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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency2023In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, article id 103886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators.

    The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry.

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  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology; RISE Research Institute of Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space, Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Value chains for integrated production of liquefied bio-SNG at sawmill sites: Techno-economic and carbon footprint evaluation2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 206, p. 1590-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry’s increasing demand for liquefied natural gas could be met in the future by liquefied methane produced from biomass feedstock (LBG - liquefied biogas). This study presents results from an investigation of value chains for integrated production of LBG at a generic sawmill site, based on gasification of sawmill waste streams and forest residues. The objective was to investigate the cost for, as well as the carbon footprint reduction associated with, production and use of LBG as a fuel. Five different LBG plant sizes were investigated in combination with three different sawmill sizes. The resulting cases differ regarding biomass feedstock composition, biomass transportation distances, LBG plant sizes, how efficiently the excess heat from the LBG plant is used, and LBG distribution distances. Pinch technology was used to quantify the heat integration opportunities and to design the process steam network. The results show that efficient use of energy within the integrated process has the largest impact on the performance of the value chain in terms of carbon footprint. The fuel production cost are mainly determined by the investment cost of the plant, as well as feedstock transportation costs, which mainly affects larger plants. Production costs are shown to range from 68 to 156 EUR/MW hfuel and the carbon footprint ranges from 175 to 250 kg GHG-eq/MW hnet biomass assuming that the product is used to substitute fossil LNG fuel. The results indicate that process integration of an indirect biomass gasifier for LBG production is an effective way for a sawmill to utilize its by-products. Integration of this type of biorefinery can be done in such a way that the plant can still cover its heating needs whilst expanding its product portfolio in a competitive way, both from a carbon footprint and cost perspective. The results also indicate that the gains associated with efficient heat integration are important to achieve an efficient value chain.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Johan M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space. Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology, Dep. of Space. Earth and Environment, Div. of Energy Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Economic potential for substitution of fossil fuels with liquefied biomethane in Swedish iron and steel industry: Synergy and competition with other sectors2020In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 209, article id 112641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the iron and steel industry (ISI) is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Most of the emissions result from the use of fossil reducing agents. Nevertheless, the use of fossil fuels for other purposes must also be eliminated in order to reach the Swedish emissions reduction targets. In this study, we investigate the possibility to replace fossil gaseous and liquid fuels used for heating in the ISI, with liquefied biomethane (LBG) produced through gasification of forest residues. We hypothesize that such utilization of fuels in the Swedish ISI is insufficient to independently drive the development of large-scale LBG production, and that other sectors demanding LBG, e.g., for transportation, can be expected to influence the economic potential for the ISI to switch to LBG. The paper investigates how demand for LBG from other sectors can contribute to, or prevent, a phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI under different future energy market scenarios, with additional analysis of the impact of a CO2 emissions charge. A geographically explicit cost-minimizing biofuel production localization model is combined with heat integration and energy market scenario analysis. The results show that from a set of possible future energy market scenarios, none yielded more than a 9% replacement of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI, and only when there was also a demand for LBG from other sectors. The scenarios corresponding to a more ambitious GHG mitigation policy did not achieve higher adoption of LBG, due to corresponding higher biomass prices. A CO2 charge exceeding 200 EUR/tonCO2 would be required to achieve a full phase-out of fossil fuels used for heating purposes in the ISI. We conclude that with the current policy situation, substitution of fossil fuels by LBG will not be economically feasible for the Swedish ISI.

  • 4.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Dimensioning of value chains for production of liquefied bio-SNG2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis oil: Evaluation of blend ratios and methanol production capacities2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 110, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of this study is to investigate integrated methanol production via co-gasification of black liquor (BL) and pyrolysis oil (PO), at Swedish pulp mills. The objectives are to evaluate techno-economically different blends ratios for different pulp mill capacities. Furthermore, the future methanol production potential in Sweden and overall system consequences of large-scale implementation of PO/BL co-gasification are also assessed.It is concluded that gasification of pure BL and PO/BL blends up to 50% results in significantly lower production costs than what can be achieved by gasification of unblended PO. Co-gasification with 20–50% oil addition would be the most advantageous solution based on IRR for integrated biofuel plants in small pulp mills (200 kADt/y), whilst pure black liquor gasification (BLG) will be the most advantageous alternative for larger pulp mills. For pulp mill sizes between 300 and 600 kADt/y, it is also concluded that a feasible methanol production can be achieved at a methanol market price below 100 €/MW h, for production capacities ranging between 0.9 and 1.6 TW h/y for pure BLG, and between 1.2 and 6.5 TW h/y for PO/BL co-gasification. This study also shows that by introducing PO/BL co-gasification, fewer pulp mills would need to be converted to biofuel plants than with pure BLG, to meet a certain biofuel demand for a region. Due to the technical as well as organizational complexity of the integration this may prove beneficial, and could also potentially lower the total investment requirement to meet the total biofuel demand in the system. The main conclusion is that PO/BL co-gasification is a technically and economically attractive production route for production biomethanol.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Malek, Laura
    Lund Universitet.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund Universitet.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification2013Report (Refereed)
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  • 7.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bauer, Torben
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Ekman Burgman, Linus
    Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change at Linköping University, 58183, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Fifty years of sewage sludge management research: Mapping researchers' motivations and concerns2023In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 325, article id 116412Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge management is torn between a desire for pollution prevention and reuse of a valuable resource. Reconciling these interests in sustainable management is a challenge for researchers. This study focuses on how research on sewage sludge management practices has evolved and scrutinizes how this research is interlinked with concerns and societal issues such as contaminants, economic efficiency, and legislation. Based on published academic papers on sewage sludge management between 1971 and 2019, this study found four trends in research focused on sewage sludge management: a decreasing interest in disposal (landfilling and sea dumping), a dominant interest in land application, a growing interest in sewage sludge as product, and a stable interest in energy recovery. Research on disposal focuses on increasing sludge volumes, legislative changes, and economic challenges with an interest in waste co-treatment. Research on land application concerns nutrient use and contaminants, mainly heavy metals. Research on sewage sludge as a product focuses on the extraction of certain resources and less on use of sewage sludge specifically. Research on energy recovery of sewage sludge focuses on volume reduction rather than contaminants. Two-thirds of the papers are detailed studies aiming to improve single technologies and assessing single risks or benefits. As management of sewage sludge is multifaceted, the narrow focus resulting from detailed studies promotes some concerns while excluding others. Therefore, this study highlights potential gaps such as the combination of nutrient use and disposal and energy recovery and nutrient use. 

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  • 8.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Introducing hydrothermal carbonization to sewage sludge treatment systems—a way of improving energy recovery and economic performance?2023In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 170, p. 131-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) can mitigate the disposal costs of sewage sludge in a wastewater treatment plant. This study analyzes the impact of integrating HTC with anaerobic digestion (AD) and combustion from a combined energy and economic performance perspective. Net energy balance and investment opportunity are investigated for a number of technical scenarios considering i) different combinations of the technologies: AD + HTC, AD + thermal dryer + combustion, and AD + HTC + combustion, ii) different options for HTC process water treatment: wet oxidation (WO) + AD, and direct return to AD, and iii) different products: heat-only, heat and electricity, hydrochar, and phosphorus.

    The results show trade-offs between investment cost, self-supplement of heat, and output electricity when WO is used. In AD + HTC, net heat output decreases compared to the reference plant, but avoided disposal costs and hydrochar revenue result in profitable investment when the process water is directly returned to the AD. Although HTC has a lower heat demand than the thermal dryer, replacing the thermal dryer with HTC is only possible when AD, HTC, and combustion are connected, or when WO covers HTC’s heat demand. HTC may impair the electricity production because of the necessity for a high-temperature heat source, whereas the thermal dryer can utilize a low-temperature heat source. In conclusion, energy advantages of HTC in AD + HTC + combustion are insufficient to provide a promising investment opportunity due to high investment costs of HTC. The investment opportunity improves by co-combustion of hydrochar and external sludge.

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  • 9.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Economic viability of co-combusting sewage sludge with agricultural biomasses: a resource-efficient strategy for sludge treatment and phosphorus recovery in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Bagheri, Marzieh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Scenarios on Energy and Phosphorus Recovery from Mono- and Co-Combustion of Municipal Sewage Sludge2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 5, article id 2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the techno-economic feasibility of energy and phosphorus (P) fertilizer (PF) recovery from municipal sewage sludge (MSS) through incineration in new combustion plants. We evaluated the economic impact of five critical process design choices: (1) boiler type, (2) fuel (MSS mono-combustion/co-combustion with wheat straw), (3) production scale (10/100 MW), (4) products (heat, electricity, PF), and (5) ash destination. Aspen Plus modeling provided mass and energy balances of each technology scenario. The economic feasibility was evaluated by calculating the minimum selling price of the products, as well as the MSS gate fees required to reach profitability. The dependency on key boundary conditions (operating time, market prices, policy support) was also evaluated. The results showed a significant dependency on both energy and fertilizer market prices and on financial support in the form of an MSS gate fee. Heat was preferred over combined heat and power (CHP), which was feasible only on the largest scale (100 MW) at maximum annual operating time (8000 h/y). Co-combustion showed lower heat recovery cost (19–30 €/MWh) than mono-combustion (29–66 €/MWh) due to 25–35% lower energy demand and 17–25% higher fuel heating value. Co-combustion also showed promising performance for P recovery, as PF could be recovered without ash post-treatment and sold at a competitive price, and co-combustion could be applicable also in smaller cities. When implementing ash post-treatment, the final cost of ash-based PF was more than four times the price of commercial PF. In conclusion, investment in a new combustion plant for MSS treatment appears conditional to gate fees unless the boundary conditions would change significantly.

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  • 11.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    Innventia AB.
    Wolf, Jens
    Innventia AB.
    Techno-economic assessment of catalytic gasification of biomass powders for methanol production2017In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 237, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the techno-economic performance and potential benefits of methanol production through catalytic gasification of forest residues and lignin. The results showed that while catalytic gasification enables increased cold gas efficiencies and methanol yields compared to non-catalytic gasification, the additional pre-treatment energy and loss of electricity production result in small or no system efficiency improvements. The resulting required methanol selling prices (90-130 €/MWh) are comparable with production costs for other biofuels. It is concluded that catalytic gasification of forest residues can be an attractive option as it provides operational advantages at production costs comparable to non-catalytic gasification. The addition of lignin would require lignin costs below 25 €/MWh to be economically beneficial.

  • 12.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL – Swedish Environmental Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Hedlund, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Grahn, Mattias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Öhrman, Olov G. W.
    IVL – Swedish Environmental Institute, Stockholm, Sweden;RISE Energy Technology Center AB, Piteå, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and a novel syngas cleaning: Part 2: Techno-economic analysis2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 165, no Part B, p. 471-482Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that alkali addition has operational advantages in entrained flow biomass gasification and allows for capture of up to 90% of the biomass sulfur in the slag phase. The resultant low-sulfur content syngas can create new possibilities for syngas cleaning processes. The aim was to assess the techno-economic performance of biofuel production via gasification of alkali impregnated biomass using a novel gas cleaning systemcomprised of (i) entrained flow catalytic gasification with in situ sulfur removal, (ii) further sulfur removal using a zinc bed, (iii) tar removal using a carbon filter, and (iv) CO2 reductionwith zeolite membranes, in comparison to the expensive acid gas removal system (Rectisol technology). The results show that alkali impregnation increases methanol productionallowing for selling prices similar to biofuel production from non-impregnated biomass. It was concluded that the methanol production using the novel cleaning system is comparable to the Rectisol technology in terms of energy efficiency, while showing an economic advantagederived from a methanol selling price reduction of 2–6 €/MWh. The results showed a high level of robustness to changes related to prices and operation. Methanol selling prices could be further reduced by choosing low sulfur content feedstocks.

  • 13.
    Carvalho, Lara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wolf, Jens
    RISE Bioeconomy.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Methanol production via black liquor co-gasification with expanded raw material base: Techno-economic assessment2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 225, p. 570-584Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrained flow gasification of black liquor combined with downstream-gas-derived synthesis of biofuels in Kraft pulp mills has shown advantages regarding energy efficiency and economic performance when compared to combustion in a recovery boiler. To further increase the operation flexibility and the profitability of the biofuel plant while at the same time increase biofuel production, black liquor can be co-gasified with a secondary feedstock (blend-in feedstock). This work has evaluated the prospects of producing biofuels via co-gasification of black liquor and different blend-in feedstocks (crude glycerol, fermentation residues, pyrolysis liquids) at different blend ratios. Process modelling tools were used, in combination with techno-economic assessment methods. Two methanol grades, crude and grade AA methanol, were investigated. The results showed that the co-gasification concepts resulted in significant increases in methanol production volumes, as well as in improved conversion efficiencies, when compared with black liquor gasification; 5-11 and 4-10 percentage point in terms of cold gas efficiency and methanol conversion efficiency, respectively. The economic analysis showed that required methanol selling prices ranging from 55-101 €/MWh for crude methanol and 58-104 €/MWh for grade AA methanol were obtained for an IRR of 15%. Blend-in led to positive economies-of-scale effects and subsequently decreased required methanol selling prices, in particular for low cost blend-in feedstocks (prices below approximately 20 €/MWh). The co-gasification concepts showed economic competitiveness to other biofuel production routes. When compared with fossil fuels, the resulting crude methanol selling prices were above maritime gas oil prices. Nonetheless, for fossil derived methanol prices higher than 80 €/MWh, crude methanol from co-gasification could be an economically competitive option. Grade AA methanol could also compete with taxed gasoline. Crude glycerol turned out as the most attractive blend-in feedstock, from an economic perspective. When mixed with black liquor in a ratio of 50/50, grade AA methanol could even be cost competitive with untaxed gasoline.

  • 14.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Faaij, André
    Energy Academy Europe, University of Groningen.
    Junginger, Martin
    Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University.
    Cost optimization of biofuel production: The impact of scale, integration, transport and supply chain configurations2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 195, p. 1055-1070Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a geographically-explicit cost optimization model to analyze the impact of and interrelation between four cost reduction strategies for biofuel production: economies of scale, intermodal transport, integration with existing industries, and distributed supply chain configurations (i.e. supply chains with an intermediate pre-treatment step to reduce biomass transport cost). The model assessed biofuel production levels ranging from 1 to 150 PJ a−1 in the context of the existing Swedish forest industry. Biofuel was produced from forestry biomass using hydrothermal liquefaction and hydroprocessing. Simultaneous implementation of all cost reduction strategies yielded minimum biofuel production costs of 18.1–18.2 € GJ−1 at biofuel production levels between 10 and 75 PJ a−1. Limiting the economies of scale was shown to cause the largest cost increase (+0–12%, increasing with biofuel production level), followed by disabling integration benefits (+1–10%, decreasing with biofuel production level) and allowing unimodal truck transport only (+0–6%, increasing with biofuel production level). Distributed supply chain configurations were introduced once biomass supply became increasingly dispersed, but did not provide a significant cost benefit (<1%). Disabling the benefits of integration favors large-scale centralized production, while intermodal transport networks positively affect the benefits of economies of scale. As biofuel production costs still exceeds the price of fossil transport fuels in Sweden after implementation of all cost reduction strategies, policy support and stimulation of further technological learning remains essential to achieve cost parity with fossil fuels for this feedstock/technology combination in this spatiotemporal context.

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  • 15.
    de Jong, Sierk
    et al.
    Utrecht University and SkyNRG.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hoefnagels, Ric
    Utrecht University.
    Tzanetis, Kostis
    Utrecht University.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University ofTechnology.
    Junginger, Martin
    Utrecht University.
    Optimizing biofuel supply chains based on liquefaction technologies: evaluating the hub-and-spoke model2016In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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    Presentation
  • 16.
    Difs, Kristina
    et al.
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Trygg, Louise
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Biomass gasification opportunities in a district heating system2010In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 637-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates the economic effects and the potential for reduced CO2 emissions when biomass gasification applications are introduced in a Swedish district heating (DH) system. The gasification applications included in the study deliver heat to the DH network while producing renewable electricity or biofuels. Gasification applications included are: external superheater for steam from waste incineration (waste boost, WB), gas engine CHP (BIGGE), combined cycle CHP (BIGCC) and production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) for use as transportation fuel. Six scenarios are used, employing two time perspectives – short-term and medium-term – and differing in economic input data, investment options and technical system. To evaluate the economic performance an optimisation model is used to identify the most profitable alternatives regarding investments and plant operation while meeting the DH demand. This study shows that introducing biomass gasification in the DH system will lead to economic benefits for the DH supplier as well as reduce global CO2 emissions. Biomass gasification significantly increases the potential for production of high value products (electricity or SNG) in the DH system. However, which form of investment that is most profitable is shown to be highly dependent on the level of policy instruments for biofuels and renewable electricity. Biomass gasification applications can thus be interesting for DH suppliers in the future, and may be a vital measure to reach the 2020 targets for greenhouse gases and renewable energy, given continued technology development and long-term policy instruments.

  • 17.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    et al.
    Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change, Linköping University.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Energy System Models as a Means of Visualising Barriers and Drivers of Forest-Based Biofuels: An Interview Study of Developers and Potential Users2017In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, no 10, article id 1792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-derived biofuels have been on the agenda for several decades. Despite extensive research and development efforts, forest biofuel concepts have nevertheless not yet been realized on any significant scale. The discrepancy between the expectations from the research community and the lack of momentum regarding biofuel production raises the question of if and how research results can be used to achieve such goals. Here, we report results from an interview study with the aim of evaluating how energy system models can be used to illustrate barriers and drivers for forest biofuels, with focus on Swedish conditions, using the BeWhere model as case. The study is framed as an example of expertise, and problematizes how energy system models are interpreted among expected users. While the interviews revealed some general scepticism regarding models, and what kinds of questions they can answer, the belief was also expressed that increased complexity might be an advantage in terms of being able to accommodate more barriers against forest biofuels. The study illustrates the complexity of this policy area, where an energy system model can answer some, but never all, ‘what if…?’ questions. The results reveal a need for reformation in energy system modelling in order to more explicitly make society the subject of the work, and also illustrate that the belief in expertise as a tool for consensus-building in decision-making should be questioned.

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  • 18.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Kirtania, Kawnish
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bach Oller, Albert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Umeki, Kentaro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Landälv, Ingvar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Gebart, Rikard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Pettersson, Esbjörn
    SP ETC.
    Co-gasification of pyrolysis oil and black liquor - a new track for production of chemicals and transportation fuels from biomass2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressurized oxygen-blown entrained flow black liquor (BL) gasification, the Chemrec technology, has been demonstrated in a 3 MWth pilot plant in Piteå, Sweden for more than 25,000 h. The plant is owned and operated by Luleå University of Technology since 2013. It is well known that catalytic activity of alkali metals is important for the high reactivity of black liquor, which leads to a highly efficient BL gasification process. The globally available volume of BL is however limited and strongly connected to pulp production. By co-gasifying pyrolysis oil (PO) with BL it is possible to utilize the catalytic activity also for PO conversion to syngas. Adding PO leads to larger feedstock flexibility with the possibility of building larger biofuels plants based on BL gasification technology. This presentation summarizes new results from research activities aimed at developing and assessing the PO/BL co-gasification process. Results from laboratory experiments with PO/BL mixtures show that pyrolysis behavior and char gasification reactivity are similar to pure BL. This means that the decrease in the alkali metal concentration due to the addition of PO in the mixture does not decrease the reactivity. Pure PO is much less reactive. Mixing tests show that the fraction of PO that can be mixed into BL is limited by lignin precipitation as a consequence of PO acidity. Pilot scale PO/BL co-gasification experiments have been executed following design and construction of a new feeding system to allow co-feeding of PO with BL. The results confirm the conclusions from the lab scale study and prove that the co-gasification concept is practically applicable. Process performance of the pilot scale co-gasification process is similar to gasification of BL only with high carbon conversion and clean syngas generation. This indicates that the established BL gasification technology can be used for co-gasification of PO and BL without major modifications.

  • 19.
    Furusjö, Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Climate & Sustainable Cities.
    Ma, Chunyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ji, Xiaoyan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Carvalho, Lara
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Alkali enhanced biomass gasification with in situ S capture and novel syngas cleaning: Part 1: Gasifier performance2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 157, p. 96-105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that alkali addition in entrained flow biomass gasification can increase char conversion and decrease tar and soot formation through catalysis. This paper investigates two other potential benefits of alkali addition: increased slag flowability and in situ sulfur capture.

    Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show that addition of 2–8% alkali catalyst to biomass completely changes the chemical domain of the gasifier slag phase to an alkali carbonate melt with low viscosity. This can increase feedstock flexibility and improve the operability of an entrained flow biomass gasification process. The alkali carbonate melt also leads to up to 90% sulfur capture through the formation of alkali sulfides. The resulting reduced syngas sulfur content can potentially simplify gas cleaning required for catalytic biofuel production.

    Alkali catalyst recovery and recycling is a precondition for the economic feasibility of the proposed process and is effected through a wet quench. It is shown that the addition of Zn for sulfur precipitation in the alkali recovery loop enables the separation of S, Ca and Mg from the recycle. For high Si and Cl biomass feedstocks, an alternative separation technology for these elements may be required to avoid build-up.

  • 20.
    Höltinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Mikovits, Christian
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Johann
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science Vienna, Austria.
    Arheimer, Berit
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lindström, Göran
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrköping, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    The impact of climatic extreme events on the feasibility of fully renewable power systems: a case study for Sweden2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 178, p. 695-713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long term time series of variable renewable energy (VRE) generation and electricity demand (load) provide important insights into the feasibility of fully renewable power systems. The coverage of energy statistics is usually too short or the temporal resolution too low to study effects related to interannual variability or the impact of climatic extreme events. We use time series simulated from climate data to assess the frequency, duration, and magnitude of extreme residual load events of two fully renewable power scenarios with a share of VRE generation (wind and solar PV) of about 50% for the case of Sweden. We define residual load as load – wind – PV – nuclear generation. Extreme residual load events are events that exceed the balancing or ramping capacities of the current power system. For our analysis, we use 29 years of simulated river runoff and wind and PV generation. Hourly load is derived from MERRA reanalysis temperature data by applying statistical models. Those time series are used along with historic capacity and ramping restrictions of hydro and thermal power plants in an optimization model to minimize extreme residual load events. Our analysis shows that even highly flexible power systems, as the Swedish one, are affected by climatic extreme events if they increase their VRE shares. Replacing current nuclear power capacities by wind power results on average in three extreme residual load events per year that exceed the current power system’s flexibility. Additional PV generation capacities instead of wind increase the number of extreme residual load events by about 4 %, as most events occur during the winter month when solar generation is close to zero and thus not able to counterbalance low wind events. Contrarily, overproduction and the need to curtail VRE generation become more pressing with higher shares of PV. In the discussion we highlight measures that could provide additional balancing capabilities to cope with the more frequent and severe residual load events in a fully renewable power system with high shares of VRE generation.

  • 21.
    Höltinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low – in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment).

    We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

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    Poster
  • 22.
    Höltinger, Stefan
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Using long term synthetic time series to assess the impact of meteorological extreme events on renewable energy systems: a case study of wind and hydro power in Sweden2017In: Geophysical Research Abstracts, ISSN 1029-7006, E-ISSN 1607-7962, Vol. 19, article id EGU2017-14131Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthetic time series of renewable energy generation provide important inputs for energy system models that study the transition to low carbon energy systems. The coverage of national energy statistics is usually too short or temporal resolution too low – in particular if meteorological extreme events should be assessed. These extreme events may put high stress on power systems with very high shares of renewables and therefore have to be studied in detail. We use simulated time series of Swedish wind energy generation for a 35 year period based on MERRA reanalysis datasets. The simulation of hydropower generation is more complex and requires hydrological models that combine precipitation data with spatially explicit information on soil type and land cover to simulate river discharge. For this purpose, we use time series of daily river discharge that have been simulated using the open source model HYPE (HYdrological Predictions for the Environment).

    We compared the derived time series for wind and hydropower generation in the four Swedish bidding areas with respect to their long-term correlation, patterns of seasonality, and length and duration of extreme events. Preliminary results show that expanding wind power capacities could significantly reduce the overall variability of renewable energy generation. Furthermore, the frequency and duration of extreme production events in a combined wind-hydropower system is lower than in a hydropower system only. Further work will study the need for backup capacities in a future Swedish power system with very high shares of hydro, wind and solar power (>90%).

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  • 23.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ahlström, Johan M.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Harvey, Simon
    Department of Space, Division of Energy Technology, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Elin
    CIT Industriell Energy AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Double Yields and Negative Emissions? Resource, Climate and Cost Efficiencies in Biofuels With Carbon Capture, Storage and Utilization2022In: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 10, article id 797529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As fossil-reliant industries turn to sustainable biomass for energy and material supply, the competition for biogenic carbon is expected to intensify. Using process level carbon and energy balance models, this paper shows how the capture of residual CO2 in conjunction with either permanent storage (CCS) or biofuel production (CCU) benefits fourteen largely residue-based biofuel production pathways. With a few noteworthy exceptions, most pathways have low carbon utilization efficiencies (30–40%) without CCS/U. CCS can double these numbers and deliver negative emission biofuels with GHG footprints below −50 g CO2 eq./MJ for several pathways. Compared to CCS with no revenue from CO2 sequestration, CCU can offer the same efficiency gains at roughly two-third the biofuel production cost (e.g., 99 EUR/MWh vs. 162 EUR/MWh) but the GHG reduction relative to fossil fuels is significantly smaller (18 g CO2 eq./MJ vs. −99 g CO2 eq./MJ). From a combined carbon, cost and climate perspective, although commercial pathways deliver the cheapest biofuels, it is the emerging pathways that provide large-scale carbon-efficient GHG reductions. There is thus some tension between alternatives that are societally best and those that are economically most interesting for investors. Biofuel pathways vent CO2 in both concentrated and dilute streams Capturing both provides the best environomic outcomes. Existing pathways that can deliver low-cost GHG reductions but generate relatively small quantities of CO2 are unlikely to be able to finance the transport infrastructure required for transformative bio-CCS deployment. CCS and CCU are accordingly important tools for simultaneously reducing biogenic carbon wastage and GHG emissions, but to unlock their full benefits in a cost-effective manner, emerging biofuel technology based on the gasification and hydrotreatment of forest residues need to be commercially deployed imminently.

  • 24.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Stockholm.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 1. Product yields & energetic performance2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 166, p. 401-413Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest-based biofuels are strategically important in forest-rich countries like Sweden but the technical performance of several promising production pathways is poorly documented. This study examines product yields and energy efficiencies in six commercially relevant forest-based “drop-in” and “high blend” biofuel production pathways by developing detailed spreadsheet energy balance models. The models are in turn based on pilot-scale performance data from the literature, supplemented with input from technology developers and experts. In most pathways, biofuel production is integrated with a market pulp mill and/or a crude oil refinery. Initial conversion is by pyrolysis, gasification or lignin depolymerization and intermediate products are upgraded by hydrotreatment or catalytic synthesis.

    While lignin oil (LO) hydrodeoxygenation had the highest expanded system efficiency, considerable uncertainty surrounds product yields owing to absence of suitable experimental data on LO upgrading. Co-feeding vacuum gas oil and fast pyrolysis oil in a fluidized catalytic cracker has a complex and uncertain effect on fossil yields, which requires further investigation. Co-locating bio-oil hydrotreatment at the refinery improves heat utilization, leading to higher system efficiencies. Explicit consideration of mill type and energy requirements is required to avoid performance misestimation as an assumption of energy surplus can confer a definite advantage.

  • 25.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Anheden, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Kulander, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Stockholm.
    Håkansson, Åsa
    Preem, Stockholm.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., Stockholm.
    Multi-aspect evaluation of integrated forest-based biofuel production pathways: Part 2, economics, GHG emissions, technology maturity and production potentials2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 172, p. 1312-1328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Promoting the deployment of forest-based drop-in and high blend biofuels is considered strategically important in Sweden but many aspects of the overall performance of the foremost production technologies are as yet unexamined. This paper evaluates the technology maturity, profitability, investment requirements, GHG performance and Swedish biofuel production potential of six commercially interesting forest-based biofuel production pathways.

    Significant heterogeneity in technology maturity was observed. Lack of technical demonstration in industrially representative scales renders the liquefaction-hydrotreatment route for drop-in biofuels less mature than its gasification-catalytic upgrading counterpart. It is a paradox that short-term priority being accorded to pathways with the lowest technology maturity. Nth-of-a-kind investments in (a) gasification-based methanol, (b) hydropyrolysis-based petrol/diesel, and (c) lignin depolymerization-based petrol/diesel were profitable for a range of plant sizes. The profitability of pulp mill-integrated small gasification units (<100 MW) goes against the common perception of gasification being economically feasible only in large scales. New low-cost options for debottlenecking production at recovery boiler-limited kraft mills appear worth investigating. GHG emission reductions ranged from 66 to 95%; a penalty was incurred for high consumption of natural gas-based hydrogen. Swedish biofuel production potentials ranged from 4 to 27 TWh/y but a more feasible upper limit is 12–15 TWh/y.

  • 26.
    Jafri, Yawer
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, P.O. Box 5604, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rådberg, Henrik
    Preem AB, 112 80 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mossberg, Johanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, P.O. Box 5604, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 221 00 Lund, Sweden. SunCarbon AB, 218 73 Tygelsjö, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, P.O. Box 5604, 114 86 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combining expansion in pulp capacity with production of sustainable biofuels: Techno-economic and greenhouse gas emissions assessment of drop-in fuels from black liquor part-streams2020In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 279, article id 115879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drop-in biofuels from forest by-products such as black liquor can help deliver deep reductions in transport greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuels in our vehicle fleet. Black liquor is produced at pulp mills that can increase their pulping capacity by upgrading some of it to drop-in biofuels but this is not well-studied. We evaluate the techno-economic and greenhouse gas performance of five drop-in biofuel pathways based on BL lignin separation with hydrotreatment or black liquor gasification with catalytic synthesis. We also assess how integrated biofuel production impacts different types of pulp mills and a petroleum refinery by using energy and material balances assembled from experimental data supplemented by expert input. Our results indicate that drop-in biofuels from black liquor part-streams can be produced for ~80 EUR2017/MWh, which puts black liquor on the same footing (or better) as comparable forest residue-based alternatives. The best pathways in both production routes have comparable costs and their principal biofuel products (petrol for black liquor gasification and diesel for lignin hydrotreatment) complement each other. All pathways surpass European Union’s sustainability criteria for greenhouse gas savings from new plants. Supplementing black liquor with pyrolysis oil or electrolysis hydrogen can improve biofuel production potentials and feedstock diversity, but better economic performance does not accompany these benefits. Fossil hydrogen represents the cheaper option for lignin hydrotreatment by some margin, but greenhouse gas savings from renewable hydrogen are nearly twice as great. Research on lignin upgrading in industrial conditions is recommended for reducing the presently significant performance uncertainties.

  • 27.
    Krook Riekkola, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sandberg, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biomassa, systemmodeller och målkonflikter2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability and competition for woody biomass has been analysed with a district heating perspective with an aim to contribute to a broader system understanding of the interaction between the district heating system, the forest biomass system and the biofuel system. The starting point has been two energy system models that in different ways capture the competition for biomass in Sweden. The focus has been on (1) identifying possible conflicting targets between increased electricity generation from district heating, increased biofuel production and reduced carbon dioxide emissions, and (2) identifying how the models can communicate and be further developed in order to improve the representation of biomass in the national energy system analysis.

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  • 28.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    CHP or Biofuel Production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO2 emissions.

  • 29.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    BOKU - University of Natural Resources & Applied Life Sciences.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Policies and Modeling of Energy Systems for Reaching European Bioenergy Targets2015In: Handbook of Clean Energy Systems, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd , 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Athanassiadis, Dimitris
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Supply assessment of forest biomass: A bottom-up approach for Sweden2015In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 75, p. 213-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As there is increasing interest in the use of biomass for energy in Sweden, the potential availability and harvesting costs of forest roundwood, harvesting residues and stumps were estimated up to the year 2069 in 10-year intervals, using a high spatial resolution GIS. In each individual forest area, an average harvesting cost per forest assortment was estimated, based on the geographic and other properties of the area. Using cost structure and resource availability, marginal cost curves were constructed to allow analyses of the effects of changing market conditions and different policy frameworks. Based on geographically explicit data, the results indicated that the average harvesting costs would be 21–24 € m−3 for roundwood, depending on the type of harvesting and extraction operation. The corresponding cost estimate for harvesting residues was 23–25 € m−3 and 35 € m−3 for stumps. The harvesting cost estimates lie on the steeper part of the marginal cost curve, suggesting that increases in the supply of woody biomass can only occur at significantly higher harvesting costs. From a policy perspective, this suggests that subsidies aimed at reducing the harvesting costs will only have limited success in increasing the harvested volumes, given current technology. Therefore, for future development in the supply of forest assortments for energy generation, it is important to consider not only the supply potential, but also the integration of improvements in harvesting and transportation systems.

  • 31.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Rise.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Large-scale implementation of biorefineries: New value chains, products and efficient biomass feedstock utilisation2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 32.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Forsell, Nicklas
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Kindermann, Georg
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Österrike.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chamlers tekniska högskola.
    Projekt: Storskalig utbyggnad av bioraffinaderier: Nya värdekedjor, produkter och effektivt utnyttjande av skoglig biomassa2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvecklingen av kommersiella bioraffinaderikoncept är av strategisk betydelse för Sveriges utveckling till en biobaserad ekonomi. Bioraffinaderier bidrar till att ersätta fossila med biobaserade råvaror. Dessutom bidrar de till en smartare användning av biomassa, ökat förädlingsvärde samt utvecklingspotentialen av nya bioprodukter. Tekniska potentialer och industriella tillämpningar sammanlänkas med råvaruförsörjning samt marknads-, innovations- och policyaspekter. Projektet är tvärvetenskapligt och omfattar integration av modeller som kan redogöra för samspelet mellan olika sektorer, som inkluderar geografiska variationer av utbud och efterfrågan av skoglig biomassa, och som kan fånga effekterna av förändrade marknadsvillkor och styrmedel. För modellintegrationen kommer verktyg tas fram för att underlätta kommunikation och återkoppling mellan de ingående modellerna. Projektet syftar till att generera ny kunskap och ett modellramverk för avancerade systemanalyser relaterade till (i) den svenska biomassa och dess roll i ett hållbart energisystem och (ii) industriell omvandling av processindustrin i riktning mot ett framtida bioraffinaderi branschen. Genomförandefasen bygger på tre uppgiftsområden.

  • 33.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ouraich, Ismail
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Bryngemark, Elina
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Zetterholm, Jonas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Nolander, Carl
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sverige.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Andersson, Stefan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Social Sciences.
    Projekt: En hållbar omställning av energisystemet mot en ökad andel bioenergi2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    3 PhD projects: Markets and price formulation (LTU, economics); Technologies and value chains (Chalmers) and; Location and industrial change (LTU, energy engineering). The general system perspective has its starting point in the importance of biomass and bioenergy in the transition to a long-run sustainable energy system and to an efficient spatial resource utilization and production with increased value chains. Focus is on biorefineries. A spatial approach will be applied in combination with national energy system modelling in connection with technological development potentials and industrial applications is linked to the feed-stock supply as well as market and policy issues.

  • 34.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, Box 4044, SE-102 61 Stockholm, Sweden.
    On the green transformation of the iron and steel industry: Market and competition aspects of hydrogen and biomass options2024In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 182, article id 107100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is a major emitter of carbon dioxide globally. To reduce their carbon footprint, the iron and steel industry pursue different decarbonization strategies, including deploying bio-based materials and energy carriers for reduction, carburisation and/or energy purposes along their value-chains. In this study two potential roles for biomass were analysed: (a) substituting for fossil fuels in iron-ore pellets induration and (b) carburisation of DRI (direct reduced iron) produced via fully hydrogen-based reduction. The purpose of the study was to analyse the regional demand-driven price and allocative effects of biomass assortments under different biomass demand scenarios for the Swedish iron and steel industry. Economic modelling was used in combination with spatial biomass supply assessments to predict the changes on relevant biomass markets. The results showed that the estimated demand increases for forest biomass will have significant regional price effects. Depending on scenario, the biomass demand will increase up to 25 percent, causing regional prices to more than doubling. In general, the magnitude of the price effects was driven by the volumes and types of biomasses needed in the different scenarios, with larger price effects for harvesting residues and industrial by-products compared to those of roundwood. A small price effect of roundwood means that the incentives for forest-owners to increase their harvests, and thus also the availability of harvest residues, are small. Flexibility in the feedstock sourcing (both regarding quality and geographic origin) will thus be important if forest biomass is to satisfy demands in iron and steel industry.

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  • 35.
    Mandova, Hana
    et al.
    Bioenergy Centre for Doctoral Training, School of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2631, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2631, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Box 812, SE-971 25, Luleå, Sweden; Thermal and Flow Engineering Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, FI-20500, Åbo, Finland.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2631, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2631, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Gale, William Jeffrey
    Centre for Integrated Energy Research, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schlossplatz 1, A-2631, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Possibilities for CO2 emission reduction using biomass in European integrated steel plants2018In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 115, p. 231-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron and steel plants producing steel via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route constitute among the largest single point CO2 emitters within the European Union (EU). As the iron ore reduction process in the blast furnace is fully dependent on carbon mainly supplied by coal and coke, bioenergy is the only renewable that presents a possibility for their partial substitution. Using the BeWhere model, this work optimised the mobilization and use of biomass resources within the EU in order to identify the opportunities that bioenergy can bring to the 30 operating BF-BOF plants.

    The results demonstrate competition for the available biomass resources within existing industries and economically unappealing prices of the bio-based fuels. A carbon dioxide price of 60 € t−1 is required to substitute 20% of the CO2 emissions from the fossil fuels use, while a price of 140 € t−1 is needed to reach the maximum potential of 42%. The possibility to use organic wastes to produce hydrochar would not enhance the maximum emission reduction potential, but it would broaden the available feedstock during the low levels of substitution.

    The scope for bioenergy integration is different for each plant and so consideration of its deployment should be treated individually. Therefore, the EU-ETS (Emission Trading System) may not be the best policy tool for bioenergy as an emission reduction strategy for the iron and steel industry, as it does not differentiate between the opportunities across the different steel plants and creates additional costs for the already struggling European steel industry.

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  • 36.
    Mandova, Hana
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kjärstad, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    SWERIM AB, Luleå, Sweden; Åbo Akademi University, Åbo, Finland.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria c.
    Gale, William
    University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Achieving carbon-neutral iron and steelmaking in Europe through the deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 218, p. 118-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 30 integrated steel plants operating in the European Union (EU) are among the largest single-point CO 2 emitters in the region. The deployment of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (bio-CCS) could significantly reduce their emission intensities. In detail, the results demonstrate that CO 2 emission reduction targets of up to 20% can be met entirely by biomass deployment. A slow CCS technology introduction on top of biomass deployment is expected, as the requirement for emission reduction increases further. Bio-CCS could then be a key technology, particularly in terms of meeting targets above 50%, with CO 2 avoidance costs ranging between €60 and €100 t CO2 −1 at full-scale deployment. The future of bio-CCS and its utilisation on a larger scale would therefore only be viable if such CO 2 avoidance cost were to become economically appealing. Small and medium plants in particular, would economically benefit from sharing CO 2 pipeline networks. CO 2 transport, however, makes a relatively small contribution to the total CO 2 avoidance cost. In the future, the role of bio-CCS in the European iron and steelmaking industry will also be influenced by non-economic conditions, such as regulations, public acceptance, realistic CO 2 storage capacity, and the progress of other mitigation technologies. 

  • 37.
    Mandova, Hana
    et al.
    University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kjärstad, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmersplatsen 4, 412 58 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Schloßplatz 1, 2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Gale, William
    University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.
    Modelling bio-CCS deployment across iron and steel plants in Europe2018In: 14th Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies Conference Melbourne 21-26 October 2018 (GHGT-14), Elsevier, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Martin, Michael
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Hackl, Roman
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Holmgren, Kristina M.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Peck, Philip
    Lund University, International Institute For Industrial Environmental Economics.
    Assessing the aggregated environmental benefits from by-product and utility synergies in the Swedish biofuel industry2020In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 683-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of biofuels in Sweden has increased significantly in the past years in order to reduce fossil fuel dependence and mitigate climate impacts. Nonetheless, current methodological guidelines for assessing the GHG savings from the use of biofuels do not fully account for benefits from by-products and other utilities (e.g. waste heat and electricity) from biofuel production. This study therefore reviews the aggregated environmental performance of these multi-functional biofuel systems by assessing impacts and benefits from relevant production processes in Sweden in order to improve the decision base for biofuel producers and policymakers in the transition to a bio-based and circular economy. This was done by (1) conducting a mapping of the Swedish biofuel production portfolio, (2) developing future production scenarios, and (3) application of life cycle assessment methodology to assess the environmental performance of the production processes. Special focus was provided to review the potential benefits from replacing conventional products and services with by-products and utilities. The results provide evidence that failure to account for non-fuel-related benefits from biofuel production leads to an underestimation of the contribution of biofuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental impacts when replacing fossil fuels, showing the importance of their multi-functionality.

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  • 39.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Patrizio, Piera
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Mendoza-Ponce, Alma
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Lammens, Tijs
    B.T.G. Biomass Technology Group B.V, Enschede, The Netherlands.
    Staritsky, Igor
    Wageningen Environmental Research (WENR), Team Earth Informatics, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Elbersen, Berien
    Wageningen Environmental Research (WENR), Team Earth Informatics, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kraxner, Florian
    Ecosystems Services and Management Program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Spatio-temporal assessment of integrating intermittent electricity in the EU and Western Balkans power sector under ambitious CO2 emission policies2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 164, p. 676-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates a power dispatch system that aims to supply the power demand of the EU and Western Balkans (EUWB) based on low-carbon generation units, enabled by the expansion of biomass, solar, and wind based electricity. A spatially explicit techno-economic optimization tool simulates the EUWB power sector to explore the dispatch of new renewable electricity capacity on a EUWB scale, under ambitious CO2 emission policies. The results show that utility-scale deployment of renewable electricity is feasible and can contribute about 9–39% of the total generation mix, for a carbon price range of 0–200 €/tCO2and with the existing capacities of the cross-border transmission network. Even without any explicit carbon incentive (carbon price of 0 €/tCO2), more than 35% of the variable power in the most ambitious CO2 mitigation scenario (carbon price of 200 €/tCO2) would be economically feasible to deploy. Spatial assessment of bio-electricity potential (based on forest and agriculture feedstock) showed limited presence in the optimal generation mix (0–6%), marginalizing its effect as baseload. Expansion of the existing cross-border transmission capacities helps even out the variability of solar and wind technologies, but may also result in lower installed RE capacity in favor of state-of-the-art natural gas with relatively low sensitivity to increasing carbon taxes. A sensitivity analysis of the investment cost, even under a low-investment scenario and at the high end of the CO2 price range, showed natural gas remains at around 11% of the total generation, emphasizing how costly it would be to achieve the final percentages toward a 100% renewable system.

  • 40.
    Mesfun, Sennai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Sanchez, Daniel L.
    Carnegie Institution for Science, Department of Global Ecology.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biberacher, Markus
    Research Studios Austria (RSA), Studio iSPACE.
    Kraxner, Florian
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA).
    Power-to-gas and power-to-liquid for managing renewable electricity intermittency in the Alpine Region2017In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 107, p. 361-372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) plays a central role in reducing CO2 emissions from energy supply systems, but intermittency from solar and wind technologies presents integration challenges. High temperature co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 in power-to-gas (PtG) and power-to-liquid (PtL) configurations could utilize excess intermittent electricity by converting it into chemical fuels. These can then be directly consumed in other sectors, such as transportation and heating, or used as power storage. Here, we investigate the impact of carbon policy and fossil fuel prices on the economic and engineering potential of PtG and PtL systems as storage for intermittent renewable electricity and as a source of low-carbon heating and transportation energy in the Alpine region. We employ a spatially and temporally explicit optimization approach of RES, PtG, PtL and fossil technologies in the electricity, heating, and transportation sectors, using the BeWhere model. Results indicate that large-scale deployment of PtG and PtL technologies for producing chemical fuels from excess intermittent electricity is feasible, particularly when incentivized by carbon prices. Depending on carbon and fossil fuel price, 0.15−15 million tonnes/year of captured CO2 can be used in the synthesis of the chemical fuels, displacing up to 11% of current fossil fuel use in transportation. By providing a physical link between the electricity, transportation, and heating sectors, PtG and PtL technologies can enable greater integration of RES into the energy supply chain globally.

  • 41.
    Mikovits, Christian
    et al.
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, Austria.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wehrle, Sebastian
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, Austria.
    Baumgartner, Johann
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, Austria.
    Schmidt, Johannes
    Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, University of Natural Resources and Life Science, Vienna, Austria.
    Stronger together: Multi-annual variability of hydrogen production supported by wind power in Sweden2021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 282, Part B, article id 116082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen produced from renewable electricity will play an important role in deep decarbonisation of industry. However, adding large electrolyser capacities to a low-carbon electricity system also increases the need for additional electricity generation from variable renewable energies. This will require hydrogen production to be variable unless other sources provide sufficient flexibility. Existing sources of flexibility in hydro-thermal systems are hydropower and thermal generation, which are both associated with sustainability concerns. In this work, we use a dispatch model for the case of Sweden to assess the power system operation with large-scale electrolysers, assuming that additional wind power generation matches the electricity demand of hydrogen production on average. We evaluate different scenarios for restricting the flexibility of hydropower and thermal generation and include 29 different weather years to test the impact of variable weather regimes. We show that (a) in all scenarios electrolyser utilisation is above 60% on average, (b) the inter-annual variability of hydrogen production is substantial if thermal power is not dispatched for electrolysis, and (c) this problem is aggravated if hydropower flexibility is also restricted. Therefore, either long-term storage of hydrogen or backup hydrogen sources may be necessary to guarantee continuous hydrogen flows. Large-scale dispatch of electrolysis capacity supported by wind power makes the system more stable, if electrolysers ramp down in rare hours of extreme events with low renewable generation. The need for additional backup capacities in a fully renewable electricity system will thus be reduced if wind power and electrolyser operation are combined in the system.

  • 42.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu M
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Evaluating fuel switching options in the Swedish iron and steel industry under increased competition for forest biomassManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu M
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Process Integration Department.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Systems analysis of sawmill by-products gasification towards a bio-based steel production2018In: ECOS 2018: Proceedings of the 31st International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems / [ed] José Carlos Teixeira, Ana Cristina Ferreira, Ângela Silva, Senhorinha Teixeira, Universidade do Minho. Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Campus Azurém, Guimarães Portugal , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 44.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu M
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Biomass-based gas use in Swedish iron and steel industry: Supply chain and process integration considerations2020In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 146, p. 2797-2811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Substitution of fossil gaseous fuels with biomass-based gases is of interest to the iron and steel industry due to its role in the mitigation of anthropogenic CO2emissions. In switching from fossil fuels to biomass-based gases, a systems analysis of the full value chain from biomass supply to the production and supply of final gas products becomes crucial. This study uses process and heat integration methods in combination with a supply chain evaluation to analyse full value chains of biomass-based gases for fossil gas replacement within the iron and steel industry. The study is carried out as a specific case study in order to understand the implications of utilizing bio-syngas/bio-SNG as heating fuels in iron- and steel-making, and to provide insights into the most sensitive parameters involved in fuel switching. The results show a significant cost difference in the fuel production of the two gas products owing to higher capital and biomass use in the bio-SNG value chain option. When tested for sensitivity, biomass price, transportation distance, and capital costs show the most impact on fuel production costs across all options studied. Trade-offs associated with process integration, plant localisation, feedstock availability and supply were found to varying extents.

  • 45.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu M
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Impact of carbon prices on fuel switching in the iron and steel industry2020In: Industrial Efficiency 2020 - Decarbonise Industry!: eceee Industrial Summer Study proceedings / [ed] Therese Laitinen Lindström, Ylva Blume, ecee , 2020, article id 6-045-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel switching in the iron and steel industry, using forest biomass, is viewed as a short to medium term solution to reducing the CO2 emissions from the steel sector. Implementing biomass as an alternative fuel or reductant in different process stages during steelmaking is met with certain challenges such as technical restrictions regarding substitution potentials and feasibility limits. Judging by the energy intensity of producing steel, the forest biomass requirement is expectedly large and this in itself results in a competition with other biomass users. More so, as a limited and spatially variable resource, the options for localising biomass conversion technologies as well as supplying both the raw material and final product furthers the complexity of biomass utilisation in iron and steel production.

    In this study, a spatially explicit techno-economic modelling approach is employed as a tool for optimising the value chains of upgraded biomass products towards the goal of achieving decreased CO2 emissions from different process stages in the steel industry. The impact of carbon taxes on the fossil energy replacement with the upgraded bio-products is evaluated. The scope of the work is limited to the iron and steel sector in Sweden, where ambitious national climate goals for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions are targeted by the year 2045.

    Results from the optimization model show the plant localisations for biomass conversion, and a roadmap for addressing the challenges already identified is presented based on the demonstrated relationship between carbon taxation levels and share of fossil energy substitution. The impact of biomass supply for metallurgical purposes is briefly discussed against the backdrop of the existing forest industries.

  • 46.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu Maureen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Olofsson, Elias
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Social Sciences.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Evaluating fuel switching options in the Swedish iron and steel industry under increased competition for forest biomass2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 324, article id 119878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant use of forest biomass in the iron and steel industry (ISI) to mitigate fossil CO2 emissions will affect the biomass availability for other users of the same resource. This paper explores the market effects of increased forest biomass competition when promoting the use of forest-based bio-products in the ISI, as well as the interactions between the ISI and the forest industries. We employ a soft-linking approach that combines a geographically explicit techno-economic energy system model and an economic partial equilibrium model of the forest industries and forestry sectors. This allows for iterative endogenous modelling of new equilibrium price developments for different biomass assortments, determining locational choice of bio-products and assessing optimal bio-products technology choices. The results indicate an upward pressure on biomass prices when bio-products are introduced in the ISI (up to 62%), which affects both forest industries and the ISI itself. Prudence is thus warranted not to render bio-production investments uneconomical ex-post by neglecting to include potential price effects in investment decisions. The estimated price effects can be mitigated by increased domestic biomass supply, adjustments of international trade or by revising relevant policies. Even though the results suggest that the price effects will affect the geographical preferences for individual bio-production plants, proximity to the ISI production facility and integration benefits are more important than the proximity to cheaper biomass feedstocks. Product gas production integrated at ISI sites emerges as particularly attractive, while charcoal production exhibits sensitivity to fluctuating markets, both regarding resulting cost for the ISI, and preferred production locations.

  • 47.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu Maureen
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerim AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Exploring the role of forest biomass in abating fossil CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry – The case of Sweden2021In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 288, article id 116558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the utilisation of forest biomass in iron and steel making by putting focus on the supply of available raw biomass assortment, biomass conversion technologies, and distribution of biomass-based products towards reduced fossil CO2 emissions in the iron and steel industry. Biomass-based products are produced by converting biomass assortments from forestry operations and forest industries via slow pyrolysis and gasification technologies. Using a spatially explicit cost optimisation model, biomass supply is optimised to suit the corresponding demand for energy and material substitution, and the extent to which biomass can be a tool in CO2 abatement is explored. The study findings show that maximum use of biomass-based products result in a 43% reduction in CO2 emissions across the existing steel producing technologies. Results also show that increasing the rate of biomass utilisation via substitution targets is more effective than the use of a carbon pricing policy, since the maximum CO2 reduction is unmet even with very high CO2 prices. In the scenario analysis, it is found that low fossil fuel prices constitute a barrier to adopting biomass as an alternative to fossil energy use. Compared to the business-as-usual case, a maximum of 27% increase in energy-related costs was calculated for the industry.

  • 48.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerim, Luleå, Sweden.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Optimizing Biomass Utilisation in Iron and Steel Production2020In: e-EUBCE 2020: Book of Abstracts Summaries, European Biomass Conference & Exhibition (EUBCE) , 2020, p. 118-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supply aspects related to the adoption of biomass in iron and steel making have a major contribution to the overall discussion on how CO2 emissions from this industry sector can be mitigated. Judging by the energy intensity of the iron and steel production, the requirement for biomass utilisation is expectedly large. However, substituting fossil fuels and reductants with biomass is met with technical restrictions regarding substitution potentials and feasibility limits. With biomass being a spatially variable and limited resource, the options for localising biomass conversion technologies as well as supplying both the raw material and final product becomes more complex. Therefore, a system analysis of where biomass utilisation is optimal under certain techno-economic conditions is needed.In this work, a spatially explicit techno-economic approach is employed to study how the value chains of certain upgraded biomass products can be optimised in order to achieve a least-cost strategy to facilitate the adoption of biomass in the steel industry. Under varying conditions, the impacts of carbon taxes, biomass availability, and integration potentials on the optimal cost strategy are evaluated. The scope of the work is limited to the iron and steel sector in Sweden, where ambitious national climate goals for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions are targeted by the year 2045. Results from the techno-economic optimization show a relationship between optimal plant locations and biomass availability, with increased total system costs for scenarios with high coal and coke replacement compared to gas use. The impacts of biomass conversion for metallurgical purposes is discussed against the backdrop of the forest industry.

  • 49.
    Nwachukwu, Chinedu
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerim AB, Luleå, Sweden.
    Toffolo, Andrea
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Use of biomass in steelmaking and its effects for forest industries2020In: 33rd Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (ECOS 2020): Proceedings of a meeting held 29 June - 3 July 2020, Osaka, Japan / [ed] Yokoyama, R, Amano, Y., ECOS 2020 Organizing Committee , 2020, p. 1883-1894Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Use of forest biomass as an alternative to fossil fuels and reductants in the different process stages of steelmaking is viewed as a short to medium term solution in tackling CO2 emissions from the steel sector. Judging by the energy intensity of producing steel, the requirement for biomass utilisation is expectedly large. In any case, switching to biomass is met with technical restrictions regarding substitution potentials and feasibility limits. With biomass being a limited and spatially variable resource, the options for localising biomass conversion technologies as well as supplying both the raw material and final product become more complex.In this study, a spatially explicit techno-economic approach is employed to optimize the value chains of certain upgraded biomass products, achieving a least-cost strategy in order to facilitate the adoption of biomass in the steel industry. The impact of localising the production technologies at specific sites is assessed. The scope of the work is limited to the iron and steel sector in Sweden, where ambitious national climate goals for net-zero greenhouse gas emissions are targeted by the year 2045. Results from the optimization model show the plant localisations for biomass conversion, and demonstrate the relationship between plant locations and biomass supply points. The impact of biomass supply for metallurgical purposes is discussed against the backdrop of the existing forest industries.

  • 50.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Söderström, Mats
    Division of Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linköping Institute of Technology.
    Assessing the climate impact of district heating systems with combined heat and power production and industrial excess heat2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 96, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat demand is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the European Union (EU), as heat is largely produced using fossil fuel resources. Extended use of district heating (DH) could reduce climate impact, as DH systems can distribute heat produced in efficient combined heat and power (CHP) plants and industrial excess heat, thus utilising heat that would otherwise be wasted. The difficulty to estimate and compare GHG emissions from DH systems can however constitute an obstacle to an expanded implementation of DH. There are several methods for GHG emission assessments that may be used with varying assumptions and system boundaries. The aim of this paper is to illuminate how methodological choices affect the results of studies estimating GHG emissions from DH systems, and to suggest how awareness of this can be used to identify possibilities for GHG emission reductions. DH systems with CHP production and industrial excess heat are analysed and discussed in a systems approach. We apply different methods for allocating GHG emissions between products and combine them with different system boundaries. In addition, we discuss the impact of resource efficiency on GHG emissions, using the framework of industrial symbiosis (IS). We conclude that assessments of the climate impact of DH systems should take local conditions and requirements into account. In order for heat from CHP production and industrial excess heat to be assessed on equal terms, heat should be considered a by-product regardless of its origin. That could also reveal opportunities for GHG emission reductions

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