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  • 1.
    Abrahamson, Josefin
    et al.
    Orthopaedic Research Unit, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, R-huset, Plan 7, 41380 Mölndal, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 100, 405 30 Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lindman, Ida
    Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 100, 405 30 Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jónasson, Pall
    Department of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 100, 405 30 Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    High prevalence of former elite ice hockey players requiring early hip arthroplasty surgery2024In: Journal of Hip Preservation Surgery (JHPS), ISSN 2054-8397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-impact nature of ice hockey puts the players at a higher risk of developing early hip osteoarthritis (OA). This study aims to evaluate the presence of cam morphology, early radiological findings of OA and total hip arthroplasty (THA) in former Swedish elite ice hockey players. Male elite ice hockey players in the highest league in Sweden seeking orthopedic consultation for hip and groin pain with restricted hip joint range of motion and subsequent radiographs (Antero/posterior view, Lauenstein view and/or Hip frontal view) were included. The radiographs were performed between 1988 and 2009 and retrospectively examined for the presence of cam morphology (evaluated by alpha-angle >= 60 degrees) and hip OA (evaluated by Tonnis classification). All players were contacted between 11 and 33 years after baseline radiograph examination for follow-up investigation of the presence of subsequent THA. A total of 44 male ice hockey players were included, of which 31 had available radiographs and 39 answered the follow-up questions. Cam morphology (alpha-angle >= 60 degrees) was present in 81% of the players. Seven players (18%) had received a THA with a mean age of 55.7 (SD 6.1) years at time of THA-surgery. Tonnis score at baseline radiographs were associated with THA later in life (P < 0.001). This study conclude that former elite Swedish ice hockey players underwent THA at a younger age than the general population. Despite confirming previous research of high prevalence of cam morphology in elite ice hockey players, no association could be established between cam morphology and the need for THA.

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  • 2.
    Adhitya, I Putu Gde Surya
    et al.
    Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, P.B Sudirman Street, Denpasar, 80232, Bali, Indonesia.
    Wibawa, Ari
    Department of Physical Therapy, College of Medicine, Universitas Udayana, P.B Sudirman Street, Denpasar, 80232, Bali, Indonesia.
    Aryana, I Gusti Ngurah Wien
    Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, College of Medicine and Sanglah General Hospital, Universitas Udayana, Pulau Nias Street, Denpasar, 80113, Bali, Indonesia.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Indonesian version of the Lysholm knee score and Tegner activity scale in patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction2023In: Journal of Bodywork & Movement Therapies, ISSN 1360-8592, E-ISSN 1532-9283, Vol. 34, p. 53-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alexandrou, Christina
    et al.
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NEO, Group MLÖ, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Johansson, Linnea
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NEO, Group MLÖ, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Müssener, Ulrika
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Löf, Marie
    Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, NEO, Group MLÖ, Huddinge, Sweden.
    User experiences of an app-based mHealth intervention (MINISTOP 2.0) integrated in Swedish primary child healthcare among Swedish-, Somali- and Arabic-speaking parents and child healthcare nurses: A qualitative study2023In: Digital Health, E-ISSN 2055-2076, Vol. 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Preventive and scalable interventions, accessible to all, to counteract childhood obesity are urgently needed. We have recently developed a novel, digital parental intervention (MINISTOP 2.0 app) available in Swedish, Somali, Arabic and English. We have previously reported its positive effects on children&apos;s health behaviors and on parental self-efficacy. However, before introducing the app at scale in primary child healthcare, implementation aspects also need to be explored.

    Aim: This study aims to explore and describe user experiences as well as acceptability and feasibility of the MINISTOP 2.0 app-based intervention in a diverse group of parents (end-users) and Swedish child healthcare nurses (implementers).

    Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with Swedish- (n = 9), Somali- (n = 9), Arabic- (n = 5) and English-speaking (n = 1) parents as well as Swedish primary child healthcare nurses (n = 15). Data was analyzed using content analysis with an inductive latent approach.

    Results: Parents described how the app facilitated behavior change through increased awareness regarding current diet and physical activity behaviors. Furthermore, the evidence-based app content further facilitated trust and behavior change. Both parents and nurses acknowledged the app&apos;s preventive potential and the potential for reaching parents with diverse backgrounds or in need of extra support.

    Conclusion: The MINISTOP 2.0 app was perceived as a useful tool for health promotion both by parents and healthcare professionals, especially since it was adapted to several languages. These findings coupled with the previously shown beneficial effects on health behaviors support the large-scale implementation of the app in primary child healthcare.

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  • 4.
    Al-Husseini, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosurgery, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fazel Bakhsheshi, Mohammad
    Department of Family Medicine and Community Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; BrainCool AB, Medicon Village, Lund, Sweden.
    Gard, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Shorter Recovery Time in Concussed Elite Ice Hockey Players by Early Head-and-Neck Cooling: A Clinical Trial2023In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 40, no 11-12, p. 1075-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A sports-related concussion (SRC) is most commonly sustained in contact sports, and is defined as a mild traumatic brain injury. An exercise-induced elevation of core body temperature is associated with increased brain temperature that may accelerate secondary injury processes following SRC, and exacerbate the brain injury. In a recent pilot study, acute head-neck cooling of 29 concussed ice hockey players resulted in shorter time to return-to-play. Here, we extended the clinical trial to include players of 19 male elite Swedish ice hockey teams over five seasons (2016-2021). In the intervention teams, acute head-neck cooling was implemented using a head cap for ≥45 min in addition to the standard SRC management used in controls. The primary endpoint was time from SRC until return-to-play (RTP). Sixty-one SRCs were included in the intervention group and 71 SRCs in the control group. The number of previous SRCs was 2 (median and interquartile range [IQR]: 1.0-2.0) and 1 (IQR 1.0-2.0) in the intervention and control groups, respectively; p = 0.293. Median time to initiate head-neck cooling was 10 min (IQR 7-15; range 5-30 min) and median duration of cooling was 45 min (IQR 45-50; range 45-70 min). The median time to RTP was 9 days in the intervention group (IQR 7.0-13.5 days) and 13 days in the control group (IQR 9-30; p < 0.001). The proportion of players out from play for more than the expected recovery time of 14 days was 24.7% in the intervention group, and 43.7% in controls (p < 0.05). Study limitations include that: 1) allocation to cooling or control management was at the discretion of the medical staff of each team, decided prior to each season, and not by strict randomization; 2) no sham cap was used and evaluations could not be performed by blinded assessors; and 3) it could not be established with certainty that injury severity was similar between groups. While the results should thus be interpreted with caution, early head-neck cooling, with the aim of attenuating cerebral hyperthermia, may reduce post-SRC symptoms and lead to earlier return-to-play in elite ice hockey players.

  • 5.
    Al-Husseini, Ali
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Gard, Anna
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Fransson, Per-Anders
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tegner, Yelverton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Magnusson, Måns
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Marklund, Niklas
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Neurosurgery, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tjernström, Fredrik
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Long-term postural control in elite athletes following mild traumatic brain injury2022In: Frontiers in Neurology, E-ISSN 1664-2295, Vol. 13, article id 906594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Traumas to the head and neck are common in sports and often affects otherwise healthy young individuals. Sports-related concussions (SRC), defined as a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), may inflict persistent neck and shoulder pain, and headache, but also more complex symptoms, such as imbalance, dizziness, and visual disturbances. These more complex symptoms are difficult to identify with standard health care diagnostic procedures.

    Objective: To investigate postural control in a group of former elite athletes with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) at least 6 months after the incident.

    Method: Postural control was examined using posturography during quiet stance and randomized balance perturbations with eyes open and eyes closed. Randomized balance perturbations were used to examine motor learning through sensorimotor adaptation. Force platform recordings were converted to reflect the energy used to maintain balance and spectrally categorized into total energy used, energy used for smooth corrective changes of posture (i.e., <0.1 Hz), and energy used for fast corrective movements to maintain balance (i.e., >0.1 Hz).

    Results: The mTBI group included 20 (13 males, mean age 26.6 years) elite athletes with PPCS and the control group included 12 athletes (9 males, mean age 26.4 years) with no history of SRC. The mTBI group used significantly more energy during balance perturbations than controls: +143% total energy, p = 0.004; +122% low frequency energy, p = 0.007; and +162% high frequency energy, p = 0.004. The mTBI subjects also adapted less to the balance perturbations than controls in total (18% mTBI vs. 37% controls, p = 0.042), low frequency (24% mTBI vs. 42% controls, p = 0.046), and high frequency (6% mTBI vs. 28% controls, p = 0.040). The mTBI subjects used significantly more energy during quiet stance than controls: +128% total energy, p = 0.034; +136% low-frequency energy, p = 0.048; and +109% high-frequency energy, p = 0.015.

    Conclusion: Athletes with previous mTBI and PPCS used more energy to stand compared to controls during balance perturbations and quiet stance and had diminished sensorimotor adaptation. Sports-related concussions are able to affect postural control and motor learning.

  • 6.
    Almqvist, Andreas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.
    Lintzén, Nina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    Holmberg, H-C
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Larsson, Roland
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Machine Elements.
    A Scientific Perspective on Reducing Ski-Snow Friction to Improve Performance in Olympic Cross-Country Skiing, the Biathlon and Nordic Combined2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 844883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Of the medals awarded at the 2022 Winter Olympics in Beijing, 24% were for events involving cross-country skiing, the biathlon and Nordic combined. Although much research has focused on physiological and biomechanical characteristics that determine success in these sports, considerably less is yet known about the resistive forces. Here, we specifically describe what is presently known about ski-snow friction, one of the major resistive forces. Today, elite ski races take place on natural and/or machine-made snow. Prior to each race, several pairs of skis with different grinding and waxing of the base are tested against one another with respect to key parameters, such as how rapidly and for how long the ski glides, which is dependent on ski-snow friction. This friction arises from a combination of factors, including compaction, plowing, adhesion, viscous drag, and water bridging, as well as contaminants and dirt on the surface of and within the snow. In this context the stiffness of the ski, shape of its camber, and material composition and topography of the base exert a major influence. An understanding of the interactions between these factors, in combination with information concerning the temperature and humidity of both the air and snow, as well as the nature of the snow, provides a basis for designing specific strategies to minimize ski-snow friction. In conclusion, although performance on “narrow skis” has improved considerably in recent decades, future insights into how best to reduce ski-snow friction offer great promise for even further advances.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Ahonen-Jonnarth, Ulla
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom.
    Wallhagen, Marita
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Bökman, Fredrik
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    What Influences People’s Tradeoff Decisions Between CO2 Emissions and Travel Time? An Experiment With Anchors and Normative Messages2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 702398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the today’s greatest challenges is to adjust our behavior so that we can avoid a major climate disaster. To do so, we must make sacrifices for the sake of the environment. The study reported here investigates how anchors (extrinsic motivational-free information) and normative messages (extrinsic motivational information) influence people’s tradeoffs between travel time and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the context of car travel and whether any interactions with environmental concern (an intrinsic motivational factor) can be observed. In this study, people received either a CO2, health or no normative message together with either a high anchor, a low anchor, or no anchor. People that received both a high anchor and a CO2 emission normative message were willing to travel for a longer time than those that only received a high anchor. If a low anchor was presented, no differences in willingness to travel for a longer time were found between the three different conditions of normative message groups, i.e., CO2 normative message, health normative message, or no normative message. People with higher concern for the environment were found to be willing to travel for a longer time than those with lower concern for the environment. Further, this effect was strongest when a high anchor was presented. These results suggest that anchors and normative messages are among the many factors that can influence people’s tradeoffs between CO2 emission and travel time, and that various factors may have to be combined to increase their influence over pro-environmental behavior and decisions.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Mattias
    Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems, and Sustainability Science, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Threadgold, Emma
    Human Factors Group, School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Beaman, C. Philip
    School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK.
    Ball, Linden J.
    Human Factors Group, School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Human Factors Group, School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    The negative footprint illusion is exacerbated by the numerosity of environment-friendly additions: unveiling the underpinning mechanisms2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 295-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The addition of environmentally friendly items to conventional items sometimes leads people to believe that the carbon footprint of the entire set decreases rather than increases. This negative footprint illusion is supposedly underpinned by an averaging bias: people base environmental impact estimates not on the total impact of items but on their average. Here, we found that the illusion&apos;s magnitude increased with the addition of a greater number of "green" items when the number of conventional items remained constant (Studies 1 and 2), supporting the averaging-bias account. We challenged this account by testing what happens when the number of items in the conventional and "green" categories vary while holding the ratio between the two categories constant (Study 3). At odds with the averaging-bias account, the magnitude of the illusion increased as the category size increased, revealing a category-size bias, and raising questions about the interplay between these biases in the illusion.

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  • 9.
    Aronsson, Ingela
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Neely, Anna Stigsdotter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Institute for Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Diagnostics and Intervention, Diagnostic Radiology, and Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC) and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section for Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    “Recovery activities are needed every step of the way”—exploring the process of long-term recovery in people previously diagnosed with exhaustion disorder2024In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 12, article id 248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sick-leave rates are high due to stress-related illnesses, but little is still known about the process of recovery from these conditions. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of the recovery process, 6 to 10 years after treatment in people previously diagnosed with exhaustion disorder (ED), focusing on facilitators and barriers for the process of recovery from ED, and recovery activities experienced as helpful during the recovery process.

    Method: Thirty-eight participants (average age: 52 years, 32 females) previously diagnosed with ED were interviewed with semi-structured interviews 6–10 years after undergoing treatment. The interviews were analyzed with thematic analysis.

    Results: Three themes resulted from the analysis. The first theme, “A long and rocky road”, summarizes the fluctuating path to feeling better and emphasizes barriers and facilitators that affected the process of recovery, with a focus on external life events and the participants’ own behaviors. Facilitators were changing workplace, receiving support, a reduction in stressors, and changed behaviors. Barriers were a poor work environment, caregiver responsibilities, negative life events and lack of support. The second theme “Recovery activities are needed every step of the way” describes how both the need for recovery activities and the types of activities experienced as helpful changed during the recovery process, from low-effort recovery activities for long periods of time to shorter and more active recovery activities. Recovery activities were described as important for self-care but hard to prioritize in everyday life. The last theme, “Reorienting to a new place”, captures the struggle to cope with the remaining impact of ED, and how internal facilitators in terms of understanding and acceptance were important to reorient and adjust to a new way of functioning.

    Conclusions: Recovering from ED is a long and ongoing process where recovery activities are needed every step of the way. Our results highlight the importance of supporting personal recovery and long-term behavioral change, addressing individual stressors that may perpetuate the condition, and adjusting recovery activities according to where the person is in the recovery process.

    Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT0073772. Registered on March 8, 2017. This study was pre-registered on Open Science Framework (osf.io).

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  • 10.
    Atienzar, Tania O.
    et al.
    Living Systems Institute, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK; School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Pilgrim, Lea K.
    School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire,Preston, UK.
    Sio, Ut Na
    Sheffield University Management School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.
    Marsh, John E.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology and Humanities, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.
    Replicating and extending hemispheric asymmetries in auditory distraction: no metacognitive awareness for the left-ear disadvantage for changing-state sounds2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments investigating hemispheric asymmetries in auditory distraction, the spatial location of to-be-ignored sound was manipulated. Prior studies indicated a left-ear disadvantage for changing-state sequences during short-term serial recall but lacked a direct measure of the changing-state effect. Experiment 1 compared changing-state with steady-state sequences in a visual-verbal serial recall task, confirming that left-ear disruption resulted from the acoustically varying nature of the sound, emphasizing right hemisphere dominance for processing acoustic variation in unattended stimuli. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and explored participants&apos; metacognitive awareness of auditory distractors&apos; disruptive potential. While participants were aware that changing-state sequences were more disruptive than steady-state sequences, they lacked awareness of the left-ear disadvantage. The study suggests individuals have metacognitive awareness of the disruptive impact of changing-state over steady-state sound but not of the accompanying left-ear disadvantage, raising implications for theoretical accounts of auditory distraction.

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  • 11.
    Axelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kihlberg, Sara
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Davis, Paul
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Psychotherapy students' experiences of supervisee-centred supervision based on deliberate practice, feedback-informed treatment and self-compassion2024In: Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1473-3145, E-ISSN 1746-1405, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 719-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There are few methods that focus on therapists' experiences of supervision. To facilitate the development of psychologist students, a supervisee-centred supervision, based on deliberate practice, feedback informed treatment and self-compassion, was introduced.

    Methods: This study examines six supervisees’ experiences of a supervisee-centred supervision. A semi- structured interview was used for the collection of the data, which identified two main themes: Learning and Development and five associated sub-themes: structure and purposesfulness, prerequisites, experience-based learning, therapeutic skills and personal development.

    Conclusion: The experience- and feedback-based approach was perceived as efficient, structured and goal oriented. This created high-focused activity and participation, a strong group dynamic and a good alliance with the supervisors, providing a good climate for learning and development. Focusing on performance and feedback was perceived as a potential obstacle that could create stress and anxiety.

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  • 12.
    Backman, Helena
    et al.
    Section for Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundquist, Anders
    Department of Statistics, Umeå School of Business, Economics and Statistics (USBE), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Strandkvist, Viktor
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Sawalha, Sami
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson-Ström, Jonas
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Section for Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Section for Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lung Function Trajectories and Associated Mortality Among Adults with and without Airway Obstruction2023In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 208, no 10, p. 1063-1074Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Barbera, Mariagnese
    et al.
    Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1C, 70211, Kuopio, Finland; The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, London, W6 8RP, UK.
    Lehtisalo, Jenni
    Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1C, 70211, Kuopio, Finland; Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, Finland.
    Perera, Dinithi
    The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, London, W6 8RP, UK; FINGERS Brain Health Institute, C/O Stockholms Sjukhem, Box 122 30, SE-102 26, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aspö, Malin
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 64, Solna, Sweden; Theme Inflammation and Aging, Medical Unit Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 76, Solna, Sweden.
    Cross, Mary
    Imperial Clinical Trials Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Imperial College London, Stadium House, 68 Wood Lane, London, W12 7RH, UK.
    De Jager Loots, Celeste A.
    The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, LondonLondon, W6 8RP, UK.
    Falaschetti, Emanuela
    Imperial Clinical Trials Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, Imperial College London, Stadium House, 68 Wood Lane, London, W12 7RH, UK.
    Friel, Naomi
    The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, LondonLondon, W6 8RP, UK.
    Luchsinger, José A.
    Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, 622 W 168Th St, New York, NY, USA.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden.
    Peltonen, Markku
    Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, Finland; FINGERS Brain Health Institute, C/O Stockholms Sjukhem, Box 122 30, SE-102 26, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Price, Geraint
    The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, LondonLondon, W6 8RP, UK.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Social and Psychological Studies, Karlstad University, 651 88, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Thunborg, Charlotta
    Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 64, Solna, Sweden; Theme Inflammation and Aging, Medical Unit Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 76, Solna, Sweden.
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, PO BOX 20, 00014, Helsinki, Finland; Diabetes Research Group, King Abdulaziz University, 21589, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Mangialasche, Francesca
    FINGERS Brain Health Institute, C/O Stockholms Sjukhem, Box 122 30, SE-102 26, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 64, Solna, Sweden; Theme Inflammation and Aging, Medical Unit Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 76, Solna, Sweden.
    Middleton, Lefkos
    The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, LondonLondon, W6 8RP, UK; Directorate of Public Health, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust Hospitals, Praed Street, London, W2 1NY, UK.
    Ngandu, Tiia
    Population Health Unit, Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare, Mannerheimintie 166, P.O. Box 30, Helsinki, Finland; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 64, Solna, Sweden.
    Solomon, Alina
    Department of Neurology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1C, 70211, Kuopio, Finland; The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, London, W6 8RP, UK; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 64, Solna, Sweden.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    The Ageing Epidemiology Research Unit, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Charing Cross Hospital, St Dunstan’s Road, LondonLondon, W6 8RP, UK; Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Center for Alzheimer Research, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 64, Solna, Sweden; Theme Inflammation and Aging, Medical Unit Aging, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Vägen 37A, 171 76, Solna, Sweden; Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistonranta 1C, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.
    A multimodal precision-prevention approach combining lifestyle intervention with metformin repurposing to prevent cognitive impairment and disability: the MET-FINGER randomised controlled trial protocol2024In: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy, E-ISSN 1758-9193, Vol. 16, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Combining multimodal lifestyle interventions and disease-modifying drugs (novel or repurposed) could provide novel precision approaches to prevent cognitive impairment. Metformin is a promising candidate in view of the well-established link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer’s Disease and emerging evidence of its potential neuro-protective effects (e.g. vascular, metabolic, anti-senescence). MET-FINGER aims to test a FINGER 2.0 multimodal intervention, combining an updated FINGER multidomain lifestyle intervention with metformin, where appropriate, in an APOE ε4-enriched population of older adults (60–79 years) at increased risk of dementia.

    Methods: MET-FINGER is an international randomised, controlled, parallel-group, phase-IIb proof-of-concept clinical trial, where metformin is included through a trial-within-trial design. 600 participants will be recruited at three sites (UK, Finland, Sweden). Participants at increased risk of dementia based on vascular risk factors and cognitive screening, will be first randomised to the FINGER 2.0 intervention (lifestyle + metformin if eligible; active arm) or to receive regular health advice (control arm). Participants allocated to the FINGER 2.0 intervention group at risk indicators of T2D will be additionally randomised to receive metformin (2000 mg/day or 1000 mg/day) or placebo. The study duration is 2 years. The changes in global cognition (primary outcome, using a Neuropsychological Test Battery), memory, executive function, and processing speed cognitive domains; functional status; lifestyle, vascular, metabolic, and other dementia-related risk factors (secondary outcomes), will be compared between the FINGER 2.0 intervention and the control arm. The feasibility, potential interaction (between-groups differences in healthy lifestyle changes), and disease-modifying effects of the lifestyle-metformin combination will be exploratory outcomes. The lifestyle intervention is adapted from the original FINGER trial (diet, physical activity, cognitive training, monitoring of cardiovascular/metabolic risk factors, social interaction) to be consistently delivered in three countries. Metformin is administered as Glucophage®XR/SR 500, (500 mg oral tablets). The metformin/placebo treatment will be double blinded. Conclusion: MET-FINGER is the first trial combining a multimodal lifestyle intervention with a putative repurposed disease-modifying drug for cognitive impairment prevention. Although preliminary, its findings will provide crucial information for innovative precision prevention strategies and form the basis for a larger phase-III trial design and future research in this field.

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  • 14.
    Barchéus, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ranner, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Memory disorders, and Geriatrics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund-Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Occupational therapists’ experiences of using a new internet-based intervention - a focus group study2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 2247029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research is limited about how the introduction of new ways of delivering and conducting occupational therapy, in accordance with expected changes in health care, is experienced by occupational therapists (OTs).

    Aim

    To explore how OTs experienced use of a new internet-based intervention, ‘Strategies for Empowering activities in Everyday life’ (SEE), focusing on supporting client resources to manage an active everyday life after stroke.

    Material and methods

    A focus group study with periodical repeated discussion was designed. Four sessions during a period of 22 months were conducted with a total of four OTs.

    Result

    Overall, the results reflected that the OTs experienced that the use of SEE for persons with stroke was a valuable complement to existing rehabilitation. The process of introducing SEE included a multifaceted transition involving context, intervention process and delivery that renewed occupational therapy.

    Conclusion

    These results indicate how the use of new internet-based interventions such as SEE can influence and support renewal of occupational therapy that extends beyond the particular intervention. Continued research is needed to explore more aspects of SEE feasibility.

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  • 15.
    Barchéus, Ida-Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ranner, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyman, Anneli
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Neurology, Rehabilitation Medicine, Memory Clinic and Geriatrics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund-Malmö, Sweden.
    Larsson-Lund, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Developing and testing the feasibility of a new internet-based intervention-A case study of people with stroke and occupational therapists2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 12, article id e0296364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Internet-based interventions are called for within rehabilitation to meet the limited access to support for self-management after stroke. Therefore, a new intervention program, “Strategies for Empowering activities in Everyday life” (SEE) was developed. The aim of this study was to explore and describe how clients with stroke and their occupational therapists experienced the SEE intervention process and whether SEE has the potential to promote an active everyday life.

    Methods: A qualitative descriptive case study was designed. Four people with stroke (two of each sex, mean age 66,5 years) and their two occupational therapists (one of each sex) were included. A mix of data collection methods as interviews, assessments, registration forms and fieldnotes was used to uncover the participants’ experiences and potential changes. Data were analysed with pattern matching.

    Findings: The analysed data formed three categories: “Not being able to take on the internet-based intervention”, “Being facilitated in the change process of everyday life through the internet-based intervention”, and “Providing a new internet-based intervention is a transition from ordinary practice”. These categories included two to four subcategories that reflected aspects of SEE feasibility and acceptability with a focus on content and delivery.

    Conclusion: The first test of the intervention indicates that the content and delivery of SEE can be feasible and acceptable both for clients and occupational therapists. The findings suggest that SEE has the potential to support clients’ self-reflections and their adoption of strategies that influence engagement in daily activities and satisfaction with life in various ways. Further research with large-scale studies is needed.

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  • 16.
    Bauer, Nikolai
    et al.
    Institute of Sport and Sport Science, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany; Working Group Exercise Oncology, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Sperlich, Billy
    Chair of Integrative and Experimental Exercise Science and Training, Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Würzburg, Judenbühlweg 11, 97082, Würzburg, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum C5, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engel, Florian A.
    Chair of Integrative and Experimental Exercise Science and Training, Institute of Sport Science, Julius-Maximilians-Universität of Würzburg, Judenbühlweg 11, 97082, Würzburg, Germany.
    Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training in School on the Physical Performance and Health of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis2022In: Sports Medicine - Open, E-ISSN 2198-9761, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 50Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Performance of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) by children and adolescents improves physical and health-related fitness, as well as cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Objectives To assess the impact of HIIT performed at school, i.e. both in connection with physical education (intra-PE) and extracurricular sports activities (extra-PE), on the physical fitness and health of children and adolescents.

    Methods PubMed and SPORTDiscus were searched systematically utilizing the following criteria for inclusion: (1) healthy children and adolescents (5–18 years old) of normal weight; (2) HIIT performed intra- and/or extra-PE for at least 5 days at an intensity ≥ 80% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) or peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) or as Functional HIIT; (3) comparison with a control (HIIT versus alternative interventions); and (4) pre- and post-analysis of parameters related to physical fitness and health. The outcomes with HIIT and the control interventions were compared utilizing Hedges’ g effect size (ES) and associated 95% confidence intervals.

    Results Eleven studies involving 707 participants who performed intra-PE and 388 participants extra-PE HIIT were included. In comparison with the control interventions, intra-PE HIIT improved mean ES for neuromuscular and anaerobic performance (ES jump performance: 5.89 ± 5.67 (range 1.88–9.90); ES number of push-ups: 6.22 (range n.a.); ES number of sit-ups: 2.66 ± 2.02 (range 1.24–4.09)), as well as ES fasting glucose levels (− 2.68 (range n.a.)) more effectively, with large effect sizes. Extra-PE HIIT improved mean ES for neuromuscular and anaerobic performance (ES jump performance: 1.81 (range n.a.); ES number of sit-ups: 2.60 (range n.a.)) to an even greater extent, again with large effect sizes. Neither form of HIIT was more beneficial for parameters related to cardiorespiratory fitness than the control interventions.

    Conclusion Compared to other forms of exercise (e.g. low-to-moderate-intensity running or walking), both intra- and extra-PE HIIT result in greater improvements in neuromuscular and anaerobic performance, as well as in fasting levels of glucose in school children.

  • 17.
    Beaman, C. P.
    et al.
    School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, United Kingdom.
    Campbell, T.
    Faculty of Information Technology and Communication Sciences, Tampere University, Finland; Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Marsh, John Everett
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom.
    How Much Do We Orient?: A Systematic Approach to Auditory Distraction2021In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 1054-1066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on orienting and habituation to irrelevant sound can distinguish between task-specific and general accounts of auditory distraction: Distractors either disrupt specific cognitive processes (e.g., Jones, 1993;Salamé & Baddeley, 1982), or remove more general-purpose attentional resources from any attentiondemanding task (e.g., Cowan, 1995). Tested here is the prediction that there is no further auditory distraction effect on immediate serial recall with increments in the number of distractors beyond the“changing-state point” of two discrete distractors. A Bayes factor analysis refutes this nil hypothesis: This prediction, a key element of the strong changing-state hypothesis, is shown to be less likely than two competing alternatives. Quantitative predictions for distraction as a function of the number of distracters are derived for an orienting-response (OR) and a stimulus-mismatch (SMM) hypothesis, representing general and task-specific accounts respectively. The data are shown to be more likely under the SMM hypothesis. Prospects for a parametric account of auditory distraction are considered. © 2021 American Psychological Association

  • 18.
    Berg, Hans ten
    et al.
    Trafikanalys, Sweden.
    Klüft, Carolina
    Generation Pep, Sweden.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nilsson, Per
    Gymnastik- och idrottshögskolan, Sweden.
    Niska, Anna
    Statens väg- coh transportforskningsinstitut, Sweden.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Pellas, Maria
    Cykelfrämjandet, Sweden.
    Stigell, Erik
    Naturvårdsverket, Sweden.
    DN Debatt: Sluta skjutsa barnen till skolan - hälsa går före rädsla2023In: Dagens Nyheter. (DN), ISSN 1101-2447, no 2023-02-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Våra barn blir alltmer stillasittande, vilket får livslånga konsekvenser. En av de enklaste lösningarna står föräldrar i vägen för – på grund av rädsla. Föräldrarnas välvilja är i själva verket ett tydligt hot mot barnens hälsa, både i trafiken och genom livet. Sverige behöver en ny nationell rekommendation för aktiva skolresor, skriver åtta forskare och organisationer.

  • 19.
    Bergin, Michelle
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Playing along (with)in the hard yard? Play, practices, and occupational justice in Irish schoolyards2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to generate knowledges on practice possibilities concerned with children’s play and occupational justice in Irish schoolyards. Navigating the intersections between theory and practice required an ongoing examination of the tensions and points of resonance between ideas, ideals, and practices. Drawing on critical occupational perspectives, four distinct yet interrelated studies contribute to the thesis aim, exploring play, particularly the play of children with minoritized identities, as an issue of occupational justice from diverse perspectives. Minoritized draws attention to the active social processes that create inequitable opportunities for children because of their identities relative to gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, religion, sexuality, and disability.

    In Study I, a scoping review using the Joanna Briggs institute methodology, showed a paucity of existing research on the play of Irish Traveller children, an ethnic minoritized community. Using an existing conceptual model to categorise reported influencing factors emphasized the distinct restricting factor of racism on Irish Traveller children’s play. To address the problematization of at-risk representations of Irish Traveller children, as reflective of culturist assumptions, greater attention to children’s own diverse constructions of play as a capability is proposed.

    Study II completed virtual and walking interviews with ten primary school teachers to explore their practices and experiences of particularly children with minoritized identities play in Irish schoolyards. The reflexive thematic analysis highlighted how prevailing norms interrelated with the locus of risks of exclusion to children’s individual choices and how teachers’ while valuing play, prioritised safety and an absence of conflict. Knowledges constructed on teachers and children negotiating individual and collective interests within diverse occupations in relationships (with)in the schoolyard, resonated with conceptualisations of collective occupations as constitutive with the production of the social space.

    Study III used individual and group walking interview methods to explore with 23 children their play in two Irish primary schools, identified as disadvantaged. Using the lens of the theory of practice architectures, the analysis highlighted children’s contrasting representations of play as habitual and emerging situated relational processes. Children’s acceptance of social hierarchies, individualistic and exclusionary social practices within schoolyards generated insights into the consequences of significant constraints and normative ideas on children’s play. Play was thus interrelated with the reproduction of what was termed the “hard yard”. However, the transformative potential of play was also suggested in how shared play created possibilities for fun, solidarity, and friendship.

    Study IV drawing on earlier studies, engaged six occupational therapists from diverse sites of practice in a critical action research inquiry to interrogate existing practices and generate practice possibilities focused on play and occupational justice in Irish schoolyards. Putting the theory of practice architectures to use again, the analysis drew attention to how habitual practices interrelated with constraints including circumscribed professional identities, service expectations and cultural norms to (re)produce practice possibilities, in tension with occupational justice ideals. Furthermore, the research process using dialogical focus group and occupational mapping methods provided a mechanism for raising consciousness that (re)mattered occupations and occupational justice.

    In conclusion, this thesis contributes nuanced understandings of play as socially situated practices interrelated with significant constraints and diverse social practices (with)in the particularities of Irish schoolyards. The ways in which inequities were (re)produced in habitual, individualistic, and exclusionary practices within schoolyards, and relationships of solidarity and fun were created within shared play supports understandings of the centrality of occupations to (in)justice. The insights generated problematized inclusive practices drawing attention to normative discourses, the individualising of choices, the neglect of substantive issues, such as racism and the significance of vulnerabilities and friendships. This thesis suggests practice possibilities that extend beyond play as an individual concern to consider ethical responsibilities to raise consciousness on the relational nature of collective practices with(in) shared spaces. Furthermore, in connecting (with) theorizing on occupation as collective, the theory of practice architectures and mechanisms of raising consciousness this thesis contributes to understandings of praxis.

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  • 20.
    Bergin, Michelle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Boyle, Bryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Exploring with children, play in Irish primary schoolyards2024In: International Journal of Play, ISSN 2159-4937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s play in Irish schoolyards remains neglected in educational policies and practices despite government commitments to inclusive schools and children’s rights. There is a dearth of research on children’s perspectives of play, criticisms of ‘at risk’ discourses underpinning concerns for certain children’s play rights, and studies identifying exclusion within Irish schoolyards, particularly for children with minoritized identities. This inquiry informed by the theory of practice architectures used walking interviews to explore with twenty-three children their play practices in two Irish primary schools identified as disadvantaged. Analysis of the interviews generated three themes: (1) the state of play – cracks with(in) the routines of the schoolyard, (2) playing along and with(in) this shared space and (3) the hard yard. This inquiry contributes to understandings of children’s play with(in) Irish schoolyards, as socially situated practices with contrasting representations of play as habitual and emerging. Play was central to children’s social lives, identities, and friendships and interrelated with diverse constraints, exclusionary practices, and the (re)production of the ‘hard yard’. While mattering most children’s experiences of significant constraints and inequities, this inquiry also highlighted the transformative possibilities generated within play to create shared possibilities for individual and collective flourishing. 

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  • 21.
    Bergin, Michelle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of occupational Science and occupational therapy, university college cork, cork, ireland.
    Boyle, Bryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of occupational Science and occupational therapy, university college cork, cork, ireland.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    ‘Finding the play’- exploring with occupational therapists practice possibilities in the context of Irish schoolyards2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 31, no 1, article id 2361649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Research has identified diverse constraints to the adoption of school-based occupational therapy approaches and a lack of attention to addressing the barriers to children’s play opportunities. Critical contextualised research is advocated to inform practice possibilities.

    Aims/Objectives

    This inquiry aimed to explore with occupational therapists their existing practices in Irish schoolyards to generate practice possibilities concerned with play, as an issue of occupational justice.

    Materials and Methods

    Using the theory of practice architectures, six occupational therapists from diverse sites of practice participated in the first phase of a critical action research process using dialogical focus group and occupational mapping methods.

    Results

    Three themes were generated (1) Existing practices as situated (2) (Re)mattering play and practices as occupations and (3) Practice possibilities – ‘Finding the play’ between responsiveness and responsibilities. A further interrelated dimension was how the research methods provided mechanisms of raising consciousness.

    Conclusions, and Significance

    Alongside constructing knowledges on existing practices in an Irish context, this inquiry contributes to understandings of practices as socially embedded generative processes of ‘finding the play’, highlighting ethical responsibilities to make visible inequities reproduced in habitual practices and engage in relationships of solidarity to (re)construct alternative shared practices.

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  • 22.
    Bergin, Michelle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Boyle, Bryan
    Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Irish Schoolyards: Teacher’s Experiences of Their Practices and Children’s Play-“It’s Not as Straight Forward as We Think”2023In: Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention, ISSN 1941-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the inclusion of play as a right, schools are urged to consider whether all children can access play opportunities in schoolyards. Refocusing on play as occupation is identified as an important way in which occupational therapists can contribute within schools. Greater knowledges of children’s play and teachers’ practices, in schoolyards in an Irish context, is required however to guide practices. This inquiry used interviews to explore with 10 primary school teachers, their practices, and experiences of children’s play in Irish schoolyards. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to generate three interrelated themes. These were a) Break(in)time: Play in schoolyards as different from other ways of doing within schools, b) play as producing inclusion and exclusion, c) and certainties and uncertainties produced in teachers’ everyday practices. This inquiry generated knowledges on the social nature of children’s play and teachers” practices in Irish schoolyards as negotiated processes, interacting with diverse intentions, and the particularities of each schoolyard. The consequences of individualizing choice were highlighted as central to the production of inclusion and exclusion in schoolyards. Greater consideration of how children’s play and teachers” practices occur as collective occupations, is proposed to advance inclusive schoolyards. 

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  • 23.
    Bergin, Michelle
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University College Cork, VGV5+95, Cork, Ireland.
    Boyle, Bryan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Lilja, Margareta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Prellwitz, Maria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Irish Traveller Children's Play: A Scoping Review2023In: Journal of Child and Family Studies, ISSN 1062-1024, E-ISSN 1573-2843, Vol. 32, p. 3860-3875Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Irish Traveller children, an ethnic indigenous minoritized community in Ireland are identified in Ireland’s play policy as at higher risk of exclusion from realising their right to play, alongside a reported absence of research on indigenous children’s play. This scoping review aimed to identify the breadth and scope of available research on representations of Irish Traveller children’s play and the factors influencing play opportunities. Applying the updated Joanna Briggs Institute methodological guidance, a systematic search was completed of nine databases. Thirty-five peer reviewed studies met the inclusion criteria, descriptive study information was charted and summarised and enabling and restricting factors influencing Irish Traveller children’s play were identified using an existing conceptual model. The scoping review findings revealed a limited focus within research on Irish Traveller children’s play. Included studies however, provided evidence of; the importance of feeling a sense of belonging and safety to enable Irish Traveller children’s access to preferred play opportunities, involving real life activities, physical play outdoors and play with others; Irish Traveller parents value and facilitation of play; and the significant restricting influence of racism on Irish Traveller children’s play .Limited knowledge on Irish Traveller children’s own perspectives on play and the need to address racism as a restricting influence on play in school and community environments are considered in relation to practice and further research. Discourses representing Irish Traveller children as marginalised, were problematized as reflective of culturist assumptions, and a shift towards understanding the situated nature of Irish Traveller children’s play, as a capability is proposed.

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  • 24.
    Bortolan, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Department of Engineering for Innovation Medicine, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona and Trento, 38068 Rovereto, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    Department of Engineering for Innovation Medicine, University of Verona, 37129 Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona and Trento, 38068 Rovereto, Italy.
    Verdel, Nina
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Gortanova 22, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada.
    Supej, Matej
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Gortanova 22, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Development of Equipment for Ski Mountaineering, a New Olympic Event2023In: Applied Sciences, ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 5339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ski mountaineering, a new Olympic winter sport involving both climbing and descending snowy slopes, requires considerable physical and technical abilities, as well as highly specialized equipment. Herein, we briefly describe this equipment and its influence on performance and consider potential future advances. Skis, boots, and bindings must be light enough to facilitate climbing uphill (in which as much as 85% of the total racing time is spent) and, at the same time, provide stability and safety in often-challenging descents. A skier must be able to easily and rapidly attach and remove the adhesive skins under the skis that provide grip while skiing uphill. Poles and their baskets must be designed optimally to transfer propulsive force and help maintain balance. Despite the popularity of ski mountaineering, research on this sport is scarce, and we indicate a number of areas wherein improvements in equipment could potentially advance both performance and safety. Such advances must be based on a better understanding of the biomechanics of ski mountaineering, which could be obtained with novel sensor technology and can be best achieved via more extensive collaboration between researchers, skiers and their coaches, and manufacturers of ski mountaineering equipment.

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  • 25.
    Bortolan, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Savoldelli, Aldo
    Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Pellegrini, Barbara
    Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Modena, Roberto
    Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Sacchi, Massimiliano
    Oberalp S.p.A., Bolzano, Italy.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Supej, Matej
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Ski Mountaineering: Perspectives on a Novel Sport to Be Introduced at the 2026 Winter Olympic Games2021In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 12, article id 737249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ski mountaineering is a rapidly growing winter sport that involves alternately climbing and descending slopes and various racing formats that differ in length and total vertical gain, as well as their distribution of downhill and uphill sections. In recent years, both participation in and media coverage of this sport have increased dramatically, contributing, at least in part, to its inclusion in the 2026 Winter Olympics in Milano-Cortina. Here, our aim has been to briefly describe the major characteristics of ski mountaineering, its physiological and biomechanical demands, equipment, and training/testing, as well as to provide some future perspectives. Despite its popularity, research on this discipline is scarce, but some general characteristics are already emerging. Pronounced aerobic capacity is an important requirement for success, as demonstrated by positive correlations between racing time and maximal oxygen uptake and oxygen uptake at the second ventilatory threshold. Moreover, due to the considerable mechanical work against gravity on demanding uphill terrain, the combined weight of the athlete and equipment is inversely correlated with performance, prompting the development of both lighter and better equipment in recent decades. In ski mountaineering, velocity uphill is achieved primarily by more frequent (rather than longer) strides due primarily to high resistive forces. The use of wearable technologies, designed specifically for analysis in the field (including at elevated altitudes and cold temperatures) and more extensive collaboration between researchers, industrial actors, and coaches/athletes, could further improve the development of this sport.

     

  • 26.
    Boyle, Bryan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Clinical Therapies, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Arnedillo-Sanchez, Inmaculada
    nnovation & Research, Pure Health Group, Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
    Zahid, Aejaz
    School of Clinical Therapies, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.
    Pennisi, Yvonne
    School of Computer Science and Statistics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    The Arabic psychosocial impact of assistive devices scale: Development, translation, and evaluation2024In: Assistive technology, ISSN 1040-0435, E-ISSN 1949-3614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development, translation, and early evaluation of the Arabic Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (AR-PIADS), an outcome measure instrument for the subjective impact of Assistive Technology on a person with a disabilities&apos; quality of life. Developing the AR = PIADS instrument involved forward and backward translation by two independent teams of bilingual, Arabic-English speakers (n = 5) and a quality and usability review by a panel of people with disabilities (n = 18). The emergent version was evaluated with a group of experienced Arabic-speaking Assistive Technology users (n = 67) for its psychometric properties. Initial results demonstrate a favorable comparison for 16 of the 26 questionnaire items with scores recorded for the original, English language version. Internal consistency, measured using Cronbach&apos;s alpha, yielded a range of 0.97-0.99 for AR-PIADS while the new instrument&apos;s reliability was assessed using an intraclass correlation coefficient resulting in scores within the range of 0.86-0.97 for the overall instrument. Despite these positive results however, the translation process did highlight a number of challenges with language and cultural interpretation of the translated instrument. This suggests that further work is warranted to explore its utility in service provision.

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  • 27.
    Burgueño, Rafael
    et al.
    Department of Education, University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Chillon, Palma
    PROFITH "PROmoting FITness and Health Through Physical Activity" Research Group, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Basic psychological need satisfaction in active commuting to and from school BPNS-ACS(SWE)2023In: Journal of Transport and Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1405, Vol. 30, article id 101618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The absence of appropriate Swedish-language instrumentation to assess active commuting to school has largely hampered the study of the individual factors of the children, such as autonomy, competence, and relatedness to active commuting to school.

    Purpose

    Building upon self-determination theory, the objective of this research was to gather evidence of the validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction in Active Commuting to and from School (BPNS-ACS) tool.

    Methods

    The cross-sectional and purposive sample included 273 children (51.28% girls) from urban areas.

    Results

    Confirmatory factor analysis underpinned the three-factor correlated model, which was invariant across gender. Evidence in support of discriminant and convergent validity and reliability was gathered. Criterion validity evidence was met by positive and significant predictions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness satisfaction on active commuting to and from school.

    Conclusions

    The Swedish version of the BPNS-ACS is a psychometrically robust measure of children’s perceptions of autonomy, competence, and relatedness satisfaction in active commuting to school and could be used to assess the effects of school-based interventions on need satisfaction for active commuting to school.

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  • 28.
    Burgueño, Rafael
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, University of Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; Health Research Centre, University of Almeria, Almeria, Spain.
    Rutberg, Stina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Pauelsen, Mascha
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Chillon, Palma
    PROFITH “PROmoting FITness and Health Through Physical Activity” Research Group, Sport and Health University Research Institute (iMUDS), Department of Physical Education and Sport, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Adapting the behavioral regulation in active commuting to and from school questionnaire in Sweden: BR-ACS(SWE)2022In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 16, article id 100721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although growing attention has been paid to motivation in explaining active travel to school among young people at the international level, no measures of motivation for active commuting to school (ACS) were found in Sweden. Guided by self-determination theory, this research aimed to adapt the Behavioral Regulation in Active Commuting to and from School (BR-ACS) questionnaire to the Swedish context and test the resulting version’s psychometric properties. The purposive and cross-sectional sample included 273 students (58 % girls, aged 10–12 years) from four Swedish urban schools. Results from confirmatory factor analyses psychometrically supported the six-factor correlated model (intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation) and the hierarchical three-factor model (autonomous, controlled motivation, and amotivation), which were invariant across gender. Latent correlations underpinned a symplex-like pattern. Discriminant and convergent validity and reliability were gathered. Criterion validity evidence was met with positive associations from intrinsic motivation, integrated and identified regulation to ACS, and a negative relationship between amotivation and ACS. The Swedish version of the BR-ACS questionnaire is a valid and reliable measure of children’s motivation toward ACS.

  • 29.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Elbe, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI), Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 667-688Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to synthesize the available literature on the relationship between gaming motivations and gaming disorder symptoms. Specifically, to (1) explore what gaming motivation questionnaires and classifications are used in studies on gaming disorder symptoms and (2) investigate the relationship between motivational factors and symptoms of gaming disorder. Method: An electronic database search was conducted via EBSCO (MEDLINE and PsycINFO) and the Web of Science Core Collection. All studies using validated measurements on gaming disorder symptoms and gaming motivations and available correlation coefficients of the relationship between gaming disorder and gaming motivations were included. The meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. Results: In total, 49 studies (k = 58 independent sub-samples), including 51,440 participants, out of which 46 studies (k = 55 sub-samples, n = 49,192 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis. The synthesis identified fourteen different gaming motivation instruments, seven unique motivation models, and 26 motivational factors. The meta-analysis showed statistically significant associations between gaming disorder symptoms and 23 out of 26 motivational factors, with the majority of the pooled mean effect sizes ranging from small to moderate. Moreover, large heterogeneity was observed, and the calculated prediction intervals indicated substantial variation in effects across populations and settings. Motivations related to emotional escape were robustly associated with gaming disorder symptoms. Discussion and conclusions: The present meta-analysis reinforces the importance of motivational factors in understanding problematic gaming behavior. The analysis showed significant heterogeneity in most outcomes, warranting further investigation.

  • 30.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gavelin, Hanna M.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Király, Orsolya
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary.
    Demetrovics, Zsolt
    Institute of Psychology, ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest, Hungary; Centre of Excellence in Responsible Gaming, University of Gibraltar, Gibraltar.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Comparing psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits between the WHO and APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms: A psychometric investigation2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) by the American Psychiatric Association and Gaming Disorder in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization requires consistent psychological measures for reliable estimates. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), the Ten-Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT-10), and the Five-Item Gaming Disorder Test (GDT-5) and to compare the WHO and the APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms in terms of psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits.

    Methods: A sample of 723 Swedish gamers was recruited (29.8% women, 68.3% men, 1.9% other, Mage = 29.50 years, SD = 8.91).

    Results: The results indicated notable differences regarding the estimated possible risk groups between the two frameworks. However, the association between gaming disorder symptoms and personality traits, life satisfaction, and psychopathological symptoms appeared consistent across the two frameworks. The results showed excellent psychometric properties in support of the one-factor model of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, including good reliability estimates (McDonald's omega) and evidence of construct validity. Additionally, the results demonstrated full gender and age measurement invariance of the GDT, IGDT-10, and GDT-5, indicating that gaming disorder symptoms are measured equally across the subgroups.

    Conclusion: These findings demonstrate that the IGDT-10, GDT-5, and GDT are appropriate measures for assessing gaming disorder symptoms and facilitating future research in Sweden.

  • 31.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Röhlcke, Sebastian
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden; Laboratorievägen 14, Luleå, 971 87, Sweden.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Exploring the relationship between personality and gaming disorder symptoms in a sample of Dota 2 players2024In: Current Psychology, ISSN 1046-1310, E-ISSN 1936-4733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the relationship between the big five personality traits and gaming disorder symptoms (GDS) in a sample of Dota 2 players. Recent research has indicated that the relationship between personality traits and GDS may depend on the video game genre investigated. However, the association between GDS and personality has yet to be investigated within a specific game, which may be even more relevant to explore as each game offers unique gameplay mechanics that can influence player behavior differently. Thus, the present study investigated the relationship between the big five personality traits and GDS in a sample of video game players from a specific game, DOTA 2 (n = 321, M = 23.25 years, SD = 4.51). Multiple linear regression was used to analyze GDS formatted as a composite score, and multinomial logistic regressions were further conducted for analyses in which gamers were classified into normal gamers (i.e., less than three criteria endorsed), moderate-risk gamers (i.e., four criteria endorsed), and high-risk gamers (i.e., all criteria endorsed). The analysis of the composite score showed a significant relationship between neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, and GDS. Analyses of the gaming classifications revealed that neuroticism was the most crucial factor concerning differentiating moderate-risk and high-risk from normal gamers. The findings and their practical implications are further discussed.

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  • 32.
    Cavalli, Marco
    et al.
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacogenomics & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Immunology, Genetics & Pathology, & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 22, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Niclas
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacogenomics & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden; Uppsala Clinical Research Center, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson Sundbaum, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wallenberg, Matilda
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacogenomics & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden; Svensk Dos AB, Box 2, SE-751 03, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kohnke, Hugo
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacogenomics & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Baecklund, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallberg, Pär
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacogenomics & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wadelius, Mia
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Pharmacogenomics & Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 85, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Genome-wide association study of liver enzyme elevation in an extended cohort of rheumatoid arthritis patients starting low-dose methotrexate2022In: Pharmacogenomics (London), ISSN 1462-2416, E-ISSN 1744-8042, Vol. 23, no 15, p. 813-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: A follow-up genome-wide association study (GWAS) in an extended cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients starting low-dose methotrexate (MTX) treatment was performed to identify further genetic variants associated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation. Patients & methods: A GWAS was performed on 346 RA patients. Two outcomes within the first 6 months of MTX treatment were assessed: ALT >1.5-times the upper level of normal (ULN) and maximum level of ALT. Results: SPATA9 (rs72783407) was significantly associated with maximum level of ALT (p = 2.58 × 10-8) and PLCG2 (rs60427389) was tentatively associated with ALT >1.5 × ULN. Conclusion: Associations with SNPs in genes related to male fertility (SPATA9) and inflammatory processes (PLCG2) were identified.

  • 33.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Lee, Young-Sook
    School of Business & Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Designing winter cities: Arctic urbanisation and Asian mobilities consumption2021In: Asian Mobilities Consumption in a Changing Arctic / [ed] Young-Sook Lee, Taylor & Francis, 2021, p. 168-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter considers an urbanising Arctic and the design of winter cities with a specific focus on Asian mobilities consumption. The chapter explores how Asian consumption mobilities can be seen as the outcome of interactions between the built environment of Arctic settlements, individuals and climate.

    Special attention is placed on how the built environment of Arctic cities is modified and shaped by “winter”. The focus is placed on the theory of urban morphology, production of space and ongoing climate change. This is important in order to understand Asian tourist mobilities in Arctic settlements because these environments bring unexpected conditions and challenges for tourists’ perceptions of heritage sites and their mobility between them. The chapter concludes by presenting some urban design recommendations for Arctic cities that can assist in understanding and enabling Asian mobilities in a changing Arctic.

  • 34.
    Chapman, David
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Sjöholm, Jennie
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
    Zetterkvist, Sandra
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Larsson, Agneta
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Social life and use of an Arctic city centre during the COVID-19 pandemic2023In: Arctic Yearbook, ISSN 2298-2418, p. 185-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From March 2020, regulations and recommendations were implemented in Sweden to reduce the spread of COVID-19, which included limitations to public life. Overall, these sought to reduce activities that brought people together and in so doing, transitioned the relationship between cities and people into a new paradigm.

    The study explores public usage of an Arctic city during the pandemic to understand how COVID-19 altered people’s ‘social life’. Data was collected in the Arctic city of Luleå, by structured questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. These indicate that: 1) a significant reduction in city visits, 2) multi-faceted city visits were reduced to single task based visits, 3) a significant reduction in leisure based activities, 4) an increase in digitalization of work, retail and leisure activities, 5) perceptions of responsibility, guilt, boredom and minimizing social networks were reported, and 6) post-pandemic, people questioned the ability of cities to bounce back.

    The survey and interviews show that in the Arctic city of Luleå, restrictions put in place to reduce spread of the infection had a significant impact on public life and use of the public realm, which is in accordance with research from outside the Arctic.

    The conclusion is that in the short term, the role of urban centres in daily life was reduced and the role of digitalisation for work, goods and services was rapidly advanced. However, the research also shows that the ‘social dimension’ of Arctic cities - to see other people and take part of civic life on site - was not easy to replace and is valued by the community.

  • 35.
    Colombo, Simone
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyström, Markus B.T.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Mining players’ experience in computer games: Immersion affects flow but not presence2023In: Computers in Human Behavior Reports, E-ISSN 2451-9588, Vol. 12, article id 100334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how different levels of immersion influence the experiences of flow and presence can shed light on the intricate interplay between these constructs and provide valuable insights into the factors that contribute to engaging and immersive gameplay. The independent variable, immersion, was manipulated in three conditions (high, moderate, and low) in a between-subject design within the video game Minecraft. Participants were asked to complete 15 min of gameplay and then fill out the questionnaires concerning flow and presence. The experiment was conducted remotely on a video-sharing platform. Bayesian analysis revealed an effect of immersion level on flow, while no evidence of an effect was found for the experience of presence. This study provides evidence in favor of a relation between flow and immersion while supporting a presumed double dissociation of immersion from presence. Future research using a Bayesian approach is encouraged to build further knowledge on this research topic.

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  • 36.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden; Umeå School of Sports Science, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jowett, Sophia
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    The Importance of Positive Relationships for Coaches’ Effectiveness and Well-Being2023In: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 254-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the role of quality coach–athlete relationships and coaching efficacy on coaches’ well-being and performance. We examined whether coaches’ direct and meta-perspectives of the coach–athlete relationship quality predicted dimensions of coaches’ efficacy, hedemonic and eudaimonic well-being, and coach-related performance. A total of 233 male and female Swedish coaches from various team and individual sports completed the Coach–Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, the Coaching Efficacy Scale, Positive and Negative Affect Scale, Subjective Vitality Scale, and a one-single item developed to measure perceived coach performance. Structural equation modelling analyses revealed that quality coach–athlete relationships as defined by closeness, commitment, and complementarity associated with all four dimensions of coach efficacy. While coach–athlete relationship quality was linked with coaches’ positive affect, vitality, and satisfaction with coaching performance, only the motivational dimension of coach efficacy was associated with indicators of coach well-being and coach-related performance. Further analyses showed that the motivational dimension of coach efficacy explained the link between coach–athlete relationship quality, well-being, and coach-related performance. Overall, the findings extended the coach efficacy model by investigating the coach–athlete relationship as a predictor and coach well-being as an outcome. Our findings emphasize the importance of relationships for coaches’ efficacy and well-being.

  • 37.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Jowett, Sophia
    School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Loughborough, UK.
    The role of quality relationships and communication strategies for the fulfilment of secure and insecure athletes' basic psychological needs2023In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 40, no 21, p. 2424-2436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The correlates of coach-athlete relationship quality have been the focus of research for over a decade; however, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying these associations. The present study conducted a moderated mediation analysis to examine (a) the mediating role of communication strategies (via COMPASS) on the association between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete psychological needs satisfaction and (b) whether individual differences in athletes&apos; attachment style (secure, anxious, avoidant) moderates the mediational relationship. 350 Swedish athletes representing a range of sports and competition levels completed a multi-section questionnaire. Mediation and moderation analysis partially found that coach-athlete relationship quality and athletes basic psychological needs were associated via the COMPASS strategies of support, motivation, assurance and openness. It was also found that athletes secure attachment with their coach significantly moderated the mediated effects of motivation and support. These findings highlight the practical utility of motivation, support, openness and assurance strategies in enhancing the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. Moreover, these findings demonstrate that the attachment orientation of athletes towards their coaches play a significant role in determining what communication strategies to use to enhance both the relationship quality and an athlete&apos;s competence, autonomy and relatedness.

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  • 38.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden; Umeå School of Sport Science, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Carlberg, Annika
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Rognsvåg, Elise
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Sweden; Umeå School of Sport Science, Umeå University, Sweden; Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    The psychophysiological influence of exertion and affect on sport-specific cognitive and physical performance2022In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 764-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:  The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in cognitive and physical performance, affective states, perceived exertion, and physiological responses between trials with cognitive, physical, or combined cognitive and physical load.

    Design:  Randomised cross-over trial.

    Methods:  Highly trained competitive orienteers (n = 15 men; n = 10 women) completed three randomised trials comprised of: (1) sport-specific cognitive tests; (2) 35-minute cycling time trial; and (3) combined sport-specific cognitive tests and 35-minute cycling time trial. Measures taken during the trials recorded affective states, perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, cycling watts, as well as working memory, updating, planning and decision making.

    Results:  No significant differences in cognitive performance accuracy were observed within or across trials although reaction times improved within trials and were fastest in the combined trial. Blood lactate, heart rate, perceived exertion, negative affective states, and watts were highest in the physical trial.

    Conclusions:  The combined load of undertaking sport-specific cognitive tests and a cycling time trial did not influence cognitive performance accuracy. Athletes produced greater watts when completing the physical task independently compared with the combined trial, however psychophysiological responses were worse. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether athletes' attentional focus underpins psychophysiological responses to dual-task sport performance.

  • 39.
    Drobnič, Miha
    et al.
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Verdel, Nina
    Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    Supej, Matej
    Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; Department of Health Sciences, Mid Sweden University, 83125 Östersund, Sweden.
    The Validity of a Three-Dimensional Motion Capture System and the Garmin Running Dynamics Pod in Connection with an Assessment of Ground Contact Time While Running in Place2023In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 23, no 16, article id 7155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A three-dimensional motion capture system (MoCap) and the Garmin Running Dynamics Pod can be utilised to monitor a variety of dynamic parameters during running. The present investigation was designed to examine the validity of these two systems for determining ground contact times while running in place by comparing the values obtained with those provided by the bilateral force plate (gold standard). Eleven subjects completed three 20-s runs in place at self-selected rates, starting slowly, continuing at an intermediate pace, and finishing rapidly. The ground contact times obtained with both systems differed significantly from the gold standard at all three rates, as well as for all the rates combined (p < 0.001 in all cases), with the smallest mean bias at the fastest step rate for both (11.5 ± 14.4 ms for MoCap and −81.5 ± 18.4 ms for Garmin). This algorithm was developed for the determination of ground contact times during normal running and was adapted here for the assessment of running in place by the MoCap, which could be one explanation for its lack of validity. In conclusion, the wearables developed for monitoring normal running cannot be assumed to be suitable for determining ground contact times while running in place.

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  • 40.
    Dunst, Anna Katharina
    et al.
    Fachbereich Ausdauer, Institut für Angewandte Trainingswissenschaft, 04109 Leipzig, Germany.
    Grüneberger, René
    Monteverde Bicycles, 10625 Berlin, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Modeling optimal cadence as a function of time during maximal sprint exercises can improve performance by elite track cyclists2021In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 11, no 24, article id 12105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In track cycling sprint events, optimal cadence PRopt is a dynamic aspect of fatigue. It is currently unclear what cadence is optimal for an athlete’s performance in sprint races and how it can be calculated. We examined fatigue-induced changes in optimal cadence during a maximal sprint using a mathematical approach. Nine elite track cyclists completed a 6-s high-frequency pedaling test and a 60-s isokinetic all-out sprint on a bicycle ergometer with continuous monitoring of crank force and cadence. Fatigue-free force-velocity (F/v) and power-velocity (P/v) profiles were derived from both tests. The development of fatigue during the 60-s sprint was assessed by fixing the slope of the fatigue-free F/v profile. Fatigue-induced alterations in PRopt were determined by non-linear regression analysis using a mono-exponential equation at constant slope. The study revealed that PRopt at any instant during a 60-s maximal sprint can be estimated accurately using a mono-exponential equation. In an isokinetic mode, a mean PRopt can be identified that enables the athlete to generate the highest mean power output over the course of the effort. Adding the time domain to the fatigue-free F/v and P/v profiles allows time-dependent cycling power to be modelled independent of cadence. 

  • 41.
    Dunst, Anna Katharina
    et al.
    Department of Endurance, Institute for Applied Training Science, Leipzig, Germany.
    Hesse, Clemens
    German Cycling Federation, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Feldmann, Andri
    Department of Movement and Exercise Science, Institute of Sport Science, University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Holmberg, Hans Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum C5, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Novel Approach to Determining the Alactic Time Span in Connection with Assessment of the Maximal Rate of Lactate Accumulation in Elite Track Cyclists2023In: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, ISSN 1555-0265, E-ISSN 1555-0273, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 157-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Following short-term all-out exercise, the maximal rate of glycolysis is frequently assessed on the basis of the maximal rate of lactate accumulation in the blood. Since the end of the interval without significant accumulation (talac) is 1 of 2 denominators in the calculation employed, accurate determination of this parameter is crucial. Although the very existence and definition of talac, as well as the validity of its determination as time-to-peak power (tPpeak), remain controversial, this parameter plays a key role in anaerobic diagnostics. Here, we describe a novel approach to determination of talac and compare it to the current standard. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists performed 3 maximal sprints (3, 8, and 12 s) and a high-rate, low-resistance pedaling test on an ergometer with monitoring of crank force and pedaling rate. Before and after each sprint, capillary blood samples were taken for determination of lactate accumulation. Fatigue-free force–velocity and power–velocity profiles were generated. talac was determined as tPpeak and as the time point of the first systematic deviation from the force–velocity profile (tFf). Results: Accumulation of lactate after the 3-second sprint was significant (0.58 [0.19] mmol L−1; P < .001, d = 1.982). tFf was <3 seconds and tPpeak was ≥3 seconds during all sprints (P < .001, d = − 2.111). Peak power output was lower than maximal power output (P < .001, d = −0.937). Blood lactate accumulation increased linearly with increasing duration of exercise (R2 ≥ .99) and intercepted the x-axis at ∼tFf. Conclusion: Definition of talac as tPpeak can lead to incorrect conclusions. We propose determination of talac based on tFf, the end of the fatigue-free state that may reflect the beginning of blood lactate accumulation.

  • 42.
    Dunst, Anna Katharina
    et al.
    Department of Endurance Sports, Institute for Applied Training Science, Marschnerstraße 29, Leipzig, 04109, Germany.
    Hesse, Clemens
    German Cycling Federation, Frankfurt am Main, 60528, Germany.
    Ueberschär, Olaf
    Department of Biomechanics, Institute for Applied Training Science, 04109 Leipzig, Germany; Department of Engineering and Industrial Design, Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences, Magdeburg, 39114, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum C5, Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Novel Approach to the Determination of Time- and Fatigue-Dependent Efficiency during Maximal Cycling Sprints2023In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During maximal cycling sprints, efficiency (η) is determined by the fiber composition of the muscles activated and cadence-dependent power output. To date, due to methodological limitations, it has only been possible to calculate gross efficiency (i.e., the ratio of total mechanical to total metabolic work) in vivo without assessing the impact of cadence and changes during exercise. Eliminating the impact of cadence provides optimal efficiency (ηopt), which can be modeled as a function of time. Here, we explain this concept, demonstrate its calculation, and compare the values obtained to actual data. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the time course of maximal power output (Pmax) reflects time-dependent changes in ηopt. Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists performed four maximal sprints (3, 8, 12, 60 s) and a maximal-pedaling test on a cycle ergometer. Crank force and cadence were monitored continuously to determine fatigue-free force-velocity profiles (F/v) and fatigue-induced changes in Pmax. Respiratory gases were measured during and for 30 min post-exercise. Prior to and following each sprint, lactate in capillary blood was determined to calculate net blood lactate accumulation (ΔBLC). Lactic and alactic energy production were estimated from ΔBLC and the fast component of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption. Aerobic energy production was determined from oxygen uptake during exercise. Metabolic power (MP) was derived from total metabolic energy (WTOT). ηopt was calculated as Pmax divided by MP. Temporal changes in Pmax, WTOT, and ηopt were analyzed by non-linear regression. Results: All models showed excellent quality (R2 > 0.982) and allowed accurate recalculation of time-specific power output and gross efficiency (R2 > 0.986). The time-constant for Pmax(t) (τP) was closely correlated with that of ηopt (τη; r = 0.998, p < 0.001). Estimating efficiency using τP for τη led to a 0.88 ± 0.35% error. Conclusions: Although efficiency depends on pedal force and cadence, the latter influence can be eliminated by ηopt(t) using a mono-exponential equation whose time constant can be estimated from Pmax(t).

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  • 43.
    Dunst, Anna Katharina
    et al.
    Department of Endurance Sports, Institute for Applied Training Science, 04109 Leipzig, Germany.
    Hesse, Clemens
    German Cycling Federation, 60528 Frankfurt, Germany.
    Ueberschär, Olaf
    Department of Biomechanics, Institute for Applied Training Science, 04109 Leipzig, Germany; Department of Engineering and Industrial Design, Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences, 39114 Magdeburg, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum C5, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fatigue-Free Force-Velocity and Power-Velocity Profiles for Elite Track Sprint Cyclists: The Influence of Duration, Gear Ratio and Pedalling Rates2022In: Sports, E-ISSN 2075-4663, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal force-velocity (F/v) profiles for track cyclists are commonly derived from ergometer sprints using an isovelocity or isoinertial approach. Previously, an attempt was made to derive maximal F/v profiles from a single maximal 65-m sprint on the cycling track. Hypothesising that this approach may not accurately reflect the fatigue-free F/v profile, we propose an alternative procedure and compare it to the previous method. Moreover, we test for the impact of gear ratio on diagnostic results.

    Methods: Twelve elite track cyclists completed a high-cadence low-resistance pedalling test on a freestanding roller (motoric test) and two series of three maximal 65-m sprints on a cycling track with different gear ratios. F/v profiles were calculated based on the measured crank force and cadence either during the first 6–7 revolutions (≤6 s) on the track (model I) or were derived from the first 3–4 revolutions (≤3 s) on the track combined with 1 or 2 fatigue-free cycles at cadences above 160 rpm from the motoric test (model II).

    Results: Although both models exhibit high-to-excellent linearity between force and velocity, the extrapolated isometric force was higher (1507.51 ± 257.60 N and 1384.35 ± 276.84 N; p < 0.002; d = 2.555) and the slope steeper (−6.78 ± 1.17 and −5.24 ± 1.11; p < 0.003, d = −2.401) with model I. An ICC of 1.00 indicates excellent model consistency when comparing the F/v profiles (model II) derived from the different geared sprints.

    Conclusions: Assuring fatigue-free measurements and including high-cadence data points in the calculations provide valid maximal F/v and P/v profiles from a single acceleration-sprint independent of gear ratio.

  • 44.
    Ekenros, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Allé 23, SE-141 83, Huddinge, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Philip
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Allé 23, SE-141 83, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Norrbom, Jessica
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Molecular Exercise Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 171 77, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Molecular Exercise Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 171 77, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Carl Johan
    Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Molecular Exercise Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, 171 77, Sweden.
    Fridén, Cecilia
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Alfred Nobels Allé 23, SE-141 83, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Healthcare and Welfare, Mälardalens University, 721 23, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lindén Hirschberg, Angelica
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, 171 76, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Impact of Menstrual cycle-based Periodized training on Aerobic performance, a Clinical Trial study protocol—the IMPACT study2024In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The menstrual cycle and its impact on training and performance are of growing interest. However, evidence is lacking whether periodized exercise based on the menstrual cycle is beneficial. The primary purpose of this proposed randomized, controlled trial, the IMPACT study, is to evaluate the effect of exercise periodization during different phases of the menstrual cycle, i.e., comparing follicular phase-based and luteal phase-based training with regular training during the menstrual cycle on physical performance in well-trained women.

    Methods: Healthy, well-trained, eumenorrheic women between 18 and 35 years (n = 120) will be recruited and first assessed for physical performance during a run-in menstrual cycle at different cycle phases and then randomized to three different interventions: follicular phase-based training, luteal phase-based training, or regular training during three menstrual cycles. The training intervention will consist of high-intensity spinning classes followed by strength training. The menstrual cycle phases will be determined by serum hormone analysis throughout the intervention period. Assessment of aerobic performance (primary outcome) and muscle strength, body composition, and blood markers will be performed at baseline and at the end of the intervention.

    Discussion: With a robust methodology, this study has the potential to provide evidence of the differential effects of exercise periodization during different phases of the menstrual cycle in female athletes.

    Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05697263 . Registered on 25 January 2023

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  • 45.
    Ekenros, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Philip
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Solli, Guro S
    School of Sport Sciences, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Troms, Norway; Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    School of Sport Sciences, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Troms, Norway; Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Centre for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum C5, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hirschberg, Angelica L
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fridén, Cecilia
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Women's and Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    The perceived influence of menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on training and performance: Comparison between football, handball, and orienteering2023In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, we published self-reported data concerning the perceived effects of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on the training and performance of 1086 female athletes participating in 57 sports. However, studies comparing differences between sports with large sample sizes are lacking. The aim of this ancillary study was to compare the impact of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on training and performance between the three largest sports in the cohort, that is, football, handball, and orienteering, as well as the knowledge and support provided to the female athletes engaged in these sports. The results are from a web-based questionnaire completed by 312 football players, 243 handball players, and 93 orienteers. A total of 54% of the orienteers planned their training based on the menstrual cycle, which was a higher proportion compared to football (45%) and handball (29%) players (p < 0.05). Fewer football players believed that the menstrual cycle had an impact on their performance during training and competition compared to the two other sports. A high proportion of the athletes used hormonal contraceptives in all three sports, but a lower proportion of the orienteers (40%) used hormonal contraceptives compared to football (76%) and handball players (66%) (p < 0.05). Football and handball players received overall more support than orienteers, and the support was mostly provided by a physiotherapist and/or a strength and conditioner coach besides the main coach. These findings demonstrate that the perceived influence of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on training and performance differs between endurance athletes in orienteering compared to team-sport athletes in football and handball.

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  • 46.
    Ekenros, Linda
    et al.
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    von Rosen, Philip
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Solli, Guro Strøm
    School of Sport Sciences, UiT, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, Nord University, Bodø, Norway.
    Sandbakk, Øyvind
    School of Sport Sciences, UiT, the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Centre for Elite Sports Research, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Biomedicum C5, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hirschberg, Angelica Lindén
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fridén, Cecilia
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden; Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Perceived impact of the menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptives on physical exercise and performance in 1,086 athletes from 57 sports2022In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 13, article id 954760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Female athletes train and compete under the potential influence of hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle or during use of various hormonal contraceptives. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms are common in the general population, as well as side effects of hormonal contraceptives. More detailed knowledge concerning prevalence and perceived impact of these symptoms on training and performance in different sports is required. The aim of the study was to 1) characterize perceptions of training and performance during the menstrual cycle phases and by hormonal contraceptive use in a large population of female athletes; 2) explore whether symptoms experienced are related to perceived performance; and 3) examine potential differences in these factors between athletes at different levels of performance. The study was based on self-reported data from 1,086 athletes from 57 sports at different performance levels via a web-based questionnaire. Thirty-seven percent (n = 407) of the athletes did not use hormonal contraceptives. In this group, menstrual cycle related symptoms were common across all athlete levels, particularly dysmenorrhea (74%, n = 300) and premenstrual symptoms (78%, n = 318), which also influenced perceived performance of aerobic fitness, muscle strength, mental sharpness, balance, and sleep quality. Sixty-three percent (n = 679) of the athletes used various hormonal contraceptives and 40% (n = 272) perceived a variety of side-effects. Physical performance was experienced equally independent of time-point of the pill-chart except for the period of inactive pills, which was associated with more negative impact. Nonetheless, only 18% (n = 191) of the athletes considered menstrual cycle or hormonal contraceptive issues when planning their training or competitions. These results indicate that greater focus is needed to identify and effectively treat different menstrual cycle and hormonal contraceptive related symptoms on an individual level.

  • 47.
    Elbe, Pia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Exploring the Hidden Dimensions of Distraction in Adults with Atypical Attention2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inattention and proclivity for distraction are symptoms of adult ADHD that hamper productivity in study and work environments. The topic of this dissertation is mechanisms of distraction and facilitation of attention in ADHD. This thesis includes three studies. The following overarching questions are addressed in each study respectively: (1) Is computerized cognitive training (CCT) an intervention which improves overall cognitive outcomes in adults with ADHD, (2) Are there differences depending on ADHD symptom severity and distraction in auditory or vibro-tactile sensory modalities, and (3) Is background white noise a shield from distraction for those with ADHD during a short-term memory task?

    Study I is a systematic review and meta-analysis of CCT interventions for adults with ADHD, following a pre- post-test design for randomized controlled trials. Nine intervention studies are included in the systematic review, with the resulting meta-analysis for overall cognitive outcomes showing a very small benefit of the CCT intervention. Study I also included sub-analyses of three outcome categories according to the Cattell-Horn-Carol framework of cognition: cognitive speed, executive functions, and short-term memory. None of these individual meta-analyses resulted in significant improvements. 

    Participants took part in a cross-modal visual oddball task with auditory and vibro-tactile distractors in Study II. Forty-five participants were divided into two groups for the analysis: one group with low ADHD symptoms and one group with high ADHD symptoms. Findings did not show a relationship between ADHD symptom status and distraction in either auditory or vibro-tactile modality, despite both groups showing the expected slowed reactions on deviant trials. A sensitivity analysis showed that the high symptom group exhibited 0.5 % more missed trials compared to the low symptom group, possibly due to mind wandering in this non-forced-choice task.

    For Study III, serial recall data was collected from sixty-six individuals with ADHD and sixty-six healthy control participants, who were tested with white background noise and no background noise conditions. The results showed that participants with ADHD were more likely to get distracted by auditory omission deviants in continuous background white noise, whereas healthy controls were more likely to get distracted by auditory addition deviants in the condition without background noise. Also, the individuals with ADHD on average did not exhibit a typical primacy effect across serial recall items. Overall, the results of the three studies in this dissertation point to some areas for improvement for adults with ADHD where targeted behavioral interventions might be useful in the future.

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  • 48.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Bäcklund, Christian
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Norway; Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Integrative Medical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljungberg, Jessica Körning
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Computerized Cognitive Interventions for Adults With ADHD: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis2023In: Neuropsychology, ISSN 0894-4105, E-ISSN 1931-1559, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 519-530Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Treatments for adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are understudied, compared to children and adolescents with the same condition. In this systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis, we aim to evaluate the outcomes of computerized cognitive training (CCT) interventions in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including adults with ADHD.

    Method: Cognitive outcomes and ADHD symptom severity were analyzed separately. In addition, the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities was used to categorize outcome variables into subdomains, which were analyzed separately in a subsequent analysis.

    Results: The results revealed a small positive change in overall cognitive functioning, a measure of all cognitive outcomes in each study, for individuals who took part in CCT compared to controls (k = 9, Hedge’s g = 0.235, 95% CI [0.002, 0.467], p = 0.048, τ2 = 0.000, I2 = 0.000). However, neither symptom severity nor specific cognitive outcomes (executive functioning, cognitive speed, or working memory) showed a significant improvement.

    Conclusions: We analyzed the risk of bias in the chosen studies and discuss the findings in terms of effect size. It is concluded that CCT has a small positive effect in adults with ADHD. Due to the lack of heterogeneity in intervention designs across the included studies, increased heterogeneity in future studies could help inform clinicians about the aspects of CCT, such as training type and length, that are most beneficial for this group.

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  • 49.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Marsh, John E.
    Department of Psychology, University of Central Lancashire.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University.
    Vega Mendoza, Mariana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Humans and Technology. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Differential Impacts of Addition and Omission Deviants on the Working Memory Performance of Adults with and without Self-reported ADHDManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve work productivity and concentration when undertaking daily tasks, such as studying or engaging in mentally difficult activities, some individuals prefer to work in the presence of background auditory noise such as music, nature sounds, or even white noise. We investigated the impact of background white noise on short-term serial recall performance in adults with (n = 66) and without (n = 66) ADHD whereby variation in other traits that could potentially influence performance (anxiety and depression) was controlled. The potential decline of the impact of task-irrelevant sound across trials (e.g., habituation) and serial position effects were also explored. Participants completed the verbal working memory task in the presence of continuous white noise sequences that were occasionally interrupted by a period of quiet (omission deviant), and continuous quiet sequences that were occasionally interrupted by a period of white noise (addition deviant). Addition deviants were more disruptive for non-ADHD individuals than ADHD individuals, while omission deviants were more disruptive for ADHD individuals than non-ADHD individuals. A direct implication of this interaction is, in order to limit distractions, adults with ADHD should refrain from listening to continuous background white noise if there is a likelihood of a break in sound stimulation, whereas adults without ADHD should avoid quiet auditory backgrounds in which a rare or unexpected sound may occur. Further, exploratory findings show the absence of a serial position primacy effect for adults self-reporting ADHD compared to adults without ADHD.

  • 50.
    Elbe, Pia
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Disability Research Division, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Linköping University.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Department of Psychology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Radiation Sciences and Radiology, UmeåUniversity, Umeå, Sweden; Center for Lifespan Changes in Brain and Cognition, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Department for IntegrativeMedical Biology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Körning-Ljungberg, Jessica
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Education and Technology, Health, Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Effects of auditory and tactile distraction in adults with low and high ADHD symptoms2024In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) impact distraction by unexpected deviant sounds and vibrations. The hypothesis was that there would be a difference between individuals with low and high ADHD symptom severity in deviance distraction. In a cross-modal oddball task, we measured the impact of to-be-ignored deviating auditory and vibro-tactile stimuli in 45 adults who were 18 years or older, and self-reported ADHD symptoms using the screening tool of the adult ADHD self-report scale (ASRS). Results did not show a difference between groups with low and high symptoms of ADHD in their propensity for distraction in any modality using both frequentist and Bayesian methods of analysis. The impact of the deviating sounds and vibrations on performance were similar between groups. However, the amount of missed trials, which possibly reflects mind wandering or attention away from the focal task, was higher in the high symptom group (0.5 % difference in missing data between groups). The findings indicate a difference in missed responses between groups, despite no differences in the likelihood of distraction being indicated between vibro-tactile and auditory modalities. Overall, the complexity of adult ADHD symptomatology, especially behavioral differences in attentional control is reflected in the results of this study.

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