 2024, p. 502-519Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal cutting industry, a key sector in manufacturing, is grappling with the transition to a "net-zero industry" to mitigate climate change and reach sustainable practices. Rare and exclusive materials make recycling and reusing cutting tools more pressing and necessitate efficient circular material flows. The purpose of this research is to explore how collaboration can facilitate circularity in the cutting tool industry. It examines the involvement of stakeholders and their roles in achieving a circular lifecycle for cutting tools. To investigate the interaction between metal cutting tools suppliers and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), this study used a mixed-methods approach that includes data from literature, interviews, and document study. Empirical data is gathered to investigate the factors driving circularity and to identify important participants in the lifecycle of cutting tools. The study revealed challenges to the current situation including underutilization of tools due to the absence of a standardization process and subjective operator judgment, as well as lack of traceability of the tools both internally at SMEs and between the stakeholders. Moreover, by mapping the current actors, the study found cutting tool traceability, undirected decision-making throughout tool lifecycles, and limited awareness of circularity dimensions are key challenges. To handle these challenges. 9Rs circular economy framework used to investigate the possible role of collaboration emerges as a vital enabler for circularity, with SMEs playing a significant role. Moreover, the involvement of machine operators, often overlooked actors, is found to be crucial in influencing circular outcomes. Digital solutions and collaborative strategies that involve CNC machine suppliers and intermittent refurbishing business are pivotal in overcoming the challenges identified, namely, traceability and human subjectivity in tool condition assessment. The study demonstrates that technology providers, intermediary refurbishing businesses, SMEs and other stakeholders operating in the metal cutting tools sector must be involved throughout their lifetime to avoid suboptimal results, exchange information, and inspire industrial actors to support the circular economy.

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  • 16.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Helin, Sven
    Handelshögskolan, Örebro universitet.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning: Grunder, praktik och funktion.2012Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här boken ger en introduktion till hållbarhetsredovisning. Boken hjälper dig att förstå bakgrunden till hållbarhetsredovisning, hur man upprättar en hållbarhetsredovisning och vilken funktion den fyller.

  • 17.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Business Studies, Uppsala University.
    Helin, Sven
    School of Business, Örebro University.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The internal significance of codes of conduct in retail companies2012In: Business Ethics. A European Review, ISSN 0962-8770, E-ISSN 1467-8608, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 263-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the significance of codes of conduct (CoCs) in the internal work context of two retail companies. A stepwise approach is used. First, the paper identifies in what way employees use and refer to CoCs internally. Second, the function and relevance of CoCs inside the two companies are identified. Third, the paper explains why CoCs tend to function in the identified ways. In both cases, the CoCs are clearly decoupled in the sense that they do not concern the immediate work context of the employees. Counter-intuitively, this facilitates the process of establishing the CoCs. Even though the CoCs are not directly relevant for the employees, they are accepted and embraced with regard to contents, focus and function. Above all, the CoCs seem to confirm and even strengthen employee identity. On the basis of these observations, it is suggested that CoCs should not only be valued in light of their direct organisational consequences or lack of such consequences. The issue is not just whether CoCs are decoupled or not. Rather, it is argued that researchers should consider more closely a two-level analysis that takes into account not only the concrete application of CoCs but also their function and meaning. An implication of this is that what might appear as a decoupled code cannot be dismissed as irrelevant to the ‘core’ business processes of the organisation.

  • 18.
    Goffetti, Giulia
    et al.
    Ecodynamics Group, Department of Earth, Environmental and Physical Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
    Böckin, Daniel
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baumann, Henrikke
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Towards sustainable business models with a novel life cycle assessment method2022In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 2019-2035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business model (BM) innovation for sustainability is hampered by a lack of tools for environmental assessment and guidance at the BM level. Conventional life cycle assessment (LCA) neglects the economic and socio-technical mechanisms within a BM, and tools based on the BM canvas (BMC) cannot provide recommendations substantiated by environmental data. Here, a new method, BM-LCA, is applied to a case comparing the selling and renting of jackets, using profit as basis of comparison. Results identify how business parameters influence environmental performance, permitting analysis for decoupling within a business practice. This is made possible by the unique way the method links physical life cycle and the monetary flows of a BM. Usefulness of BM-LCA is discussed relative to BM innovation, business strategy and similar tools. BM-LCA provides insights into a broad range of BM elements and emerges as useful for business strategy. By measuring BM environmental performance, it helps determine what BM to compete with and support critical analysis of business against greenwashing. BM-LCA also enables identification of BM elements in greatest need of environmental innovation. BM-LCA appears as a promising tool for guiding business companies towards sustainability, filling a space between LCA and BMC. The method offers a practical way for business and LCA experts to merge their respective knowledge.

  • 19.
    Helin, Sven
    et al.
    Örebro universitet.
    Frostenson, Magnus
    Örebro universitet.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hållbarhetsredovisning i svensk detaljhandel: Roll, relevant och nytta.2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En alltmer central del av företagens arbete med och kommunikation av socialt ansvar(Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR) har kommit att handla om hållbarhetsredovisning; dess roll, relevans och möjligheter. Detta projekt har därför fokuserat på hur svenska detaljhandelsföretag använder sig av hållbarhetsredovisning och hur det kan relateras till företagens interna organisatoriska hållbarhetsprocesser.

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  • 20.
    Helin, Sven
    et al.
    School of Business, Örebro University.
    Jensen, Tommy
    School of Business, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    “Like a battalion of tanks”: A critical analysis of stakeholder management2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 209-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to the literature on the political role and responsibilities of corporations. Following Deetz's (1995) critical reading of stakeholder management and a critical methodology, the paper analyses how a large Swedish corporation manages conflicting stakeholder interests and rationales in a multi-stakeholder context. Throughout the case analysis, it is suggested that the corporation reinforces what Deetz (1995) refers to as an information mode, thus effectively hindering it from reaching a communication mode in which more genuine stakeholder dialogues are performed.

  • 21.
    Jensen, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Fallstudier2016 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fallstudier är fantastiska. De visar på exemplets makt och får oss att ifrågasätta etablerade idéer och sätt att göra saker. Fallstudieforskningens utbredning är också en framgångssaga. I boken beskrivs den resan ur ett historiskt perspektiv. Genomgången utmynnar i en presentation av den rådande fallstudiepraxisen, och därmed får läsaren en konkret guide till hur en fallstudie kan planeras, genomföras och kommuniceras.

  • 22.
    Jensen, Tommy
    et al.
    Business Administration, Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    In defence of stakeholder pragmatism2013In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 225-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to defend and develop a stakeholder pragmatism advanced in some of the work by Edward Freeman and colleagues. By positioning stakeholder pragmatism more in line with the democratic and ethical base in American pragmatism (as developed by William James, John Dewey and Richard Rorty), the article sets forth a fallibilistic stakeholder pragmatism that seeks to be more useful to companies by expanding the ways in which value is and can be created in a contingent world. A dialogue between a defence company and peace and arbitration society is used to illustrate the main plot of this article

  • 23.
    Jensen, Tommy
    et al.
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Normal Deviants and Erving Goffman: Extending the Literature on Organizational Stigma2015In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 125-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper highlights two problematic tendencies in the burgeoning literature on organizational stigma.The first tendency is conceptual, where stigma is treated at the organizational level, thereby neglecting social encounters at the micro-level. As a way of remedying this, we enroll the seminal writings of Erving Goffman to situate organizational stigma in the interaction order.The second tendency is empirical, where the inclusion of actors performing stigma management is limited to managerial and organizational actors, thus neglecting many of those faced with managing orga- nizational stigma.We report from an explorative study of ordinary wage laborers in the Swedish arms and pornography industries situated toward the bottom of their organizations and referred to as ‘normal deviants’.The paper shows how and why the organizational stigma literature could be more sensitive and inclusive toward whom, how, when, and where organizational stigma is managed.

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  • 24.
    Jensen, Tommy
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Organisation och ansvar: Om hur organisatoriska processer hindrar ansvarstagande2012Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Boken är starkt kritisk till en organisationsforskning och en samhällsdebatt som hellre diskuterar organisationers legitimitet och förtroende än ansvar. När allt kommer omkring behöver varken legitimitet eller förtroende ha någonting med ansvar att göra. Det kan snarare vara så att legitima och etablerade organisatoriska processer hindrar - eller till och med motverkar - ansvarstagande. I boken lyfts dessa processer fram, tillsammans med förslag på hur man kan hantera dem och upptäcka vägar framåt.

  • 25.
    Jensen, Tommy
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Helin, Sven
    School of Business, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    One Code to Rule Them All: Management Control and Individual Responsibility in Contexts2015In: Business and Professional Ethics Journal, ISSN 0277-2027, E-ISSN 2153-7828, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 259-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about how multiple contexts influence employees’ and managers’ enactments of a standardized corporate code of ethics. An earlier local Swedish case study of how a code is enacted is extended to include enactments during business trips to Ottawa (Canada), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), and New Delhi (India). The paper shows that although the code is possible to enact as remote and insignificant (‘not relevant to me’) in the local study, when travelling to different contexts it is enacted as intrusive (affecting core operations) and fluid (highlighting seeming contradictions). The paper highlights the consequences of these enact- ments in terms of management control and individual responsibility) and suggests ways for better understanding how a code is expected to perform, meant to work and keep on working.

  • 26.
    Kasiuliene, Alfreda
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Peat Coated with Iron Oxides: Purification of Metal(loid)-Contaminated Water and Treatment of the Spent Adsorbent2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden due to the industrial activities, such as wood impregnation, multiple point sources of arsenic (As) contamination in soil and water bodies are scattered over the country. Metals, such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) or zinc (Zn) at varying concentrations are usually present as well. Since adsorption is a common method to purify contaminated water, research and development of adsorbents have been actively carried out in the last few decades. However, seldom spent sorbent is safely handled afterwards and often end up in landfill, thus creating new problems and posing new risks to humans and environment.

    The aim of this study was to develop a waste-based adsorbent for simultaneous removal of As and associated metals: Cr, Cu and Zn, and to analyse sustainable ways how to manage the spent adsorbent without creating secondary pollution.

    In the model system two well-establish adsorbents: Fe oxides (deriving from FeCl3) and peat (waste-based), were combined and the concept of simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic contaminants was tested in a batch adsorption experiment. Due to Fe coating, removal of As and Cr increased by 80% and 30%, respectively, as compared to non-coated peat. Removal of Cu and Zn was higher (up to 15%) on non-coated peat than on Fe-coated peat. Similar results were obtained in the up-scaled column adsorption experiment, where Fe salt was substituted with a waste-based Fe hydrosol. Within the same pH environment (pH=5), Fe-coated peat effectively adsorbed all four investigated contaminants (As, Cr, Cu and Zn). Non-coated peat was effective for Cr, Cu and Zn. While, Fe oxides (coated on sand) adsorbed only As.

    Three management strategies for spent adsorbents, obtained after column adsorption experiment, were investigated in this study. i) Long-term deposit in a landfill was simulated by exposing spent adsorbents to a reducing environment and evaluating metal(loid) leaching. Leaching of As increased manifold (up to 60% in a 200-day experiment) as compared to the standardized batch leaching experiment under oxidizing conditions. It was determined that about one third of As(V) was reduced to As(III), which is more mobile and toxic. ii) Valorisation of the spent adsorbent was attempted through hydrothermal carbonisation. It was expected that obtained hydrochar could be used as a beneficial soil amendment. However, treatment resulted in the process liquid and the hydrochar both having high loads of As, Cu and Zn. Additional treatment of process water and hydrochar imply higher management costs for spent adsorbents. iii) Possibility of thermal destruction was investigated by combusting spent adsorbents. After the treatment volume of the waste (ash) was by 80-85% smaller as compared to spent adsorbents. Combustion at higher temperature (1100 °C vs 850 °C) resulted into a weaker metal(loid) leaching from ashes. Furthermore, co-combustion with calcium (Ca)-rich lime (waste-based) decreased leaching of all four investigated elements, Cr in particular, below the limit values for waste being accepted at landfills for hazardous waste. Therefore, combustion enabled possibility of safe and long-term deposit of As-bearing ashes. At the same time, less As would be circulating in society. 

    For the future work, studies that could broaden the spectrum of contaminants targeted by Fe-coated peat would be beneficial. At the same time it is important not only to find alternative utilisation methods for Fe-coated peat, but also investigate other management options for the spent adsorbents.

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  • 27.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Developing lightweight concepts in the automotive industry: taking on the environmental challenge with the SåNätt project2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 66, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the all-encompassing environmental challenge facing the automotive industry the weight of the car is one essential factor that has an effect on CO2 emissions for both conventional cars and for Electric Vehicles and Hybrid Electric Vehicles. Even though automakers understand and have largely mastered the technical difficulties involved with alternatives to the all-steel body, the mainstream industry has nevertheless for the most part retained it. The purpose of this paper is to explore the SåNätt lightweight project as a concrete example of how two Swedish automakers (Saab and Volvo) have approached the lightweight challenge, but also to conceptualize the project in terms of what hinders and enables environmental innovations in the automotive industry. The result of the study indicates fundamentally different approaches between the automakers. While Saab focused on radical development of new concepts aiming to build a supplier structure for collaboration, Volvo focused on incremental development emphasizing short-term implementation. The empirical data also reveals a tendency for Volvo to be more deeply committed to its infrastructure for body manufacturing (the production of the all-steel body), thus hindering more radical changes. The paper concludes by highlighting a paradox emerging from the case, questioning whether established actors in the automotive industry can effectively deal with the environmental challenge.

  • 28.
    Kastensson, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Managing Product Innovation in the Automotive Industry: in light of the environmental challenge2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A company’s ability to introduce new products is a key success factor for sustaining a competitive advantage. Increasing environmental concerns are an even stronger incentive to innovate. Environmental regulations will exert immense pressure on manufacturing industries, which will increase in the future, enabling a more sustainable world for coming generations. Facing the automotive industry, an aggravating circumstance is, however, that the industry is deeply affected by the paradigm grounded in mass production, a dominant design and incremental development. A common view in the innovation literature is that large, established firms usually experience difficulty fostering radical innovations. Taking on the environmental challenge, it is argued that companies lack the methods, tools and processes to scan markets and to find opportunities beyond their existing businesses. Further challenges fostering radical innovations are the conflicting demands to explore new opportunities in parallel with daily business. The aim of this thesis is to explore the prerequisites embracing innovations in terms of what hinders and enables the development and implementation of new technologies in future products. The research question is answered through qualitative studies at Saab Automobile, Volvo Cars and the lightweight project SåNätt. I also draw upon my experience working in the automotive industry for many years. The empirical studies revealed different approaches to develop radical innovations. While one of the companies focused on radical development of new concepts aiming to build a supplier structure for collaboration, the other company’s focus was on incremental development of technical solutions to be implemented in a shorter time horizon. However both companies were stuck in the paradigm where the first focused on more explorative projects and through significant interest in technology and a more informal way of working, they managed to bypass several parts in the paradigm. The other company was managing the projects through a formal process governed by strategic plans and a strong implementation focus and was more deeply committed to its infrastructure for body manufacturing thus hindering more radical changes. The thesis shows that some inertias in the paradigm can indeed be challenged, but it also shows that in order to succeed in an environmentally driven transition, the paradigm dominating the automotive industry has to be questioned.

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  • 29.
    Kordestani, Arash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Projekt: Normkritisk innovation för inkludering av minoritetsägda leverantörer i myndigheters inköpsprogram2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Amini, Mehdi
    University of Memphis.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Environmentally and socially responsible buyer supplier relationship management2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Amini, Mehdi
    University of Memphis.
    Salehi-Sangari, Esmail
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Environmentally and socially responsible buyer supplier relationship management2015In: Ideas in Marketing: Finding the New and Polishing the Old : Proceedings of the 2013 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference / [ed] Krzysztof Kubacki, Cham: Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology/Springer Verlag, 2015, p. 445-446Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stakeholders expect corporations to improve their sustainability performance through observing environmental and social demands, and corporations respond to these requirements through applying corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR can be achieved by designing a sustainable supply chain in cooperation with companies along the supply chain. The stakeholder pressure on corporations to become sustainable transfers across the supply chain to suppliers. Buying firms manage the relationship with suppliers through supply management. Then, supplying managers’ attention to customer’s sustainability demands and reflecting such demands in their supply can improve the sustainability performance of the suppliers. This improvement in performance of suppliers emanates in supplied products and services and it gives buying firm a comparative advantage against competitors. Accordingly, sustainable supply management and buyer-supplier cooperation on achieving sustainability can address the sustainability concerns of the current business world. However, very few existing studies have considered the impact of sustainable supply management on improving sustainability performance of the buying firm. The current study goes beyond improving the sustainability performance of the buying firm. Specifically, the present research illustrates how sustainable supply management and buyer-suppliers cooperation can boost sustainability performance of the suppliers

  • 32.
    Kordestani, Arash
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Peighambari, Kaveh
    School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Foster, Tim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Emerging trends in sustainability research: a look back as we begin to look forward2015In: International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development (IJESD), ISSN 1474-6778, E-ISSN 1478-7466, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 154-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research is a content analysis of 1502 peer-reviewed articles on sustainability. The aim is to investigate emerging themes and trends in this area of research and move towards recommendations for researchers to consider when developing their work in sustainability research. By exploring and tracking sustainability literature in the business and management disciplines over a 20-years period, patterns emerge that could provide a better understanding of the trends within authorship, research topic, and the themes and concepts being studied. One interesting contribution of this study is introducing the concept of the “4Ps of sustainability research,” which emerges by reviewing this area over time. The results suggest that the evolution of sustainability research can be summarized in organizations and firms moving from Principles and Policy towards Practice and Performance during over 20 years of sustainability efforts. This paper also discusses the creation of sustainability value and evolution of businesses to sustainability knowledge centers. It adds to the related literature, by proposing a new way of categorizing sustainability research over time, and introducing a framework for theory building in this area of research.

  • 33.
    Kuzman, Manja
    et al.
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Sandberg, Dick
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Haviarova, Eva
    Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, USA.
    The role of eco-innovations in the hardwood-products sector for the development of a sustainable society2023In: Proceedings: Society of Wood Science and Technologyof, 2023 SWST International Conference Asheville, North Carolina, USA / [ed] Victoria Herian, SWST - International Society of Wood Science and Technology , 2023, p. 73-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Kumpiene, Jurate
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Welcome to the 40+ years persistence celebration of the waste research discipline at Luleå University Of Technology, Sweden Contact: Jurate Kumpiene2021In: Detritus - Multidisciplinary journal for Waste Resources and Residues, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 14, p. XI-XIIArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rylander, Håkan
    ISWA, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ragossnig, Arne M.
    RME Ecoconsultants eU, Vienna, Austria.
    Time for a reality check - Waste management saves the health, the environment and natural resources - If done in the right way2023In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 1497-1497Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Malmgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Expanding the scope of climate change mitigation practices in energy-intensive industry2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 37.
    Malmgren, Charlotte
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Zobel, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Organizing for climate change mitigation in the energy-intensive industry2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Sandström, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Lind, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Sustainability communication in the mining industry: a pre-study2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a pre‐study aiming to provide an overview of what andhow the largest mining companies, internationally and in Sweden, communicate in terms of sustainability on their websites. The report presents a broad understanding of what large mining companies ‘say’ when it comes to sustainability. Conceptually, the study draws on writings in the areas of organizational communication, institutional theory and sustainability accounting. Methodologically, the study is based on qualitative textual analyses, to some extent aided by the text analytic tool Leximancer. The main findings of the study are that while most companies communicate all relevant sustainability issues and all the global leaders publish sustainability reports with the Global Reporting Initiative level A+, all companies distinctively communicate sustainability in unique ways. In this report, these similarities and differences in sustainability communication are retold in four main tensions and four main stories.

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  • 39.
    Otsuki, Akira
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Géologie, GeoRessources, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France; Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Peñalolén, Santiago, Chile; Neutron Beam Technology Team, RIKEN Center for Advanced Photonics, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
    Future perspectives on non-destructive material characterization methods towards sustainability and circular economy2024In: Non-Destructive Material Characterization Methods / [ed] Otsuki, Akira; Jose, Seiko; Mohan, Manasa; Thomas, Sabu, Elsevier , 2024, p. 783-790Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Patel, Alok
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Desai, Sneha Sawant
    Department of Biotechnology, University of Mumbai, Santacruz East, Mumbai, Maharashtra 400098, India.
    Mariam, Iqra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Enman, Josefine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Rova, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Christakopoulos, Paul
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Matsakas, Leonidas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Innovative biorefinery approaches for upcycling of post-consumer food waste in a circular bioeconomy context2024In: Chemical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1385-8947, E-ISSN 1873-3212, Vol. 494, article id 152990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Owing to the significant amounts produced each year, food waste is a critical issue that affects the economy, society, and environment. An estimated US$ 1 trillion food is wasted annually because of the supply chain and harvesting processes, which lose around one-third of the net production. This significant loss has sparked global concern, there is an urgent need for sustainable approaches to reduce food waste or to propose an economical route for its utilization. Major concerns associated with its improper management include environmental degradation and the exacerbation of greenhouse gases. This review provides a comprehensive understanding of the recent advances in measures to minimize food waste (FW) and its chemical and biotransformation into valuable products. Food waste comprises mainly carbohydrates, proteins, and oils; the former two components are commonly used as microbial feedstock, leaving behind the residual oil fraction which poses a greater environmental risk. Microbial transformation of these hydrophobic materials present in food waste into value-added products proves to be a sustainable and economical strategy. Thus, this study proposes an integrated biorefinery strategy for holistic valorization of FW, whereby all its components were used to produce value-added compounds such as biofuels, bioplastics, nutraceuticals, and biomaterials using microbial biocatalysis. Compared to conventional methods, an integrated biorefinery will be more sustainable and uplift the microbial processes by switching from ‘pure’ to food waste-derived substrates and thereby pave ways to achieve ‘green’ transition.

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  • 41.
    Peighambari, Kaveh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University.
    Sattari, Setayesh
    Linnaeus University.
    Kordestani, Arash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    The Online Norm of Reciprocity2014Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 42.
    Peighambari, Kaveh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Sattari, Setayesh
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Kordestani, Arash
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Consumer Behavior Research: A Synthesis of the Recent Literature2016In: SAGE Open, E-ISSN 2158-2440, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes 12 years of recent scholarly research on consumer behavior published in the five leading international journals in this field. Analyzing academic contributions to a specific area of research provides valuable insights into how it has evolved over a defined period. The approach was to briefly discuss content analysis and its application in scholarly literature review studies. The methodology used here involves the classification of topics to evaluate key trends in consumer behavior literature. It includes a ranking of topics published, typology of the published articles, the research classification in terms of methodologies, and analysis techniques. The most cited articles in the field and within each journal are also examined. The comprehensive literature review of consumer behavior research undertaken in this article could advance the discipline of consumer behavior research by elucidating the evolution of consumer behavior literature in the studied period.

  • 43.
    Qureshi, Asif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Department of Energy and Environment Engineering, Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, 67480, Pakistan.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Co-disposal of lignite fly ash and coal mine waste rock for neutralisation of AMD2021In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 28, no 35, p. 48728-48741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste rocks (WRs) from a lignite-producing coalfield and fly ash (FA) produced from the same lignite have been investigated in this study with a primary objective to determine the potential for co-disposal of WRs and FA to reduce the environmental contamination. Mixing WRs with FA and covering WRs with FA have been investigated. Particle size effect caused ≤2 mm particles to produce low pH (~2) and metal-laden leachates, indicating higher sulphide minerals’ reactivity compared to larger particles (≤10 mm, pH ~ 4). Co-disposal of FA as mixture showed an instantaneous effect, resulting in higher pH (~3–6) and better leachate quality. However, acidity produced by secondary mineralisation caused stabilisation of pH at around 4.5–5. In contrast, the pH of the leachates from the cover method gradually increased from strongly acidic (pH ~ 2) to mildly acidic (pH ~ 4–5) and circumneutral (pH ~ 7) along with a decrease in EC and elemental leaching. Gradually increasing pH can be attributed to the cover effect, which reduces the oxygen diffusion, thus sulphide oxidation. FA cover achieved the pH necessary for secondary mineralisation during the leaching experiment. The co-disposal of FA as cover and/or mixture possesses the potential for neutralisation and/or slowing down AMD and improving leachate quality.

  • 44.
    Qureshi, Asif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effects of the co-disposal of lignite fly ash and coal mine waste rocks on AMD and leachate qualityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignite fly ash (FA) and waste rocks (WRs) were mixed in three different ratios (1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) and studied to compare the effects of adding FA on AMD generation from coal mining WRs, leachability of elements and the potential occurrence of secondary minerals. FA mixed with WRs showed significant differences in pH levels compared to previous research. The 1:1 mixture performed best of all the three mixtures in terms of pH and leachability of elements, mainly due to the higher proportion of FA in the mixture. The pH in the 1:1 mixtures varied between 3.3 – 5.1 compared to other mixtures (2.3­ – 3.5). Iron and SO42- leached considerably less from the 1:1 mixture compared to the others, indicating that the oxidation of sulphides was weaker in this mixture. Aluminium leached to a high degree from all mixtures, with concentrations varying from mg L-1–g L-1. The reason behind this increase is probably the addition of FA which, due to acidic conditions and the composition of the FA, increases the availability of Al. For the same reason, high concentrations of Mn and Zn were also measured. Geochemical modelling indicates that the 1:1 mixture performs better in terms of precipitation of Al3+ minerals, whereas Fe3+ minerals precipitated more in mixtures containing less FA. These results suggest that, with time, the pores could possibly be filled with these secondary minerals and sulphate salts (followed by a decrease in sulphide oxidation), improving the pore water pH and decreasing the leachability of elements. Since grain size plays a crucial role in the reactivity of sulphides, there is a risk that the results from the leaching tests may have been influenced by crushing and milling of the WR samples.

  • 45.
    Qureshi, Asif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering. Quaid-e-Awam University of Engineering, Science and Technology, Nawabshah, Pakistan.
    Maurice, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Öhlander, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Effects of the co-disposal of lignite fly ash and coal mine waste rocks on AMD and leachate quality2019In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 4104-4115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignite fly ash (FA) and waste rocks (WRs) were mixed in three different ratios (1:1, 1:3 and 1:5) and studied to compare the effects of adding FA on acid mine drainage generation from coal mining WRs, leachability of elements and the potential occurrence of the secondary minerals. FA mixed with WRs showed significant differences in pH levels compared to previous research. The 1:1 mixture performed best of all the three mixtures in terms of pH and leachability of elements, mainly due to the higher proportion of FA in the mixture. The pH in the 1:1 mixtures varied between 3.3 and 5.1 compared to other mixtures (2.3–3.5). Iron and SO42− leached considerably less from the 1:1 mixture compared to the others, indicating that the oxidation of sulphides was weaker in this mixture. Aluminium leached to a high degree from all mixtures, with concentrations varying from mg L−1 to g L−1. The reason behind this increase is probably the addition of FA which, due to acidic conditions and the composition of the FA, increases the availability of Al. For the same reason, high concentrations of Mn and Zn were also measured. Geochemical modelling indicates that the 1:1 mixture performs better in terms of precipitation of Al3+ minerals, whereas Fe3+ minerals precipitated more in mixtures containing less FA. These results suggest that, with time, the pores could possibly be filled with these secondary minerals and sulphate salts (followed by a decrease in sulphide oxidation), improving the pore water pH and decreasing the leachability of elements. Since grain size plays a crucial role in the reactivity of sulphides, there is a risk that the results from the leaching tests may have been influenced by crushing and milling of the WR samples.

  • 46.
    Rahnama, Hossein
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Jönköping University, Jönköping 55111, Sweden.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Integration of Circular Value Chains and Digitalization: A Focus on Lithium-Ion Battery Material Value Chain2024In: Sustainable Production through Advanced Manufacturing, Intelligent Automation and Work Integrated Learning: Proceedings of the 11th Swedish Production Symposium (SPS2024) / [ed] Joel Andersson; Shrikant Joshi; Lennart Malmsköld; Fabian Hanning, IOS Press, 2024, p. 564-573Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular value chains, driven by sustainability goals and resource efficiency, are now central in industrial strategies. Simultaneously, digital technologies transform business models and accelerate the shift towards circular economies. This paper explores circular material flow for the electrification of the vehicle fleet, focusing on the Lithium-ion battery value chain. In the paper, a conceptual model integrating digitalization is developed and evaluated to enhance efficiency and product innovation. The paper reviews the lithium-ion battery value chain literature and investigates digitalization potentials for circular business models. A conceptual model is presented in this study to represent the intricate relationship between each stage of the value chain and the concept of circularity while considering the carbon footprint and complexities associated with the implementation of digitalization.

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  • 47.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Advancing CSR in the mining industry: A stakeholder and management system approach2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of corporate social responsibility (CSR) is often defined as the integration of social and environmental concerns in a company’s operations and in its interactions with stakeholders on a voluntary basis. It is commonly accepted that extractive industries are at the cutting edge when it comes topractising CSR and that CSR is especially important in the mining sector. CSR needs to be implemented at every level of an organization if it is to have any meaningful impact. In this respect, scholars call for research on the practical rather than the policy level of CSR and for research viewed from an internalrather than an external standpoint. Established management systems are claimed to be useful for CSR practice and frameworks are based on various standards. The benefits of integrating all the aspects of CSR into one sustainability management system (SMS) are often highlighted. However, critical researchersbelieve that SMS would benefit from an externally focused stakeholder-driven and value-based approach, and that instead of ‘doing things right’ the focus should be on ‘doing the right things’, in that companies are often confronted with a range of stakeholders. In line with the call for practical research, thisthesis focuses on stakeholder management within the context of management system thinking. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how the extractive industry in general and companies in the metal and mining industry in particular practise CSR and how this management can be developed. The case study method was chosen as the research strategy and two single case studies in the mining industry were designed. The research began with a literature review and the collection of case study data consisting of documentation, interviews and interactive workshops. The most comprehensive and applied CSR practice is found in the oil industry. The forestry sector mainly seems to practise CSR through environmental issues, while mining companies focus primarily on community involvement and development and environmental issues.Both the case companies have comprehensive policy frameworks in place for CSR and well implemented work systems for labour practices and the environment. This indicates that certified management systems are effective tools for CSR. However, other important CSR issues, such as fair operating practices and community involvement and development, fall outside the scopeof the adopted management system. Therefore, management systems need to be supplemented in order to integrate sustainable development more fully. Both case studies show that ISO 26000 is useful for evaluating and improving a company’s CSR practice. Case study II demonstrates that stakeholder theory iseasily practised and contributes to the development of CSR practice, at least in the planning phase of the PDCA methodology, i.e. the identification of stakeholders and stakes, the estimation of ‘who and what really counts’ and the development of effective strategies to best manage stakeholders. The path from theory to practice also generates interesting discussions when a company looksat stakeholders from different perspectives.

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  • 48.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Corporate Social Responsibility practice in the mining industry2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has frequently been discussed throughout the years. However, in the 1990s criticism of multinational companies and their production in developing countries resulted in new and more demanding requirements from society. Research within CSR has increased over time but scholars are now demanding research efforts on the practical rather that the policy level of CSR and in this thesis CSR practice is defined as the “ongoing, regular, daily activities of the organization”.It is commonly accepted that extractive industries are in the forefront of practicing CSR and CSR is significantly important in the mining sector. The research purpose is to explore how the extractive industry in general, and the mining industry in particular, is practicing CSR. A comprehensive literature review gave an overview of how CSR is put into practice in the extractive industry and two case studies gave more profound knowledge of the practical level of CSR in the mining industry. The ISO 26000 standard has been used as a framework consistently throughout the research process.The case studies gave information about the practical level of CSR in the mining industry and interesting similarities have been found. Both case companies have comprehensive policy frameworks on CSR. They also have standardized management systems according to OHSAS 18001 for occupational health and safety and ISO 14001 for the environment in order to fulfill legal requirements. When standardized management system standards, like ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001, and ISO 50001 for energy, have been implemented, the requirements within these areas in ISO 26000 are fulfilled. In other words, there is an overlap between the content in ISO 26000 and other system standards. A structured way of working towards continual improvements is missing for the core subjects: community involvement and development; and fair operating practices. It is also within these subjects that the majority of the potential improvements for enhancing CSR performance have been identified. Stakeholder management is an important part of CSR theory. If all core subjects are integrated into a sustainability management system that has adopted the structured way of working toward continual improvements, the system can be used as a basis for stakeholder management. The study has identified two areas of special interest for further research: stakeholder management related to standardized management systems and community involvement and development.

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  • 49.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Making stakeholder management theories useful in a Swedish mining company2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 50.
    Ranängen, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Stakeholder management in reality: Moving from conceptual frameworks to operational strategies and interactions2015In: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 3, p. 21-33Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Established management systems are believed to be useful for CSR practise and in this context the benefits of integrating all aspects of CSR into one sustainability management system (SMS) are often highlighted. Stakeholder management is a managerial framework for dealing with CSR by interacting with stakeholders in order to create value. Although efforts have been made to integrate stakeholder management and SMS, the resulting frameworks are almost always conceptual and seldom describe how stakeholder management can be performed.This is an important empirical addition, in that it describes how a company reacts to and adopts stakeholder management theory. The focus is on the practical rather than theoretical implications. The paper provides practitioners with a stakeholder management theory that can be purposefully applied within a management system approach and offers a way of working that categorizes, systematizes and makes stakeholder management more effective. A case study based on interactive workshops shows how the planning phase in the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) methodology, i.e. the identification of stakes and the development of effective strategies to best manage stakeholders, can be performed. The stakes and strategies thus constitute the primary base on which SMS is built. The study shows how these stakes and strategies can be translated into objectives, targets, programmes, procedures and practises for the implementation of CSR in ongoing everyday activities. It also demonstrates that theory can easily be practised and can generate interesting discussions when a company is forced to look at stakeholders from different perspectives.

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