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  • 1.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Listener Preferences in Streamed Music2022In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 156-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-disciplinary study between the two research areas of Audio Technology and Music Education was performed to assess how different aspects of education and experience may influence the experience of music listening given a typical streaming service-Spotify.(1) The point of departure is that streamed media facilitates a plenitude of versions of the same song. The paper focuses on the differences that these different songs yield from various mastering processes and production choices motivated by the end distribution media and user settings in the playback system that aim to alter the sound. These variations may all lead to differences in musical dynamics and timbre. A listening test was conducted to examine listeners’ preferences, the assessed audio quality, and subjects’ reports on how the music content affected them when given the possibility to compare versions in a controlled environment. The test subjects (n = 76) represented populations with various educational backgrounds and experience within music and audio technology. Among the results, it was found that education and experience in some cases do affect preferences.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Aston
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Låt folkpsalmtoner ljuda!: att leda församling i folklig koralsång2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta arbete undersöks olika sätt att leda församling i sång av folkliga koralmelodier. Dessa olika varianter tar sig uttryck i psalmsångsledning med ackompanjemang på orgel, ledsagning på fiol samt ledning av a cappella-sång. Arbetets gång har varit att först arrangera orgelackompanjemang till tre koralmelodier, därefter instuderades dessa arrangemang samt två koraler som skulle sjungas utan orgel. När denna instudering var gjord samlades en grupp av människor för att gestalta en gudstjänstfirande församling och sjunga de utvalda koralerna. Detta spelades in med enbart ljud och utöver det fick de deltagande fylla i en enkät. Enkätsvaren är till stor del bärande för de slutsatser som dras – vilket inte är särdeles många.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Kevin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Att komponera med begränsad tid: Hur en tonsättare strukturerar och arbetar med sin kompositionprocess under olika förbestämda tidsramar.2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis explores how the composer handles and structures his composing based on pre-determined timeframes and how the composing process are affected by these given timeframes. The theory chapter brings up how short deadlines to compose affect how filmcomposers and other artists work when they create or compose. Previous studies bring up that composers want to write faster and be more efficient. 

    Three different musical pieces were composed to explore different lengths of pre-determined timeframes. Piece nr. 1 had a timeframe of 10 hours, piece nr.2 had a timeframe of 25 hours and piece nr. 3 had a timeframe of 50 hours to compose. All the pieces were written for a string quartet and had in addition to the timeframes a few other specific rules to follow. 

    The conclusion that came of this study was a deeper understanding of how pre-determined timeframes affect a composer’s creative process. A short timeframe gave the composer an intense couple of days of composing where the creative choices were based mostly from previous knowledge and inspiration of other musical pieces. A long timeframe gave the composer more time to reflect on the music that was written and a chance to explore new ideas. With a long timeframe the composer could challenge himself to create something entirely new. The short timeframe was easier to structure and be efficient on. The longer timeframes got harder to structure in terms of what the composer thought he could and would create in that amount of time. 

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  • 4.
    Astar, Taja
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Playing Words, Speaking Music: An Autoethnographic Study on Intertextual Approach to Classical Composition2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is an autoethnographic study, wherein the author presents and analyzes her approach to composition practice through intertextuality. Drawing on previous research in literary and musical studies, she aims to identify and/or define the types of intertextuality that she uses in her compositional practice, and their interaction within compositions. She also investigates, in which ways different musical and literary texts can mutually influence and enhance each other, as well as how these forms of intertextuality function in specific performance settings. Finally, the author contemplates on the question how intertextual elements might mediate in translating the author’s intentions to the audience, at least from the perspective of the composer. After a quick overview of ten of Astar’s musical works, making use of intertextuality as a composition strategy, the study focuses on a detailed analysis of two pieces, Escape and The Checkered Flag Villanelle, that rely upon contrasting ways of building cross-textual relationships. The analysis utilizes, among others, the topologies found in the works by Genette, Burkholder and Kawamoto. The author also makes an attempt at extending the existing terminology by suggesting such new terms as concept borrowing, interpermeating intertextuality, imposed intertextuality, transverbal prosodization and some other. This terminology is applied in the work to describe the types of cross-textual strategies used in Astar’s classical compositions that do not appear to be covered by any of the aforementioned topologies. The work also offers a first-person perspective at a close collaboration of a composer and a poet, where the result is a variety of artistic works, all of which employ multi-layered intertextuality and an intermedial approach.

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  • 5.
    Axelsson, Jimmy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Orkestrering i fokus: En studie i orkestreringstekniker och arrangering2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att fördjupa mig i hur Ravel har orkestrerat sitt verk Bolero och tillämpa hans orkestreringstekniker i egna kompositioner och orkestreringar. Orkestreringen i Bolero har alltid tilltalat mig och orkestrering som hantverk är en viktig kunskap för en kompositör att bemästra. För att bli bättre inom hantverket orkestrering och bygga ut min verktygslåda med orkestreringstekniker valdes just detta verk av Ravel.

    För att uppnå syftet har orkestreringen i Bolero analyserats, varje repetitionssiffra för sig och delats upp i tre olika musikaliska beståndsdelar, melodi, rytm och den harmoniska bakgrunden. För att undersöka om det var möjligt att tillämpa Ravels orkestreringstekniker av Bolero i mina egna kompositioner och orkestreringar så arrangerade jag två pianosatser som jag tidigare komponerat. Arrangemanget är i stil med Bolero och använder sig av samma instrumentering, orkestrering och tekniker som Ravel gör i sitt verk Bolero. Studien resulterade i fem orkestreringstekniker, större kunskap inom hantverket orkestrering och ett arrangemang för orkester av två egen skrivna pianosatser.

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  • 6.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Mixing for in-ear monitors: understanding the work of monitor mixing engineers2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monitor mixing engineer is a key function in a public music performance when in-ear monitoring (IEM) is utilized. This paper aims to expand our knowledge about monitor mixing in general and IEM mixing in particular by investigating monitor mixing engineers’ reasoning, decisions and actions. Four experienced monitor mixing engineers were interviewed on monitor mixing in general, IEM mixing and hearing health. Among the results are found that the engineers seek to create a fruitful working relationship with the performers. The engineers also describe what creates a functional mix and they show a high awareness of their responsibility for the comfort and well-being of the artist, both in a psychological sense as well as in providing sound levels that are not harmful. 

  • 7.
    Brooks, William
    et al.
    Department of Music, University of York (UK); University of Illinois (US); Orpheus Institute in Gent (Belgium).
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Wells, Jeremy J. (Jez)
    Department of Music, University of York (UK).
    Historically Authentic Truths (the HAT trick): Facts, fancies and footnotes2021In: Music and Heritage: New Perspectives on Place-making and Sonic Identity / [ed] Liam Maloney; John Schofield, Taylor & Francis, 2021, 1, p. 183-193Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Footnotes, a composition written between 1983 and 1985 by a composer allegedly named William Brooks, was recorded between 2011 and 2018 by guitarist Stefan Östersjö and sound engineer Jez Wells, with the help of William Brooks, musicologist. It became evident to the three collaborators that the overall project required the construction of a set of different identities for each participant: guitar, guitarist; score, composer; hardware, engineer. This chapter traces the construction of, distinction between and eventual representation of those identities. It considers the extent to which a single entity – personality, place, artifact or historical event – can be regarded as a collection of irreconcilable differences, whether those differences can be constituted as a series of masks or persona and whether anything can truly be said to reside behind those masks.

  • 8.
    Bäckman, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Finding Voice: Developing Student Autonomy from Imitation to Performer Agency2024In: Teaching Music Performance in Higher Education: Exploring the Potential of Artistic Research / [ed] Helen Julia Minors, Stefan Östersjö, Gilvano Dalagna, Jorge Salgado Correia, Open Book Publishers, 2024, p. 87-106Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores how my own artistic research has informed my practice, not only as a musician, but also as a teacher in higher music education (HME). In my ongoing PhD project, I have investigated how a personal expression, or voice, emerges from a process initiated by transcription and imitation. I have used an analytical perspective, informed by embodied cognition, and built around the concepts of voice and affordance to try to clarify these processes. I have transcribed 13 albums by the iconic country harmonica player Charlie McCoy. Based on these transcriptions, I have analyzed McCoy’s playing style, notably charting his musical idiolect. From my analysis, I found a number of licks and strategies which he often employs. The licks are, I argue, important features of McCoy’s idiolect.

    With McCoy’s licks as a point of departure, I have created my own variations of these. This method of deliberately transforming my voice is my way of finding out who I am, and who I want to be, as an artist. Starting with transcriptions gave me a view of the state of the art of country harmonica playing. The next phase of my PhD project has been to implement the knowledge I gained through artistic research, on my instrumental teaching in HME. In order to investigate this further, I have sought to initiate similar processes of formation of voice in my students. I have created a single subject course for harmonica students, where the aim is to explore the process of transcription leading to a formation of an original, unique voice. In the chapter I will present examples from my own artistic study, as well as examples from my study with my harmonica students in HME.

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  • 9.
    Bäckman, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    In search of my voice2023In: Music + Practice, E-ISSN 1893-9562, Vol. 10Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 10.
    Bäckman, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    My Bag of Licks: Exploring a Harmonica Player's Voice2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to the understanding of how performers can develop and/or transform their artistic voice through the process of transcribing and imitating an iconic musician. To fulfil this aim, I formulated the following research questions: How can a performer’s voice be developed and transformed through a process of transcription and imitation?What is the impact of the affordances of the diatonic harmonica in such processes?How does transcription from an instrument other than the harmonica alter these processes?In what ways can an application of the process of transcription and imitation contribute to student autonomy in the teaching and learning of music performance in Higher Music Education? I have used several methods common in traditional music scholarship when interviewing, transcribing and emulating the playing of iconic harmonica player Charlie McCoy. Based on the findings, I have developed a personal artistic method for generating original material. The design of the project is situated in the field of artistic research, aiming to examine a performers transformational journey. This method provided me with not only an understanding of what I could, and aspired to, contribute to the field of Country harmonica playing, but also with the playing techniques required to do so.    Based on the findings in this artistic project, I performed a study with harmonica students in higher music education, with the aim to help them initiate a process leading to the fostering of an individual voice, through transcription and imitation. In the final analysis, the project points to the close connection between the notion of transformative learning and the informal learning typical of the teaching and learning of popular music in general. 

  • 11.
    Bäckman, Mikael
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    The Real McCoy: Tracking the development of Charlie McCoy’s playing style2022In: International Country Music Journal 2022 / [ed] Don Cusic, Nashville,TN: Brackish Publishing , 2022, p. 184-231Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Eriksson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Höök, Kristina
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shusterman, Richard
    Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
    Svanaes, Dag
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Unander-Scharin, Carl
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Unander-Scharin, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Ethics in Movement: Shaping and Being Shaped in Human-Drone Interaction2020In: CHI‘20: Proceedings ofthe 2020 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, article id 549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How is ethics shaped by the particularities of a design? Through a detailed video analysis, we explore how ethicality is shaped in interaction between a choreographer, a performer and a choir of five drones, performing together on the opera stage. We pinpoint how movements enabled by the human-drone assemblage may limit or liberate artistic expressions vis-à-vis the norms of operatic performance. From a somaesthetics perspective on ethics, we show how the process of crafting rich experiences together with drones can deepen sensory appreciation skills, leading to an increased understanding of underlying somatic drivers and imposed norms. Somatic awareness thereby enables a richer repertoire of movements, expanding the ability to freely choose how to act, and cultivating empathy towards others. This shifts our understanding of ethics in HCI as solely about abstract rules or policies 'out there' to also concern the specifics of how technology informs or dictates movement and experience.  

     

  • 13.
    Federley Holmkvist, Hannah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Röst och mimesis i kompositionsprocessen: Att söka sin inre röst i komponerandet av noterad musik2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this bachelor thesis in the field of artistic research, the author’s aim was to gain practical and experience-based knowledge on how to access their inner voice in the process of composing notated contemporary music. The theoretical framework was obtained from theories on compositional craft, composers’ voice and a concept from the rhetoric, mimesis, was used as a model for the approach to creating composition exercises. The procedure of the bachelor thesis started with semi-structured interviews with four professional composers, who were asked about their compositional processes. Based on the results of the interviews, a composition exercise, called mimesis-exercise, was created for each of the interviewee, and then performed by the author. After each mimesis-exercise was finished, a reflective evaluation on the process was written. 

    A summary of each interview is presented in the implementation and detailed descriptions on how the compositional process was conducted for each of the four mimesis-exercises are presented in the results part. The artistic production of the bachelor thesis consists of five new pieces, each composed for one of the ensembles: SATB-choir, string ensemble, organ (two pieces), and solo trombone. The four research questions were answered through a thematic analysis and reflective texts.  

    The conclusions made during the process of the bachelor thesis was that the author experienced an enhanced understanding and connection to both the compositional process and the sounding material produced. The experience of composing, both the pieces which was part of the project, but especially those composed close after the thesis’s end, was more emotional and personal than the author experienced before the start of the bachelor thesis. The author reflected on how her development and discovering of her compositional voice was made through the procedure of the mimesis-exercises. The conclusive texts of the bachelor thesis add accounts for experience-based and personal perspectives to previous research on composer’s voice. 

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    Geography... workshop RK
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    Geography... (ljud från Sibelius)
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    Hush and the Sounds
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    Harmonic glissandi Hush...
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    Fortissimo öppna strängar, Hush...
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    Going to work, tired
  • 14.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater. Södertörn University College, Sweden.
    Master’s seminars in music education across 18 years: Inclusion, equality and democracy as lived experience2019In: Advancing Music Education in Northern Europe / [ed] David Hebert; Torunn Bakken Hauge, London: Taylor and Francis , 2019, 1, p. 38-49Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Friberg, Ulf
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Holmgren, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Lost in interpretation: Re-mixing the master-apprentice relation in the music conservatoire2021In: Seismograf, ISSN 2245-4705, Vol. 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This polyphonic audio paper addresses the relation between master and apprentice in the music conservatoire, and gives voice to the central human and non-human agents in this context. We aim to explore the power structures that constitute a structural framework for these relations, with regard to the agency with which students shape their individual interpretations, and therefore also to the role of imitation in instrumental music teaching. Master classes have arguably been seen as the pinnacle of the master–apprentice tradition, and have had a central role within higher education in Western classical music. It has regularly been claimed that such classes are effective for student development (see Hanken, 2008; 2011; Hanken and Long, 2012; Hanken, 2015; 2016; 2017) although, until recently, research on master classes has been quite sparse (see Hanken, 2008; 2011).

    Results from a qualitative study of teaching and learning of musical interpretation in a master class setting—first articulated in the form of an ethnodrama (Holmgren, 2018; 2020; Nguyễn and Östersjö, 2020; Saldaña, 1998; 2003; 2005; 2011; Salvatore, 2018), written by Holmgren—constitutes the point of departure for the audio paper. Our staging of Holmgren’s ethnodrama as a Hörspiel constitutes an artistic research process, through dramatical and musical composition (Olofsson, 2018). The research process originated in sound, as well as in questions related to musical performance; ultimately, through the many layers of analysis and artistic production, the final outcomes are again manifest in sound. Originating in music education research, the study seeks a better understanding of how the dynamics between teacher, student and music institution can be better utilised in curriculum development. Hence, the audio paper, and the Hörspiel that it contains, constitutes a central result of the study (see further Holmgren, 2020) in artistic form as a sonic and multivocal artefact. We ultimately propose that the future for instrumental teaching in the conservatoire lies in the creation of situations that allow for sharing experiences of performative knowledge. Hereby, teacher and student can work together towards the goal of fostering an individual musician’s voice (Gorton and Östersjö, 2019), highlighting the importance of personal autonomy, situatedness, and an analytical awareness of institutional and societal power structures. Hence, the study points to perspectives that may contribute to curriculum development in higher music education, specifically with regard to instrumental music teaching.

  • 16.
    Gorton, David
    et al.
    Royal Academy of Music, London.
    Kanno, Mieko
    Sibeliusakademin, Helsingfors.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Cerro Rico: the co-production of a discursive voice in chamber music2020In: Music + Practice, E-ISSN 1893-9562, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Centred around a video essay, this exposition aims to develop an understanding of subjectivity within a collaborative chamber music context. Drawing on the theory of situated cognition (see for example Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) and the concept of subjective ‘voice’ in performance (Cumming, 2000), the presentation develops the model proposed by Gorton and Östersjö (2016 and 2019) in which a ‘discursive voice’ may emerge from the process of composer–performer collaboration.

    These ideas are explored through a study of the early rehearsals of David Gorton's composition ‘Cerro Rico’, for soprano violin and charango. This is a very slow piece, and while the two instrumentalists both operate at this extreme of the tempo spectrum, they do so guided by different conceptions, one metronomic and the other taxonomic, of how this should be notated; the charango player works with a very slow metronome mark of quaver = 15 while the violinist plays mostly in large note-values: breves, longs, and dotted longs. From these opposed positions, the performers find a shared understanding of time.

    Through an appraisal of video footage taken from the first rehearsals of ‘Cerro Rico’, it is argued that the malleable character of coordination, shaping, and timing that is afforded in performance by the extreme slowness of the piece creates the conditions for the emergence of a discursive voice, compounded from the contributions of the two performers and the composer. The ‘collaboration’ between composer and performers can be conceived as being situated within this discursive voice, manifested as a sense of shared ownership of the materials.

  • 17.
    Harding, Phil
    et al.
    Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, England.
    Lefford, Nyssim M.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Pop vs rock: A comparison study of managing sessions in the recording studio and the influences of genre2021In: Journal of Music, Technology and Education, ISSN 1752-7066, E-ISSN 1752-7074, Vol. 13, no 2-3, p. 141-161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the recording session management approaches of two music producers, Phil Harding and Greg Haver, to ascertain if and how their different approaches impact the outcomes of music production projects. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with each producer to gain insight into their approaches generally, and also, as a point of comparison, their work on the educational Gus Dudgeon Foundation/Joint Audio Media Education Support (GDF/JAMES) summer recording sessions specifically. Thematic analyses of the interviews revealed that the producers’ respective approaches are influenced by the genres in which each predominantly works. Harding, a pop producer, is very systematic. Haver, who is better known for his work in rock, uses an organic approach. Consequently, there were some clear differences in their decision making and organizational strategies at the GDF/JAMES sessions. The producers used different criteria to choose a project/artist. Each used distinctive approaches in pre-production (i.e. work on song arrangements and other technical musical decisions), production (recording) and mixing. Still, both produced pop recordings that largely conform to pop norms. Both recordings have similar pop arrangements and meet commercial standards. Findings provide new understanding of session management techniques that can benefit both music production education and practitioners. 

  • 18.
    Harlow, Randall
    et al.
    University of Northern Iowa School of Music, USA.
    Petersson, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Ek, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Visi, Federico
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Global Hyperorgan: a platform for telematic musicking and research2021In: NIME 2021, The International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Hyperorgan is an intercontinental, creative space for acoustic musicking. Existing pipe organs around the world are networked for real-time, geographicallydistant performance, with performers utilizing instruments and other input devices to collaborate musically through the voices of the pipes in each location. A pilot study was carried out in January 2021, connecting two large pipe organs in Piteå, Sweden, and Amsterdam, the Netherlands. A quartet of performers tested the Global Hyperorgan’s capacities for telematic musicking through a series of pieces. The concept of modularity is useful when considering the artistic challenges and possibilities of the Global Hyperorgan. We observe how the modular system utilized in the pilot study afforded multiple experiences of shared instrumentality from which new, synthetic voices emerge. As a long-term technological, artistic and social research project, the Global Hyperorgan offers a platform for exploring technology, agency, voice, and intersubjectivity in hyper-acoustic telematic musicking.

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  • 19.
    Hermansson, Camilla
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Companion Species Television: dog and human experiences of DOGTV2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Donna Haraway writes in her essay The Companion Species Manifesto – from her own experience with domestic dogs – that “they are not here just to think with” but also someone to live with, and she defines them as companion species and “partners in crime of human evolution” (Haraway, 2003, p. 5). Humans live with dogs, and in Sweden one of seven households are estimated to have a dog in the home environment (Novus, 2017). This study, with an interdisciplinary approach, takes the meaning of Haraway ́s concept of “significant others” – namely a partner in an intimate relation and in this case also different kin - in consideration and will try to understand the concept in relation to media studies.The focus is on studying humans and domestic dogs as partners of crime in the experience of programs on the website DogTV (DogTV, 2021). DogTV have programs directed to dogs and with the help of a team of scientists on animal behavior they present sounds to dogs for stimulation, relaxation and exposure of doorbells and car rides. The site also has audiovisual programs directed to dog people. 

    Different scholars have been concerned with animals and media with the aim of trying to break the anthropocentric approach in media studies. (Almiron, Cole & Freeman, 2016) The emerging research field of critical animal and media studies are mainly concerned with the oppression of domestic animals in for example the food industry: how domestic species are represented in media: how the subject can be theorized: and the responsibility and advocacy for animals in relation to different media (Merskin, 2016: Nibert, 2016: Dunayer, 2016: Freeman: 2016). Previous studies have also been concerned with representations of mostly wild animals in audiovisual media, and how language defines meaning also from an anthropomorphic perspective (Ganetz, 2012: Malmoud 2012: Chris 2006). Studies of dogs and media have been oriented around the representation of the “good dog” as in the films of Lassie: the representation of the violent critter as in the movie Cujo based on a novel by writer Stephen King: representations in reality tv shows of dangerous dogs: and the interaction between dogs and humans in a British tv program which also shows one of the human characters journey to become “more dog”, namely more joyful and less repressed by human social conventions (Cudworth & Jensen, 2016).  

    The division between human-animal is something that has been taken for granted for centuries are something deeply rooted in western thought based on religious and Aristotelian philosophy. This thought is based on how humans are unique to animals, in their consciousness and intrinsic value. Humans is understood to have a more symbolic language, uses tools and in a religious sense is seen as God ́s creation. I recent years these questions have started to be problematized, because of animal behavioral science shows that animals have capacities and performances that previously only has been attributed to humans. In a basic sense the question about if animals have feelings have led to the exploitation of animals in for example the food industry and have also fostered a view of animals as a creature with less value, in the same sense that slaves were looked upon in the American society. Creatures with lower value because they were seen av more primitive, less intelligent, and not capable of sensing feelings as “the white man” (Strindlund, 2014). 

    In the figure of the cyborg Donna Haraway problematize the boundaries that are set between man-women, human-animal, and humans- machine. She conceptualizes the human-animal boundaries by using the figure of companion species, but when it comes to living together, to evolve together and to have “embodied cross-species sociality” both figures can be useful to understand the relationship between animal-human from a critical perspective and to start thinking of new ontologies in current life worlds. “These figures are hardly polar opposites. Cyborgs and companion species each brings together the human and non-human, the organic and the technological, carbon and silicon, freedom and structure, history and myth, the rich and the poor, the state and the subject, diversity and depletion, modernity and postmodernity, and nature and culture in unexpected ways” (Haraway 2003:4) 

    Haraway writes “bestiality has a new status in marriage exchange” (Haraway 2008), and our domestic dogs now have the same care as humans in animal hospitals and the relationship between human-dogs are sometimes seen as more authentic emotionally than with humans. Dog owners are calling themselves for example “pup mom” or “dog mom”, with connotations that the bondbetween dog and human are almost seen as thatequivalent to the bond between a mother and a child. InHaraway’s view humans and animals are historicallylinked in dynamic relationships rather than just in term ofhow humans domesticate animals, and in this sense onecan start to think about animals less in terms of blood butmore in terms of kinship or affinity in what she calls“significant otherness” (Haraway 2003:7) For example,on the web page Barkpost a list of how to tell if your dogis your significant other is presented: you go to bed at thesame time, share common interests, you trust each other,you greet each other with affection and walk side by side (Fantegrossi, 2015). It is almost like a relationship with a dog is more affectionate than the relationship with another human. 

    According to Haraway one must though accept dogs with their otherness, and “that all ethical relating within or between species is knit from the silk-strong thread of ongoing alertness to otherness-in-relation” (Haraway 2003:50). The relationship between dogs and humans are a language game, and the relationships is based on language that is not restricted to vocal language. The focus not only on verbal language opens us to be alert to the otherness in the relationship and to study other forms of language of communication: for example, head gestures, nose movements, posture, and sounds. Many domestic dogs are often part of a family and home environment and in that sense also part of media experiences. Humans have dogs lying beside them when they watch their favorite tv series. Dogs barks to sounds on television, such as doorbells ringing and animal sounds, or interrupts the media experience of human when they come to make contact. The two species are part of a material-semiotic relationship, where one need not to be a human to contribute to the semiotic production. The home is supposed to be a place where one finds refuge, rest and satisfaction, seclusion of the world and an environment free of noise of the outside world (LaBelle, 2019). 

    “/.../ research in the meaning of home “repeatedly throws up the same basic terms; privacy, security, family, intimacy, comfort and control” (Morley 2000:24) 

    The home is, however, not only a physical place but also a place where the local meet the global and were media of various kinds gets distant events into the home via sounds and visual representation (Morley, 2000). TV audiences in a home or domestic context has been a concern for David Morley who in his work Family Television presented a study of how TV materials were interpreted within families and how TV is used in different families and forming gender roles (Morley, 1986). But what about if one introduces dogs as a member of the family as a material-semiotic actor that is engaged in entertainment on TV? Dogs in a home environment can be studied as pet that form “embodied cross-species sociality” with humans in relation to media experiences, in media that both meet the needs of the human and the dog. The consumption of television is often now understood as in flux, for example mobile technologies have changes our sense of locality and movement. Home can also be problematized in relation to homelessness, exile, and rootlessness. Humans have a way of consuming television that blurs the boundaries between home and the outside, where one can use TV in different settings and information flows on a global scale (Morley, 2000:9). Dogs on the other hand does not have the sense that things happen far way but are more concerned about the local environment. The concept of companion species can thus also be a way to think about the dimension of the global-local in a domestic media environment based on television. 

    Outline of a study The focus of this study is to understand how humans and domestic dogs experience DogTV in a home environment via sound as companion species. The current theories of media and the home environment are mainly anthropocentric, and the idea of this study is to problematize domestic dogs in relation to the theoretical understanding of the home environment and media experiences, and to outline an interdisciplinary method for conducting research on media experiences 

    DogTV claims to have growing audience (30million) worldwide and communicates thatthey have a desire to better understand whatdogs watch, but the channel also haveprograms for dog people. (DogTV, 2021)Given that many dogs are home alone when the humans are at work etc., there are studies within DCI (Dog-Computer-Interaction), a sub-field of ACI (Animal-Computer-Interaction), that are interested in finding solutions for entertaining dogs when the humans are not at home and the dog is at risk of being under-stimulated and under-exercised (Miklosi, 2014: Hirskyj- Douglas, Reed & Cassidy 2017). The interest in this study of companion species is instead the interaction between dogs and humans in in experiencing DogTV in “embodied cross- species sociality” and not to understand how dogs interact and responds to media content as in DCI. The aim of the study is to incorporate dogs in media experience and to understand 1) What are the sounds designed for dogs and 2) how do humans understand the interaction of their dog with DogTV?. 

    To try to understand these questions as a first step sounds are of interests, and in analyzing sounds one can use knowledge from the field of soundscape studies. A soundscape consists of objects heard and not objects seen. The concept was introduced by Raymond Schafer to better understand the sounds of an acoustic environment, improve humans hearing capabilities and to fight noise pollution in modern society. According to Schafer sounds can be understood in three dimensions: audience, environment and the sound event that consists of three main features of keynote, sound signal and soundmark (Schafer, 1993). The keynote is background sounds that one is not always is aware of which are created by nature like wind, water, birds, insects, and animals. In urban environments traffic has become a background sound and a keynote. Sound signals consists of foreground sounds that we are more conscious about as humans, such as bells, whistles, horns, and sirens. The soundmark is a sound that refer to a community sound which is unique or possesses qualities which make it specially regarded or noticed by the people in that community, such as Big Ben in London and the Islamic muezzin. To try to understand the experience of dog and human interaction one must take in consideration that dogs have greater sound sensitivity and can hear lower intensity sounds. Dogs have a sensitivity rate between 67-45.000 hz as compared to 64- 23.000 Hz for humans (Strain, 2016). So, one way of trying to understand the experience of DogTV with this in consideration is to analyze the sound features developed by Schafer in different programs on DogTV, such as keynotes, sound signals and soundmarks and try to understand the soundscapes for dogs that are communicated. Another question is what type of sounds the human experience that dogs listen to with interests seen in for example gestures and sounds. To understand the second question, the aim is to conduct interviews with dog people that have watched DogTV with their furry friends, concentrating on the themes like embodied cross-species sociality, the otherness of the dog, the dog as a materialist-semiotic actor in media experience. 

    References 

    Almiron N, Cole M & Freeman C.P. (2016) Critical Animal and Media Studies. Communication for Nonhuman Animal Advocacy. London: Routledge. 

    Chris C. (2006) Watching Wildlife. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 

    Cudworth E. & T Jensen (2016) “Puppy Love? Animal Companions in the Media”. In N. Almiron N, M. Cole & C. P. Freeman (eds.) Critical Animal and Media Studies. London: Routledge. 

    DogTV (august 2021) About DogTV. Retrieved from: https://www.dogtv.com/about/. 

    Dunayer J. (2016) “Mixed Messages: Opinion Pieces by Representatives of US Nonhuman- Advocacy Organizations”. In N. Almiron N, M. Cole & C. P. Freeman (eds.) Critical Animal and Media Studies. London: Routledge. Fantegrossi D (2015) “9 Ways to Tell Your Dog Is Your Significant Other”. Barkpost. Retrieved from: https://barkpost.com/life/dog-is-your-significant-other/ Freeman C P (2016) “This little Piggy went to Press: The American News Media ́s Construction of Animals in Agriculture”. In N. Almiron N, M. Cole & C. P. Freeman (eds.) Critical Animal and Media Studies. London: Routledge. 

    Ganetz H. (2012) Naturlikt: människor, djur och växter i SVT:s naturmagasin. Mörklinta:Gidlund. 

    Haraway D (2008) ”Ett cyborgmanifest: Vetenskap, teknik och socialistisk feminism i slutet av 1900-talet”. In Apor, cyborger och kvinnor. Att återuppfinna naturen, övers. Stockholm/Stehag: Symposion, 

    Haraway D (2003). The Companion Species Manifesto. Dogs People, and the Significant Otherness. Chicago: Pickly Paradigm Press. 

    Hirskyj-Douglas I, Reed J C. & Cassidy B (2017) “A dog centered approach to the analysis of dogs’ interactions with media on TV screens”. In International Journal of Human- Computer Studies 2017 (98), p. 208-220. 

    LaBelle B. (2019). Acoustic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life. New York: Bloomsbury. 

    Malamud R. (2012) An Introduction to Animals and Visual Culture. London: Palgrave Macmillan 

    Merskin D (2016) “Media Theories and the Crossroads of Critical Animal and Media Studies”. In N. Almiron N, M. Cole & C. P. Freeman (eds.) Critical Animal and Media Studies. London: Routledge. 

  • 20.
    Hermansson, Camilla
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Jönsson, Anna Maria
    Södertörns högskola, Institutionen för kultur och lärande.
    Swedish Sápmi News, Environment and Sense of Place2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Those who are affected by changes in the environment often live in remote areas from the political center, which is often inhabited by indigenous people. Indigenous people have another sense of place and nature in relation to modern societies that focus on scientific knowledge and large-scale technological and economic systems. Modern societies also have an understanding of nature as separated from humans (Roosvall & Tegelberg, 2015). The deep knowledge of nature and the sense of place are among indigenous people inherited through generations and are lived experiences through a close connection to nature with strong ties to territories and natural resources. Northern parts of Sweden are inhabited by the Sápmi people, and their land use transcend the borders of nation-states, like Norway, Finland and Russia., Their cultures and locations are developed around a lifestyle based on fishing and reindeer herding, even thou Sápmi identity is not homogenous but rather multifaceted.(Markelin & Husband, 2013). Indigenous peoples are often “used” in mainstream media reporting to highlight the urgency of environmental change, while their political perspectives are largely ignored (Roosvall & Tegelberg, 2015). Other research has showed the centrality of national public service broadcast in providing the political and infrastructural context of indigenous media (Markelin & Husband, 2013). Swedish public service has a liability under law to cover perspectives of national and ethnical minorities in their own language, and the Sápmi people are one of these minorities. (Regeringsbeslut, Ku2019/02007/MD). Indigenous media are important in the political terrain, and public broadcast service is a forum for the Sápmi population when it comes to expressing political demands and identity. This study is focusing on Sápmi television news - Oddasat - broadcasted in Swedish public broadcast (SVT) from the Sápmi unit in Giron/Kiruna. The interest is to look at how indigenous Sápmi news in Sweden represents senses of place, place attachment and environmental change. In this perspective theories of senses of place are of interest, for example place attachment among indigenous people which can be understood as a very intimate relationship and a multidimensional phenomenon (Gaster, 1961). To understand sense of place different dimensions are addressed; language, relations, attitudes and world views that attaches people and place; socio-cultural and political dimensions; affective and behavioral components (Studley, 2012). Place attachment is integral to sense of place and literature emphasises place attachment in a context of group identities bound to a specific form of landscape or idealized ones; the link to local wisdom; cultural or environmental threats to identity and deterritorialization (Studley, 2012).  Preliminary results indicate that national boundaries are not basis of sense of place and attachment, but instead the Sápmi culture, education and the conservation of the cultural heritage spanning several countries is crucial. Environmental changes and threats are understood through the lens of indigenous inherited wisdom and deep knowledge of nature. The consequences of environmental change on the migrating reindeers is linked to the Sapmi nomadic understanding of nature.

  • 21.
    Holmgren, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Dialogue Lost? Teaching Musical Interpretation of Western Classical Music in Higher Education2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of musical interpretation in teaching and learning Western classical music from both a teacher’s and student’s perspective within the context of piano main instrument teaching in higher music education in Sweden. The following research questions were formulated to fulfil this aim: first, how do teachers and students understand musical interpretation as educational content?; second, how do teachers and students understand teaching and learning of musical interpretation?; third and finally, how could verbal and musical dialogues be used for improving teaching and learning of musical interpretation?

    The thesis employs an overarching hermeneutical framework and consists of three movements. Multiple forms of empirical material were created and collected to understand the complex phenomenon: semi-structured interviews (with and without stimulus) with teachers, students, and master class teacher; video and audio recordings of master class lessons and workshops; annotated scores; audio-recorded student performances and written instructions, written responses, and reflective one-minute papers. The empirical material was hermeneutically analysed and presented using poetical condensations, haiku formed poems, (auto)ethnodrama, and collaboratively negotiated student narratives.

    The results outline that musical interpretation is neither verbalised nor negotiated. Furthermore, the students are held responsible for developing or already having the skills and capacities required for autonomy and a personal, authentic artistic voice, described as the desired learning outcome. That the students find their education backwards-looking and not preparing for a professional career in music could at least partly be due to the instrumental lessons being mainly devoted to demonstration and imitation without argumentative support. Moreover, as the teachers’ capacity to verbalise and engage in dialogical practices seems to be situationally bound and requiring questions, the possibilities to, on an organisational level, empower students to initiate and enter such dialogues should be further studied.

    The created dialogical pedagogical situations, opening for musical and verbal collaboration, helped establish a shared understanding of musical interpretation and highlighted the difference between students’ intentions and performances. These situations offered collaborative explorations of what musical interpretation is, might be, and could be. I suggest that musical interpretation, including its philosophical and ethical aspects, is lifted as a general subject at a programme level, thus securing that it is dealt with adequately, not merely relying on individual teachers. Finally, methodological considerations and suggestions for further research are put forward.

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  • 22.
    Holmgren, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Empowering Piano Students of Western Classical Music: Challenging Teaching and Learning of Musical Interpretation in Higher Education2022In: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 574-587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to empower piano students and explore their understandings of how teaching and learning of musical interpretation of Western classical music could be developed to foster autonomy and a personal, authentic artistic voice. Two research questions were formulated: How have students experienced teaching and learning of musical interpretation? How do students envision a meaningful organisation of such teaching and learning? The empirical material, created during a participatory action research project with 4 piano students within an artistic bachelor program, was hermeneutically analysed, and narratives were created and twice negotiated with the students. Their education was described as backwards-looking and not preparing for autonomous learning and musicianship. In contrast, a meaningful organisation was envisioned as collaborative, dialogical, characterised by openness, humility, honesty, and mutual understanding where musical interpretation is viewed as a complex, ongoing, open-ended process, allowing for multiple, incompatible views, breaking from the master–apprentice model and the current restrictive ideology.

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  • 23.
    Holmgren, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Giving and Developing Students’ Voice(s) in the Laboratory: Teaching and Learning of Musical Interpretation in Higher Education2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Holmgren, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Negotiating Interpretative Paradigms in Instrumental Teaching of Western Classical Music in Higher Education2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Holmgren, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Response Guided Workshops on Musical Interpretation: A Participatory Action Research Project Within Higher Music Education in Sweden2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Höglund, Klas-Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Studiobas vs Livebas: En studie kring basens skillnader i studio och livemiljö2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har på senare år blivit väldigt medveten om hur jag vill att mitt basspel ska upplevas utåt av publiken. Som musiker har man sällan vetskap om hur det egentligen låter framför scenen och därför har jag intresserat mig för hur andra musiker och i detta fall specifikt basister faktiskt spelar live. Mitt arbete riktar inte in sig på de stora basisterna genom tiderna eller någon specifik basist utan i stället på gemene frilansande musiker i de situationer jag vill vara i framtiden. Genom att transkribera basgången på originalet och på en live-version och sedan jämföra notationen sida vid sida kan jag enkelt se hur basgångarna skiljer sig åt. Denna process har jag sedan repeterat över flera låtar i tre olika genrer och sedan försökt hitta gemensamma teman mellan låtarna i samma genre. Tack vare mina analyser har jag nu blivit säkrare på mina musikaliska val och arbetet har gjort mig till en mer konsekvent musiker.

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    Rygg mot rygg - Original
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  • 27.
    Jonsäll, Hans Lennart
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Spectromorphological Reductions: Exploring and developing approaches for sound-based notation of live electronics2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master’s thesis, a sound-based notation system is explored and developed in the composition and performance of a musical work for live electronics. My approach builds on existing systems for electroacoustic music analysis, most notably Dennis Smalley’s (1997) theory of spectromorphology and the symbolic language of Lasse Thoresen & Andreas Hedman (2007) based on Pierre Schaeffer’s typo-morphology, as well as Mattias Sköld’s (2023) adaptation of this system for composition and transcription (Sound Notation). 

    By separating the compositional processes from the interpretational process in the creation of a mixed work for live electronics and acoustic instruments, the notation could be explored as an isolated activity in the writing of sound objects, later realized in a studio environment in the form playable instrument patches. This resulted in two performances of the piece Sonic Mechanics (2022) where the author performed the electronics part together with musicians from the ensembles Norrbotten NEO in Piteå (Sweden) and Ensemble mise-en in NYC (USA). 

    The thesis shows how symbolic notation does not need to be dismissed in live electronic performance, but that a sound-based score can complement the compositional and interpretational processes of instrument design and improvisation. The project thus demonstrates the plausibility of composing electronic music using a reduced sound- based notation system (spectromorphological reduction) and provides an example of how a sound-based score can be executed by an electronic performer, as well as investigating the affordances that this approach has for both the compositional and interpretational process. For composition, the affordances of sound-based notation are that it becomes a technology for thinking about sound and musical structures themselves, without interaction with audio technology. For performance, this approach enables different interpretations for other electronic instruments and setups. 

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    Spectromorphological Reductions (Jonsäll 2023)
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    Sonic Mechanics - Norrbotten NEO (2023-01-20)
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  • 28.
    Jullander, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    "Det finns ej make!": Om Emil Sjögren och orgeln2022In: Emil Sjögren – en vägvisare / [ed] Anders Edling, Erik Wallrup, Möklinta: Gidlunds förlag, 2022, p. 77-101Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter offers a broad picture of the composer Emil Sjögren’s  (1853–1918) lifelong relationship with the organ. It argues that the organ was Sjögren’s main instrument as a performer, although his output of organ music as a composer is relatively small. Sjögren had studied in Berlin with Carl August Haupt (organ) and Friedrich Kiel (composition and counterpoint) and was a noted interpreter of J.S. Bach’s works. In later years, however, his fame as an organist rested exclusively on his improvisations in connection with church services, which were regarded as unique and attracted large audiences. The article includes separate sections on the Stockholm organs from various epochs that Sjögren played, as well as discussions on his main organ compositions, including the three preludes and fugues and Legender, perhaps the first collection of organ pieces in all keys. His influence on the following "Stockholm school" of organist-composers is also briefly outlined. 

  • 29.
    Jullander, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    På väg mot en perfekt symbios?: Om gregoriansk sång och svenskspråkig sjungen tidegärd under 1900-talet2021In: Årsbok för svenskt gudstjänstliv, ISSN 0280-9133, Vol. 96, p. 53-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study dels with different approaches to the use of Gregorian chant with Swedish texts in the Divine Office, from the 1920s onward, with particular focus on psalmody. In 1924, the clergymen Arthur Adell and Knut Peters published Evangelisk tidegärd, the first modern Swedish-language service order for the Office using exclusively Gregorian melodies. The official Vesperale and Psalterium of 1925, using mainly Gregorian melodies, was severely criticized by Peters, who, together with Adell, sought to establish principles for the use of Swedish texts to Gregorian psalmody.

    How such principles ought to be formulated and applied was discussed intermittently in the following decades. While all prticipants in these debates agreed that using Gregorian chant to Swedish texts entailed special difficulties, opinions on how to handle these problems varied widely, and, especially from the 1980s, it was questioned whether the Swedish language was at all suitable for Gregorian chant. The Laurentius Petri Society, founded by Adell and Peters, maintained that original Gregorian melodies could – and should – be used, whereas the Roman-Catholic diocese in Sweden advocated a modified psalmody, albeit still based on the traditional psalm tones. These differences, reflected in the respective editions, still perist as different ideals and principles, although a converging tendency may be observed in recent years.

  • 30.
    Knutsson, Tony
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Becoming a pianist-composer: An exploration of performance interpretation through improvisation and composition2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master of Fine Arts (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis defines some of the traditional use of composition and improvisation during the 18th and 19th centuries and the view of performance interpretation by some of the most considerable pianist composers of that time and scholars of our time. The purpose of my artistic research is to adapt those traditions today with a modern approach. Thus, it is an extension of the romantic piano traditions.

    The methods used for this research are based on two concepts. The first aims to explore the possibilities within improvisation by using the score to improvise over. The second aims to use composition as a tool to build and relate to the process of how improvisation and interpretation functions - thus gaining a greater understanding of the pianist-composers of the 18th and 19th centuries. The overall aim is to develop my individual pianistic voice. Mental training and visualization are a key to achieving this. Improvisations over my own compositions have been important when exploring possibilities for developing the imaginative and creative processes as an improviser. The traits of inspiration that comes from the standard repertoire into my own music have been an interesting study case.

    The scope of this thesis spans from collected books, articles, and essays etc. of eyewitnesses of among others the great romantic pianist-composers and scholars of our time who shed light on the presented subjects of the thesis. 

    The artistic results of this thesis can be divided into two groups. The first group concerns the use of music theory, systematized schemes, tools for composition, improvisation, and the skills of performance interpretation. The second group are strongly linked to my religious beliefs, strong imagination, creativeness, and complex emotional processes that results in outward personal expressions when performing, creating, or being exposed to music. 

    How would a modern 18th and 19th pianist-composer adapt to and sound in today’s music societies and what practices would follow? How would our music society look today and what would our generation of piano students know with the adaptation of serious study and understanding of the fundamental building blocks of improvisation and composition? How would the music genres develop if piano students started to make music instead of only interpreting it? 

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  • 31.
    Krig Ölund, Emelie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    To Understand the Text of a Foreign Art Song: Comparing performances on three levels of preparation to understand two art songs' texts in French and English2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is an autobiographical study of a classical singing student who wished to investigate the connection between understanding the meaning of the text in an art song and her musical/dramatic interpretation of it. Classical singing students study songs and arias in French, German, Italian and other European languages on a regular basis, but they do not necessarily speak or understand all of them. How can a singer relate to the text of the songs they are performing if they do not know the language of them? In this study I learned two art songs, one in French and one in English, divided the textual studies into three 'levels of understanding', made recordings for each level, compared the results and reflected upon my interpretations of each song. The purpose was partly to develop my own general understanding between text and interpretation as an artist, and partly as a showcase for other singing students how important it is to translate and by extension relate to the texts of all the songs we are singing, not only the ones in our mother tongue or fluent languages.

  • 32.
    Lefford, M. Nyssim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Bromham, Gary
    Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Fazekas, György
    Queen Mary University of London, London, United Kingdom.
    Moffat, David
    University of Plymouth, Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Context-Aware Intelligent Mixing Systems2021In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 69, no 3, p. 128-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent Mixing Systems (IMS) are rapidly becoming integrated into music mixing and production workflows. The intelligences of a human mixer and IMS can be distinguished by their abilities to comprehend, assess, and appreciate context. Humans will factor context into decisions, particularly concerning the use and application of technologies. The utility of an IMS depends on both its affordances and the situation in which it is to be used. The appropriate use for conventional purposes, or its utility for misappropriation, is determined by the context. This study considers how context impacts mixing decisions and the use of technology, focusing on how the mixer’s understanding of context can inform the use of IMS, and how the use of IMS can aid in informing a mixer of different contexts.

  • 33.
    Liwicki, Foteini
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Upadhyay, Richa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Chhipa, Prakash Chandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Murphy, Killian
    SAMOVAR laboratory, Telecom SudParis, Institut Polytechnique de Paris, France.
    Visi, Federico
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Liwicki, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
    Deep Neural Network approaches for Analysing Videos of Music PerformancesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Martinsson, Rasmus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Synthpopens syntes: Återskapande och omvandling av Dua Lipa och Harry Styles2024Independent thesis Basic level (Higher Education Diploma (Fine Arts)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta examensarbete är att fördjupa förståelsen för musikproduktion och synthprogrammering genom att återskapa två Dua Lipa-låtar och sedan applicera denna kunskap för att omvandla Harry Styles "Watermelon sugar" i Dua Lipa-stil.

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    Don’t start now, sub-bas
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    Don’t start now, synthbasljudet
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    Physical, hela återskapningen
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    Physical, flöjtmoogmelodi
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    Physical, melodisynth
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    Watermelon, trumdelarna plus sång
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    Watermelon sugar i Dua Lipa-tappning, min version
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    Watermelon, basspåren
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  • 35.
    Minors, Helen Julia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater. School of the Arts, York St John University, UK.
    Club Inégales, Curation, and Processes of Public Musicology2023In: The Routledge Companion to Applied Musicology / [ed] Chris Dromey, Taylor and Francis , 2023, 1, p. 98-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter offers a cultural and contextual overview of a series of events curated at London's Club Inegales in 2019. It offers applied definitions of public engagement, accessibility, and public musicology in the context of curating such events, with a specific focus on artist-audience interaction through pre-concert panel discussions and artist question-and-answer sessions. The chapter then outlines the nature of the events and their aims, before reflecting on their creation and reception. Beyond chronicling the processes of creating such a series, it also comments on the connections, real and latent, between contemporary music-making and musicology. Although the reach and cultural capital of musical events such as “Women's Voices” tend to be proportional to their size, all such events have the power to challenge and influence musical practice from the perspective of musicians and concertgoers alike. Musicology is an active, applied practice through which to reflect, advocate, and enact change in the music industries and in society at large.

  • 36.
    Minors, Helen Julia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater. School of Arts, York St John University, United Kingdom.
    Music speaks: The role of emotional expression in music for sci-fi fantasy films2022In: Intersemiotic Perspectives on Emotions: Translating across Signs, Bodies and Values / [ed] Susan Petrilli, Meng Ji, Taylor and Francis , 2022, 1, p. 332-348Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores how music expresses emotions by illustrating how music is able to translate the content of texts, narratives and cultures. In particular, in order to demonstrate how music can express emotion, it situates how music means and how it might “speak” to its listener (Albright 2009). If meaning is “emergent” (Cook 2001) in the experience of the sound, then what supplementary role does music play within expressing emotions within the context of film? Music is used in a variety of ways in film, often to speak on behalf of a character or culture, when words are not sufficient. It is a vital component of the film media, and is often accredited as contributing the emotional heart to the film. Whereas language in film can be dubbed or subtitled, the music remains, projecting its message across cultural boundaries. If music is able to express emotion, then it has an emotive response and significant impact on the narrative of a film and its spectator. Can music make us “shiver when listening to Vivaldi’s Winter concerto from the Four Seasons?" (Chanan, in Minors 2013). In illustrating music’s emotional capacity, this chapter takes a model of expressive potential from popular music studies (Moore 2016), which charts the four relational dimensions (intimate space, private space, social space, public space) which enable the listener to interpret meaning from nonverbal gestures. Two main examples drawn from Sci fi/fantasy films show how music contributes to the expression of emotions. Two contemporary fantasy movies with newly composed music are: The Shape of Water (2017) with music by Alexandre Desplat and Arrival (2016) with music by Jóhann Jóhannsson.

  • 37.
    Minors, Helen Julia
    et al.
    York St John University, York, Great Britain.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Conclusion: Probing, Positioning, (Re)Acting2024In: Teaching Music Performance in Higher Education: Exploring the Potential of Artistic Research / [ed] Helen Julia Minors, Stefan Östersjö, Gilvano Dalagna, Jorge Salgado Correia, Open Book Publishers, 2024, p. 307-314Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 38.
    Minors, Helen Julia
    et al.
    York St John University, York, Great Britain.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Dalagna, Gilvano
    University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Correia, Jorge Salgado
    Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Introduction2024In: Teaching Music Performance in Higher Education: Exploring the Potential of Artistic Research / [ed] Helen Julia Minors, Stefan Östersjö, Gilvano Dalagna, Jorge Salgado Correia, Open Book Publishers, 2024, p. 1-8Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 39.
    Minors, Helen Julia
    et al.
    York St John University, York, Great Britain.
    Östersjö, StefanLuleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.Dalagna, GilvanoUniversity of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal; Polytechnic Institute of Porto, Porto, Portugal.Correia, Jorge SalgadoUniversidade de Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Teaching Music Performance in Higher Education: Exploring the Potential of Artistic Research2024Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Higher Music Performance Education, as taught and learned in universities and conservatoires in Europe, is undergoing transformation. Since the nineteenth century, the master-apprentice pedagogical model has dominated, creating a learning environment that emphasises the development of technical skills rather than critical and creative faculties. This book contributes to the renewal of this field by being the first to address the potential of artistic research in developing student-centred approaches and greater student autonomy. This potential is demonstrated in chapters illustrating artistic research projects that are embedded within higher music education courses across Europe, with examples ranging from instrumental tuition and ensemble work to the development of professional employability skills and inclusive practices.

    Bringing together diverse and experienced voices working within Higher Music Education but often also as professional performers, this edited collection pairs critical reflection with artistic insight to present new approaches to curricula for teaching interpretation and performance. It calls for greater collaboration between Higher Education and professional music institutions to create closer bonds with music industries and, thereby, improve students’ career opportunities. Teaching Music Performance in Higher Education will appeal to scholars, performers, teachers, but also students whose interests centre on innovative practices in conservatoires and music departments.

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  • 40.
    Neld, Antonia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Sluta vara så stel: En sångare utforskar scenisk gestaltning2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master of Fine Arts (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Min ursprungliga idé med arbetet var att utforska hur jag skulle kunna implementera gester och musikdramatiska idéer i såväl mitt instuderingsarbete som i det faktiska framförandet för att skapa ett mer organiskt samspel där både kropp och röst samarbetar för att berätta en historia. Jag har sedan länge spelat in olika konserter och uppsättningar där jag själv medverkar som sångerska. Det är bra att gå igenom en föreställning i efterhand för att se vad som fungerar och vad som behöver mer fokus. Något som blivit tydligt för mig är att mitt fysiska uttryck inte alltid stämmer överens med innebörden i det jag sjunger eller med musikens dramatik. Jag kan se helt oberörd ut på en inspelning trots att jag vet att jag var i musiken i stunden. En sådan enkel sak som att mina ögon flackar runt säger mig att jag inte har ett tydligt fokus just då. Jag har börjat skriva in i noterna var de specifika fokuspunkterna ska vara (till exempel att vända mig åt sidan) för att det inte ska bli något slags sista-minuten jobb precis innan konsert/ föreställning utan bli en del av helheten precis som texten och det musikaliska. Jag har under höst- och tidig vår gjort en förstudie där jag dokumenterat processen med hjälp av en loggbok, feedback och inspelningar vilket har gett mig goda insikter i vad som fungerat bra i valet av metoder och i min generella struktur i arbetet, och vad som fungerat mindre bra. Huvuddelen av mitt magisterprojekt tar avstamp i förstudien.

  • 41.
    Nelson, Robin
    et al.
    University of London, RCSSD, London, UK.
    Östersjö, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Nordic Contexts2022In: Practice as Research in the Arts (and Beyond): Principles, Processes, Contexts, Achievements, Springer International Publishing , 2022, 2, p. 147-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter focuses on the concepts that have driven the development of Artistic Research in the Nordic countries. Acknowledging, like other regional perspectives, that there are many differences between countries and programmes within them, the chapter aims to bring out key issues informing Artistic Research. In particular, it sheds light on the disposition to include the quality of the arts practice as one criterion in research assessment to meet a “dual requirement.” The chapter also reflects on the various relations of artists with the arts and science worlds and with an institutionalized academy. It concludes that the next challenge in the Nordic countries is a consideration of how art, and artistic research outcomes, might have social and political impact.

  • 42.
    Nordin, Helena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater. Helena Nordin.
    Walking in the footprints of giants: A study about the art of vocal improvising and phrasing in jazz music2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the knowledge from my past experiences of education in music and professional experience of performing jazz vocally, I have always been interested in how I can challenge my role as a vocalist in a jazz ensemble. When studying singing at Complete Vocal Institute in Copenhagen, I gained large perceptions regarding my voice and my creative flow within the music. These new perspectives made me discover what I was capable of achieving with my voice, which I rarely see jazz vocalists do. I find it interesting to analyse what other jazz musicians do when they create, to be perceived as free and undemanding but still very advanced musically and captivating for the listeners.

    Another reason why I wanted to shed some light on this topic is that I often hear other jazz students question whether we who are born in Scandinavia really are able to reach the same level of expression and improvisational flow as American jazz musicians.These doubts trigger me, and make me want to prove that everyone can accomplish any kind of expression if we only have the right tools for it. And there is still this thought in my mind when I see musicians such as saxophonists, guitarists, and pianists, among others, get inspired by each other and try other people’s ideas, why I almost never see the same playfulness and thirst for musical knowledge in singers? I wonder in my mind: Why?

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  • 43.
    Nordin, Jesper
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Dreaming of new musical interaction–the interactive music in the project Dream2024In: International Journal of Performance Arts and Digital Media, ISSN 1479-4713, E-ISSN 2040-0934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dream was an online live performance in early 2021 and was a collaboration between several partners, among them Royal Shakespeare Company, the Philharmonia Orchestra, Marshmallow Laser Feast, Manchester International Festival and EPIC Games. The stated goal of Dream was to explore new ways of interacting with audiences while bridging the disciplines of theatre, music, video games and other forms of digital media. The musical goals were to enable a high level of musical interactivity while at the same time coupling that with the use of high-quality recorded orchestral music. This article is not a study of the Dream project as a whole, but focuses on the interactive music that was generated in realtime by the actors and powered by Reactional Music. Apart from briefly discussing the technology itself, this article will describe and analyse some of the working processes involved in composing interactive music, as well as discuss some of the future implications of the use of technology from the video game industry in new areas such as live performances and audience interaction. The aim of this is to see if it’s possible to envision what kind of new artistic output that can come from these new technological environments.

  • 44.
    Osborne, Katherine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Rollings Bigler, Amelia
    Voice and Pedagogy, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC, USA.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Building Timbre Discrimination and Critical Listening Skills in Classical and CCM Singing Students2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Singing teachers often recommend critical listening activities to their students, both to expose them to great performances by various singing artists and thereby set standards and provide references to evaluate their own work in practice sessions, singing lessons, and performances. However, inexperienced students often admit that they do not truly understand what they are supposed to be listening for in these recordings, falling back on pre-existing aesthetic preferences to judge the quality of the performances rather than considering and detecting perceptual information that can be connected to the physiological, acoustical, and musical characteristics of the performers and their artistic interpretations. Using the principles of “technical ear training” from sound engineering education (e.g. Corey & Benson, 2016, p. 3) that seek to strengthen critical listening skills, two university singing programs (Coastal Carolina Univerisity/USA and Musikhögskolan i Piteå/Sweden) adopted a listening activity to improve timbre discrimination skills in classical and CCM singing students. 

    In a procedure developed with project advisor, M. Nyssim Lefford, Ph.D, M.S. (specialist in music production, music cognition, and auditory perception), each subject selected a short excerpt from a recording of a favorite singing artist with a similar voice type to their own and uploaded it into a program that allows the application of frequency filters. The excerpt was first played in its original form, followed by a series of repetitions using different combinations of filters applied to various frequency bands selected by the researchers to isolate important perceptual features of the singer’s voice and interpretational choices. This procedure was repeated two subsequent times with new student-selected recordings. Students wrote reflections after each session guided by general questions from the researchers. Results will be discussed and compared between the two subject groups along with implications for singing pedagogy and curricula and suggestions for future work. 

  • 45.
    Palmborg, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Bortom Blues2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats handlar om mitt arbete med att utveckla ett eget sound genom att skriva licks på elgitarren. Licks är korta melodier som används som vanligtvis används som byggstenar i ett solo. Jag skrev totalt 216 licks med den för oss elgitarrister så välbekanta mollpenta-skalan som grund där jag tog reda på vilka ackord man kunde extrahera från den och arpeggierade dessa för att skapa ett susklingande sound på licksen. Jag började med vad jag kallade moderlicks som jag itererade på med hjälp utav en förutbestämd mall där jag visste hur många licks jag behövde skriva för varje moderlick. Med denna mall bestämde jag också vilka tonarter jag skulle skriva i och hur många licks varje tonart skulle innehålla. När processen med att skriva licks var klar skrev jag backingtracks i olika stilar och tonarter för att ta reda på i vilken kontext dessa licks passar i. 

    Arbetet riktar sig främst till den som vill hitta en metod för att utveckla sitt egna sound i sin improvisation, musiker som vill utforska pentaskalans möjligheter utanför det bluesiga soundet eller den musiker som vill hitta en alternativ övningsform där det kreativa skapandet driver fram speltekniska framsteg vilket det helt klart gjorde för mig.  

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    Technical Death Metal låt
  • 46.
    Petersson, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    A new morphology: Strategies for innovation in live electronics performance2024In: Innovation in Music: Technology and Creativity / [ed] Jan-Olof Gullö, Russ Hepworth-Sawyer, Justin Paterson, Rob Toulson, Mark Marrington, Taylor & Francis, 2024, p. 310-327Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Petersson, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater. Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Live Coding the Global Hyperorgan: The Paragraph environment in the indeterminate place2023In: Organised Sound, ISSN 1355-7718, E-ISSN 1469-8153, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 206-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents several scenarios in which a live coding environment called Paragraph was utilised to telematically play networked and geographically distributed hyperorgans. Situated within the framework of the Global Hyperorgan project, the TCP/Indeterminate Place Quartet have explored the affordances of the organ network through the concept of Tele-Copresence. By outsourcing certain dimensions of the parameter space of the Paragraph language to other members of the quartet, a shared instrumentality is enabled, where the organs are collaboratively controlled by means of this system. Rooted in a personal composer-performer practice and studied from the perspective of the live coder, the Paragraph system, adapted to the TCP/Indeterminate Place environment, can be understood as a modular system of human and non-human agents, into which the other musicians are patched. The distributed parameter space utilised, thus resembles a shared cantus firmus, a foundational, but dynamically changing, ecology for the live coder to play within.

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  • 48.
    Petersson, Mattias
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Ek, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Exploring Sinew0od2022In: ECHO, a journal of music, thought and technology, E-ISSN 2736-5824, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Rollings Bigler, Amelia
    et al.
    Voice and Voice Pedagogy, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC., USA.
    Osborne, Katherine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Group Voice Instruction Strategies in University Settings: A Collective Case Study2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many university music and theatre programs use group voice classes to train students of various majors (musical theatre, voice performance, music education, music therapy). Studies in other fields have examined the effects of both small and large group instruction on learning outcomes and found that group instruction facilitated both direct and indirect learning, helped foster a supportive learning environment, and elicited more student engagement and peer-to-peer feedback (e.g., Cho et al., 2016). Therefore, one might conjecture that group voice classes could be used to effectively supplement one-to-one voice lessons. Few studies in voice pedagogy have examined the effects of group voice training on voice performance outcomes; however, Clayne Robison, professor emeritus at Brigham Young University, found group voice instruction led to a ten-fold increase in faculty teaching efficiency, as group voice instruction was more effective (students improved three times faster than those enrolled only in private instruction) and more efficient in terms of faculty teaching load.

    The effectiveness and efficiency of group voice instruction will naturally depend on the teaching methods employed. The purpose of this collective case study was to explore the effects of various group voice instructional methods on student learning, engagement, and singing voice skill acquisition outcomes in university settings (N = 2) differing in terms of geography (Sweden and the USA) and primary singing style (classical and musical theatre). Results will be discussed in terms of the most effective teaching strategies for group voice instruction, potential differences in group teaching methodology informed by geography and primary singing style, and how these findings might impact the design of university program voice curricula in the future.

  • 50.
    Rollings Bigler, Amelia
    et al.
    Voice and Voice Pedagogy, Coastal Carolina University, Conway, SC.
    Osborne, Katherine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Voice Pedagogy for the 21st Century: The Summation of Two Summits2021In: Journal of Singing, ISSN 1086-7732, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 11-28Article in journal (Other academic)
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