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  • 1.
    Berglund, Leif
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Johansson, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Nygren, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Samuelson, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    Stenberg, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology.
    A Post-Analysis of the Introduction of the EU Directive 92/57/EEC in the Swedish Construction Industry2022In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, no 10, article id 1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU directive 92/57/EEC focuses on ensuring that health and safety-related matters are taken into consideration during every stage of construction-related work and has been introduced into the regulations of the member countries. In 2006, Sweden was tasked by the European Commission to clarify its implementation of the directive, including which management roles and responsibilities were to come into effect during both the planning and eventual execution of construction work—changes that ultimately were introduced into the national regulations in 2009. Focusing on the accident trends in the construction industry in the years immediately following these regulatory changes, we find that the new management roles and responsibilities had no apparent effect on the accident rates. Furthermore, we argue that there is a need to broaden the analysis regarding the implementation of the EU directive 92/57/EEC to also include nation-specific changes to health and safety management and policy. These qualitative studies should also include a dedicated focus on how changes to management structures and processes may affect the prevalence of occupational diseases specifically.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lessing, Jerker
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, 94305, CA, United States.
    Exploring product modularity in residential building areas2021In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how the logic of product modularity could be useful for the design of complete residential building areas. Previous research has noted that product modularity is usually only applicable if a ‘full modularization’ approach is pursued (i.e., an approach with completely defined modules). This is challenging in Engineer To Order production strategies. Therefore, an approach towards partial product modularity is sought instead. In this approach, the modules are lesser defined to allow flexibility following, e.g., architectural design freedom, as well as per project-specific requirements posed in house-building projects. This study identifies nine (9) ‘modules’ which are denominated as functional spaces. By explaining how unique project requirements affect functional spaces, some integral elements of house-building are detailed. By evaluating the functional spaces in regards to the level of predefinition, as well as the level of relationship, their level of modularity is explored. The usefulness of partial modularity for house-building is suggested to be for coordination of design work and support tools that aides design work. This study suggests that partial modularity can be a feasible approach towards modularity without the need for countermeasures in terms of increasing product predefinition.

  • 3.
    Fašalek, Andrej
    et al.
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Straže, Aleš
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Šega, Bogdan
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Huber, Johannes Albert Josef
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.
    Šernek, Milan
    Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Bonding Performance of Melamine–Urea–Formaldehyde and Polyurethane Adhesives for Laminated Hybrid Beams and Their Selected Mechanical Properties2023In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 8, article id 2087Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beech (Fagus Sylvatica L.) is a prevalent tree species in Slovenia and is suitable for manufacturing glulam beams. However, beech wood has certain limitations that can potentially be mitigated by combining it with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) wood to create hybrid beams. This study aimed to determine the bonding performance of commonly used melamine–urea–formaldehyde and polyurethane adhesives for these hybrid beams. Moreover, how varying the proportion of beech wood in a hybrid beam affects its mechanical properties was examined. Shear and delamination tests (method B) were conducted, and EN 14080:2013 requirements were met in all cases. The four-point bending tests of the beams showed that hybrid beams containing 20% of beech wood in the cross-sectional height on each side of the neutral axis exhibited a similar modulus of elasticity values as pure beech beams, but their strength was not equally improved. Hybrid beams with 11% of beech wood did not show any improvement in bending stiffness or strength compared to pure spruce beams. It was noted that the presence of beech wood in a hybrid beam can influence its failure mode. Furthermore, analytical calculations showed that a symmetrical lay-up is preferable to an asymmetrical one to increase the effective modulus of elasticity.

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  • 4.
    Hussamadin, Raafat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Jansson, Gustav
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Digital Quality Control System—A Tool for Reliable On-Site Inspection and Documentation2023In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry has seen an increase in its complexity. This has meant an increased need for time-consuming and costly quality control. Moreover, the construction industry continues to perform detection-based quality controls with little to no focus on prevention. Quality control documentation is a source of information and data that can support the development of construction processes toward prevention. However, current documentations are ambiguous and subjective, so they remain ineffectual. A case study was performed to explore the causes of the ambiguity and subjectivity of traditional quality control documentation, and to analyze the identified project-variable procedure’s transformation into standardized or even automated documentation. Evaluating the traditional quality control’s preparation, inspection, and documentation phases highlighted unique challenges requiring tailored solutions. This study identifies the challenges of inaccurate data creation and data entry, unusable documentation, and inefficient documentation. Therefore, the usefulness of data structuring and process standardization became apparent. Hence, the study explores two solutions: a digitalized quality control system (DQCS) that ensures one accurate structured data entry method, and a centralized unit that prepares the necessary data for quality control inspections, instead of the unique preparation for each project. The results show the benefits of increased accuracy, usability, and efficiency for reliable on-site inspection and documentation.

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  • 5.
    Jansson, Gustav
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Viklund, Emma
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Artistic and Engineering Design of Platform-Based Production Systems: A Study of Swedish Architectural Practice2018In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on platform-based production systems for house-building has focused on production and manufacturing issues. The aim of this research is to explore how the architectural design process contributes to the industrialised house-building industry from the perspective of creative design work. It also aims to describe how constraints affect architectural design work in the engineer-to-order context, when using platform-based production systems. Architects with experience in using platform-based building systems with different degrees of constraints were interviewed regarding creative aspects of the design work. The interviews, together with documents relating to platform constraints, were then analysed from the perspective of artistic and engineering design theories. The results show the benefits and issues of using platform constraints, both with prefabrication of volumetric modules, as well as prefabricated slab and wall elements. The study highlights a major research gap by describing how architectural work, from both the creative artistic and engineering design perspectives, is affected by constraints in the building platform: (1) the architectural design work goes through a series of divergent and convergent processes where the divergent processes are explorative and the convergent processes are solution-oriented; and (2), there is a trade-off between creativity and efficiency in the design work. Open parameters for layout design are key to architectural creativity, while predefinition supports efficiency. The results also provide an understanding of the potential for creativity in artistic and engineering work tasks through different phases in design, and how they are related to constraints in the platform. The main limitation of the research is the number of interviewed architects who had different background experiences of working with different types of platform constraints. More studies are needed to confirm the observations and to understand how creativity and efficiency interact with divergent and convergent design processes.

  • 6.
    Järvenpää, Anna-Therése
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Pavlik, Anthony
    Independent Scholar, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    Real Estate and Construction Management, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Contextual Communicative Competence in Multinational Infrastructure Projects2021In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 403Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is dynamic, social, challenging, and a key quality factor for construction projects. This is especially the case in multinational and inter-organizational infrastructure projects where factors like culture and language differ among the involved actors. As infrastructure projects usually extend over longer periods of time, collaborative relationships need to be established in which the actors can develop, for example, mutual understanding, learning, and efficient working routines. By building on empirical data from contemporary infrastructure projects, we explore how international contractors and a large public client communicate in multinational infrastructure projects (i.e., what the challenges are and what competences are needed). The analysis is based on the linguistic framework of communicative competence, and we contribute to the development of collaborative models in construction project management by suggesting the concept of contextual communicative competence

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  • 7.
    Kothari, Ankit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Early Age Performance of OPC-GGBFS-Concretes Containing Belite-CSA Cement Cured at Sub-Zero Temperatures2023In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined how replacing sodium nitrate-based antifreeze admixture (AF) with belite-calcium sulfoaluminate (belite-CSA) cement affects the early age properties of ecological concretes based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS). Concrete specimens were cured at −15 °C and treated in various ways before testing, i.e., no treatment, stored at 20 °C for 12 and 24 h. Generally, the addition of belite-CSA cement shortened the setting time due to the rapid formation of ettringite. The incorporation of 25 wt% of antifreeze admixture (AF) to the OPC-GGBFS concrete cured at −15 °C partially inhibited ice formation and enabled the continuation of hydration processes. This trend was observed for all samples, independent of the applied AF after freezing curing. On the contrary, the addition of 20 wt% of CSA failed to inhibit the ice formation and increased the risk of frost damage for concretes despite the treatment after freezing. These concrete specimens had lower hydration, lower strength, and a more porous binder matrix. The microstructure of the binder matrix was significantly affected by the amount of CSA and extreme negative curing, followed by no notable recovery post-curing at room temperature. Therefore, pre-curing at room temperature for at least 6 h has the potential to avoid frost damage. Concrete containing 25 wt% AF combined with 12 h and 24 h of curing at 20 °C after removal from freezing and prior to testing could enhance the compressive strengths of all concretes. The renewed hydration was indicated as the main influencing factor.

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  • 8.
    Krantz, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Lu, Weizhuo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Construction Engineering.
    Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects2015In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 1156-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management) as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  • 9.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Sandberg, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Architectural Design Exploration Using Generative Design: Framework Development and Case Study of a Residential Block2020In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of generative design has been suggested to be a novel approach that allows designers to take advantage of computers’ computational capabilities in the exploration of design alternatives. However, the field is still sparsely explored. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the potential use of generative design in an architectural design context. A framework was iteratively developed alongside a prototype, which was eventually demonstrated in a case study to evaluate its applicability. The development of a residential block in the northern parts of Sweden served as the case. The findings of this study further highlight the potential of generative design and its promise in an architectural context. Compared to previous studies, the presented framework is open to other generative algorithms than mainly genetic algorithms and other evaluation models than, for instance, energy performance models. The paper also presents a general technical view on the functionality of the generative design system, as well as elaborating on how to explore the solution space in a top-down fashion. This paper moves the field of generative design further by presenting a generic framework for architectural design exploration. Future research needs to focus on detailing how generative design should be applied and when in the design process.

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  • 10.
    Nilsson, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of Québec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC G7H 2B1, Canada.
    Ménard, Sylvain
    Department of Applied Sciences, University of Québec at Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, QC G7H 2B1, Canada.
    Bard, Delphine
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.
    Hagberg, Klas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Effects of Building Height on the Sound Transmission in Cross-Laminated Timber Buildings—Vibration Reduction Index2023In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 2943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-rise wooden buildings are increasing in popularity, and they typically include cross-laminated timber in the structure. Taller buildings result in higher loads on the junctions lower down in the building, which are suggested in the literature to negatively affect the sound insulation. This study involved measurement of the vibration reduction index in four different CLT buildings, varying in height and junction details. A total of 12 junctions were measured at both high and low levels in the buildings. Among these, 10 junctions had resilient interlayers with different stiffnesses dependent on the designed quasi-permanent load, while 2 junctions lacked resilient interlayers. The results indicated that the vibration reduction index decreases lower down in the building mainly for the Wall–Wall path. The findings were consistent for all measured junctions above 400 Hz for the Wall–Wall path and for the majority of the measurements of the remaining frequency range, 400 Hz and below. The observed difference in the vibration reduction index could significantly impact the final result if a high-rise building has several flanking paths that affect the sound insulation between two apartments, and this needs to be considered during the design phase. Similar effects were shown for buildings both with and without resilient interlayers in the junctions.

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  • 11.
    Saback, Vanessa
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Popescu, Cosmin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. SINTEF Narvik AS, 8517 Narvik, Norway.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Täljsten, Björn
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Analysis of Digital Twins in the Construction Industry: Practical Applications, Purpose, and Parallel with other Industries2024In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 1361Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital Twins (DT) have become a widely discussed subject, believed to have the potential to solve various problems across different industries, including Engineering & Construction (E&C). However, there is still significant misconception concerning the definition of DT and their purpose within E&C. This study dives deep into identifying DT applications within E&C and the other prominent industries, i.e., Aerospace & Aviation, Manufacturing, Energy & Utilities, Automotive, Healthcare, Smart Cities, Oil & Gas, and Retail. The main challenges to the evolution of DT practical applications are also analyzed. A combination of literature review, multi-case study analysis, and comparative analysis compose the deployed methodology. Standardization and a maturity level classification are proposed to drive progress of the adoption of DT. The distinct aspects of the different industries and their assets are evaluated to the conclusion that DT are better employed to maintenance of structures within E&C. DT have become a well-worn topic, but the abundance of complex theoretical frameworks is met with simple or inexistent practical applications. Therefore, the novelty of this study lays in its comprehensive analysis of DT applications and real-world implementations – a departure from the often-theoretical discussions surrounding DTs.

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  • 12.
    Shadram, Farshid
    et al.
    Division of Civil Engineering and Built Environment, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Uppsala University, 751 05 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mukkavaara, Jani
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Improving Life Cycle Sustainability and Profitability of Buildings through Optimization: A Case Study2022In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building developers are continuously seeking solutions to increase saleable/rentable floor area and thus the profitability of investments, especially in large/dense cities where the real estate/rental values are high and shortage of available land results in smaller building footprints. Application of passive energy efficiency measures (e.g., thick insulation in walls) not only affects the life cycle sustainability of buildings, but also the floor area and its profitability. This can affect the decisions made on the choice of measures when aiming to improve sustainability. In line with limited studies in this context, a case study is presented here in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the impact of various passive energy efficiency measures on the life cycle sustainability when accounting for the profitability of the floor area. The building case was a high-rise apartment based on a standardized building concept situated in different locations in Sweden, namely Vindeln, Gothenburg, and Stockholm. The findings indicated that, regardless of the location, use of (1) thick cellulose coating for the roof, and (2) moderately thick expanded polystyrene for the floor, were necessary to improve the life cycle sustainability. However, the optimal wall insulation was dependent on the location; in locations with high real estate values, the scope for using thick and conventional insulations (mineral wool/cellulose) was limited due to the significant economic loss caused by floor area reductions. In general, the optimization identified optimal solutions that could save up to 1410.7 GJ energy, 23 tonnes CO2e, and 248.4 TEUR cost from a life cycle perspective relative to the building’s initial design.

  • 13.
    Uusitalo, Petri
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Industrilized and sustainable construction.
    Lavikka, Rita
    Smart Energy and Built Environment, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Overcoming Path Dependency in an Industrialised House-Building Company through Entrepreneurial Orientation2020In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1-22, article id 45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although it is well-established that industrialised construction can improve construction companies’ productivity, the uptake of industrialised ways of working has been slow and traditional construction companies remain unwilling to move towards industrialisation. One key reason is that there is little understanding of how construction companies can overcome path dependency (PD). Drawing on a longitudinal case study looking at an industrialised house-building (IHB) company, this work investigates how entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has influenced the development of a construction company that was able to transform from a traditional construction company to an IHB company over 25 years and to overcome PD in the process. The study found that by focusing on a niche market segment, developing a platform in collaboration with external actors, and an entrepreneurial mindset supported the company in overcoming its PD. However, being the “first-mover” in the industry created new path dependencies that may hinder other companies from entering this specific niche market area and the development of the industry as a whole. This study contributes to the theoretical buildup of EO, PD and strategic orientations of IHB companies, and contributes to practitioners’ understanding of IHB companies from a strategic management contingency perspective.

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