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  • 1.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    et al.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Falbygdens Energi AB, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI, Sweden.
    Regulatory Aspects of Energy Storage in Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Ahmed, Amber
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The potential for balancing the Swedish power grid with residential home batteries2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 2104-2108, article id 0713Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the potential for prosumer batteries coupled to PV units to cover the national frequency balancing needs in Sweden. PV coupled residential batteries are found to be profitable with today's prices, if granted access to balancing markets. Simulations are based on national targets for solar PV production in 2040 (5-10 TWh, 5-10% of electric consumption) and current residential PV share of total installed PV capacity. In the study battery attachment rate was 50% and 15% of single family houses were equipped with 10 kW PV installation with a battery capacity of 6 kW / 7.68 kWh. In total, the battery PV systems constituted 25% of total installed capacity of PV in 2040. The results showed that 20% of the aggregated batteries capacity is sufficient to provide around 70-100% of each of the frequency reserves individually. The highest savings are gained for the households when both the primary frequency reserves, FCR-N and FCR-D, are provided by the aggregated batteries together with increasing the PV self-consumption, peak shaving and energy arbitrage. When providing frequency support the PV system payback time was reduced from 14 to 11 years when equipped with battery, compared to only installing PV.

  • 3.
    Alhamwi, Mouaz
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall R&D, Sweden.
    Mulenga, Enock
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Empirical Analysis of Voltage Variations in Low Voltage Distribution Grids from Photovoltaic2019In: Solar Integration Workshop 2019, Energynautics GmbH , 2019, article id 216Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid expansion of photovoltaic (PV) systems has raised voltage concerns. This paper investigates voltage variations measured at four hundred on-line PV installations in Sweden. Small (<10 kW inverter size) three phase residential PV systems had the least impact whereas single phase systems had the most impact for the same amount of power injected per phase. PV systems were grouped based on post code location into urban and rural areas. Urban areas were found to be more resilient to PV induced  voltage fluctuations with a narrower back-ground voltage band in comparison to rural areas, indicating that PV inverter measurements can be an efficient method to empirically determine grid strength.

  • 4.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    STRI, Sweden.
    Chen, Yu
    STRI, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI, Sweden.
    Risk analysis of alternatives to N-1 reserves in the network2013In: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, article id 280Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 5.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Cundeva, S
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yang, Kai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Considering the needs of the customer in the electricity network of the future2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the electric power system and the electricity network (power grid) is to supply electrical energy to the consumers. The interest of those consumers is in the price of electricity and in the performance of the delivery of the electrical energy. For the electricity producers, the aim of the grid is to enable the transport of electricity from them to the consumers. Also for the producers the importance is in costs and performance. Performance of the grid is typically divided into two parts: continuity of supply and voltage quality.The appearance of the smart grid, introduced as the use of new technology, methodology or market principles, to address new challenges, impacts continuity of supply and voltage quality. Such challenges include new types of production, new types of consumption, and electricity markets, but also increasing demands by customers on continuity of supply and voltage quality.This paper discusses a number of examples of new thinking for addressing the challenges that the power system has to cope with.An alternative approach for overload protection of subtransmission grids will be proposed, where the “smartness” is in the fact that the overload protection does not remove the overloaded component but the cause of the overload. Upon detection of an overload, the protection disconnects part or whole of curtailable customers to reduce the current through the lines to a level below the overload limit. As a result subtransmission lines can be operated without any reserve, so that more customers can be connected for the same costs while at the same time the continuity of supply for the non-curtailable customers is not impacted.The limits set to the hosting capacity by the risk of overvoltages due to distributed generation can be removed either by new technology (curtailment of production) or by allowing occasional overvoltages. An example will be provided to show the probability of an overvoltage occurring with a low-voltage customer when increasing amounts of wind power are connected to a medium-voltage feeder.An example of the measured emission from wind turbines will be presented. Allowing higher levels of non-characteristic harmonics is a possible alternative for strict emission limits on new installations.The provided examples of the use of new technology and/or new ways of thinking are part of the transition to the smart grid. Such new thinking in combination with new technology will be an important element in the transition to the future electricity network i.e. the “smart grid”. With any design or operation issue of the power system it remains important to always keep the main aims of the power system in mind: to maintain acceptable continuity of supply and voltage quality for all network users at a reasonable price.

  • 6.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    STRI AB.
    Tjäder, J.
    STRI AB.
    Increasing hosting capacity through dynamic line rating: risk aspects2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The availability of monitoring, control and communication technology makes it possible to estimate the ampacity of an overhead transmission line continuously. This allows the transport of substantially larger amounts of energy over that line that when a static ampacity value is used. It is shown in this paper that the use of such dynamic line rating allows more wind power to be connected to the grid, i.e. it results in an increase of the hosting capacity. For the numerical example presented in the paper, the hosting capacity is increase from 214 to 390 MW. There are different types of risk associated with the introduction of dynamic line rating, some of which are discussed in this paper. Two main types of risk are distinguished. Risks associated with possible overload of components, even when the ampacity is exactly known. Additional risks due to the difference between the actual and the estimated ampacity.The introduction of curtailment, in combination with dynamic line rating, makes it possible to manage the first type of risk. The risk of overload carried by all customers is replaced by the risk of temporality being disconnected for the wind-park owner. The latter is however also the stakeholder gaining most from the increase in hosting capacity.To reduce the second type of risk, several practical aspects need to be considered before implementing dynamic line rating, several of which are discussed in this paper.

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  • 7.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Yang, Kai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Chang, G. W
    National Chung Cheng University.
    Continuity of supply and voltage quality in the electricity network of the future2012In: 15th International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), IEEE Communications Society, 2012, p. 375-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three examples of new thinking for addressing the challenges that the power system has to cope with. Such new thinking in combination with new technology will be an important element in the transition to the future electricity network (the —). With overload protection it is important to not remove the overloaded component but the cause of the overload so as to protect the other network users against an interruption. The limits set to the hosting capacity by potential overvoltages can be removed either by new technology (curtailment of production) or by allowing occasional overvoltages. Allowing higher levels of non-characteristic harmonics is a possible alternative for strict emission limits on new installations. In all cases it is essential that the interests of the network user are considered.

  • 8.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. STRI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. STRI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy — Some illustrative case studies2012In: 2nd IEEE PES International Conference and Exhibition on Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT Europe), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of curtailment to allowmore wind or solar power to be connected to a distributionnetwork when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. For fourcase studies, all based on measurements, the gain in producedenergy is calculated. It is shown that the curtailment method hasa large impact on this gain. The paper further discusses details ofthe curtailment algorithm and the communication needs as wellas some further applications of curtailment.

  • 9.
    Bollen, Math
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Mulenga, Enock
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Rönnberg, Sarah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall R&D, Power Technology, Sweden.
    Hosting Capacity of the Grid for Photovoltaic Installations: a Stochastic Approach Applied to Single-phase Connections2018In: DIGITAL PROCEEDINGS: 8th Solar Integration workshop: International workshop on Integration of Solar Power into Power Systems, Energynautics GmbH, 2018, article id SIW18-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the voltage rise due to PV installations connected to a low-voltage network. The connection of individual installations is studies for both single-phase and three-phase connection. A stochastic method is presented to estimate the hosting capacity. This method is illustrated for random and coordinated connection of single-phase installations. It is shown, in a number of ways, that the installation of large (e.g. 6 kW) single-phase connected units can easily result in unacceptable overvoltages.

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  • 10.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders Kim
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Wall, Daniel
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Fogelberg, Axel
    GEAB, Sweden.
    Lidström, Erica
    Vattenfall, Sweden.
    Advanced fault location in compensated distribution networks2016In: CIRED Workshop 2016, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes the design, implementation and evaluation of a novel fault location system for compensated networks. The work is performed as a part of the ongoing EU FP7 project called DICERN, involving five distribution network operators and several manufacturers and research institutes in Europe. In order to achieve its main goal of finding optimal level of intelligence in distribution grids the demonstration sites play a key role in achieving the central goals of the project. The aim of the Swedish demonstration is to gain knowledge on smart grid network operations and find a cost effective solution for monitoring the medium voltage (MV) network using “simple” sensors. The main objective is to geographically pinpoint faults in the distribution network and furthermore to evaluate the functionality of MV monitoring for fast and reliable fault identification and indicating distance to faults.

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  • 11. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: International Electrotechnical Commission2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The world’s leading organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies.

  • 14. Etherden, Nicholas
    Aktivitet: Substation Automation with IEC 618502011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 15.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distributed energy resources using storage and communication2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis develops methods to increase the amount of renewable energy sources that can be integrated into a power grid. The assessed methods include i) dynamic real-time assessment to enable the grid to be operated closer to its design limits; ii) energy storage and iii) coordinated control of distributed production units. Power grids using such novel techniques are referred to as “Smart Grids”. Under favourable conditions the use of these techniques is an alternative to traditional grid planning like replacement of transformers or construction of a new power line. Distributed Energy Resources like wind and solar power will impact the performance of the grid and this sets a limit to the amount of such renewables that can be integrated. The work develops the hosting capacity concept as an objective metric to quantify the ability of a power grid to integrate new production. Several case studies are presented using actual hourly production and consumption data. It is shown how the different variability of renewables and consumption affect the hosting capacity. The hosting capacity method is extended to the application of storage and curtailment. The goal is to create greater comparability and transparency, thereby improving the factual base of discussions between grid operators, electricity producers and other stakeholders on the amount and type of production that can be connected to a grid.Energy storage allows the consumption and production of electricity to be decoupled. This in turn allows electricity to be produced as the wind blows and the sun shines while consumed when required. Yet storage is expensive and the research defines when storage offers unique benefits not possible to achieve by other means. Focus is on comparison of storage to conventional and novel methods.As the number of distributed energy resources increase, their electronic converters need to provide services that help to keep the grid operating within its design criteria. The use of functionality from IEC Smart Grid standards, mainly IEC 61850, to coordinate the control and operation of these resources is demonstrated in a Research, Development and Demonstration site. The site contains wind, solar power, and battery storage together with the communication and control equipment expected in the future grids.Together storage, new communication schemes and grid control strategies allow for increased amounts of renewables into existing power grids, without unacceptable effects on users and grid performance.

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  • 16.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distributed energy resources using storage and communication2012Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electricity from Distributed Energy Resources like wind and solar powerwill impact the performance of the electricity network and this sets a limit to theamount of such renewables that can be connected. Investment in energy storage andcommunication technologies enables more renewables by operating the networkcloser to its limits. Electricity networks using such novel techniques are referred toas “Smart Grids”. Under favourable conditions the use of these techniques is analternative to traditional network planning like replacement of transformers orconstruction of new power line.The Hosting Capacity is an objective metric to determine the limit of an electricitynetwork to integrate new consumption or production. The goal is to create greatercomparability and transparency, thereby improving the factual base of discussionsbetween network operators and owners of Distributed Energy Resources on thequantity and type of generation that can be connected to a network. This thesisextends the Hosting Capacity method to the application of storage and curtailmentand develops additional metrics such as the Hosting Capacity Coefficient.The research shows how the different intermittency of renewables and consumptionaffect the Hosting Capacity. Several case studies using real production andconsumption measurements are presented. Focus is on how the permitted amountof renewables can be extended by means of storage, curtailment and advanceddistributed protection and control schemes.

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  • 17. Etherden, Nicholas
    Project: KIC InnoEnergy within the European Institute of Innovation and Technology2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Aboukrat, Maxime
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cebollada, Virginia
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lingfors, David
    Uppsala University, Dep. Eng. Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Björn O.
    Dep. Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Shading losses for different types of residential PV systems and its city-wide impact on PV potential2019In: 9th Solar and Storage Integration Workshop: International Workshop on Integration of Solar Power and storage into Power Systems, Energianautics GmbH , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Bollen, Math H. J.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Lars
    Falbygdens Energi, Sweden.
    Technical dimensioning of an energy storage for a Swedish distribution company2013In: 22nd International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2013): Stockholm, Sweden, 10 - 13 June 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, article id 315Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 20.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, 169 92 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alhamwi, Mouaz
    Vattenfall R&D, 169 92 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Using Online Solar Photovoltaics Inverter Measurements to Determine the Hosting Capacity of Distribution Grids2023In: Solar RRL, E-ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 7, no 22, article id 2300509Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dimensioning of Energy Storage for Increased Integration of Wind Power2013In: 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society Generl Meeting (PES), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Dimensioning of energy storage for increased integration of wind power2013In: IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1949-3029, E-ISSN 1949-3037, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 546-553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy storage can potentially allow for more production from renewable resources into existing grids. A methodology to quantify grid limitations and dimension battery energy storage systems is presented in this paper. By use of grid consumption and production data, the hosting capacity methodology is developed as a general framework for storage dimensioning that can be applied by grid operators. The method is successfully applied to an existing subtransmission grid; actual hourly production and consumption data during a two-year period is used. The role of a storage system compared to other means to handle overloading is studied. It is found that about one third of overloading instances are suitable to handle with a battery energy storage system. After this, diminishing returns per unit of storage capacity are shown to occur.

  • 23.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Effect of large scale energy storage on CO2 emissions in Scandinavian peninsula2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Increasing the hosting capacity of distribution networks by curtailment of renewable energy resources2011In: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011; Trondheim; 19 June 2011 through 23 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper applies the hosting-capacity method to a realistic distribution system. Under given circumstances the hosting capacity for Distributed Energy Resources (DER) identifies the degree of DER in power grid that can be accepted without endangering the reliability or quality of power. In this case study two limits setting the hosting capacity were evaluated: overvoltage and overcurrent. Finally it is examined to what extent the hosting capacity can be increased with use of real-time information and calculation of dynamic performance indications that govern the hosting capacity. It is shown that there is significant potential for increasing the hosting capacity without having to build new lines

  • 25.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Overload and overvoltage in low-voltage and medium-voltage networks due to renewable energy: some illustrative case studies2014In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 114, p. 39-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of curtailment to allow more wind or solar power to be connected to a distribution network when overcurrent or overvoltage set a limit. Four case studies, all based on measurements, are presented. In all cases the hosting capacity method is used to quantify the gain in produced energy for increased levels of distributed renewable energy resources. A distinction is made between “hard curtailment” where all production is disconnected when overcurrent and overvoltage limits are exceeded and “soft curtailment” where the amount of production to be disconnected is minimized. It is shown that the type of curtailment method used has a large impact on the amount of delivered energy to the grid. The paper further discusses details of the curtailment algorithm, alternatives to curtailment, the communication needs and risks associated with the use of curtailment

  • 26. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Project: SmartGrid Energilager2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Lösningar för optimerad reglering i realtid av distribuerad förnybar elproduktion, energilagring, samt styrbar last.

  • 27.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Bollen, Math
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    The use of battery storage for increasing the hosting capacity of the grid for renewable electricity production2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a step-by-step systematic decision making process to define operant conditions and applications for which battery storage is an option for electrical power grids. The set of rules is based on a number of research studies performed by the authors focusing mainly on sub-transmission grids. Battery storage is expensive so the focus in this paper is on comparing storage with other ways of achieving the same increase in the hosting capacity (HC) of grid. The approach is to find niche applications for which battery storage has unique advantages i.e. it provides a unique alternative for grid operator planning, which is unachievable in other ways. The first step is to assess the grid’s capacity to host new loads or production. This constitutes a baseline for evaluation of improvements from storage. The next step is to define applications for battery energy storage. Integrating new loads/production without increasing the hosting capacity may result in reduced performance and ultimately loss of production or consumption. The cost and severity of exceeding the hosting capacity will also affect the type of solution required. After this define the conventional planning solutions that would be adopted without storage option available. Such measures may include upgrading of transformer or construction of new power line. Curtailment, tariff based incentives or contracted load shedding as well as techniques like dynamic line rating can also be included in the comparison at this stage. Based on assessments of these alternatives it is possible to compare increase in hosting capacity with and without storage as well as comparing gains with storage to what can be achieved with conventional grid planning options or other novel methods. It is also important to investigate the regulatory framework and constraints regarding ownership and operation of a battery energy storage. Should the grid operator own the battery storage? Or should the task be outsourced on a service contract or the service purchased in the market place? Storage capacity may only be utilized during certain periods. Can all or part of the storage capacity or the power electronic inverters perform additional functions and increase the return on investment for the installation? Regulatory aspects regarding the possibilities for different actors to pursue such additional income streams should be included in the assessment to correctly determine the return of investment of battery storage.The final step should include control algorithm development, tested in a flexible but realistic environment and should establish whether the system actually delivers the predicted outcomes when exposed to real-time data. This may require building a pilot installation as a research and development activity before commercial deployment.

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  • 28.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Ackeby, Susanne
    STRI AB.
    Lennerhag, Oscar
    STRI AB.
    The transparent hosting-capacity approach – overview, applications and developments2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes the hosting capacity approach and gives some recent developments: including uncertainty in location and size of production units; curtailment to connect more production than according to the initial hosting capacity. For both developments it is shown that the transparency of the approach still holds but also that the results may be strongly location dependent. It is however also shown that the hosting-capacity approach can be used to obtain rough estimations, rules-of-thumbs, and to make a first assessment in case more detailed studies are not possible for example because insufficient data is available.

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  • 29.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bollen, Math H.J.
    STRI AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundkvist, J.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Quantification of ancillary services from a virtual power plant in an existing subtransmision network2013In: Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe (ISGT EUROPE): 2013 4th IEEE/PES, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2013, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a feasibility study of a virtual power plant (VPP) in central Sweden designed to provide ancillary services to a 50-kV distribution network. The VPP consists of a wind park, hydro plant and reservoir as well as solar PVs and battery energy storage. The 50-kV subtransmission network was modeled in order to evaluate the ancillary services that could be provided by coordinating existing distributed energy resources in the network. Simulations were performed using measured hourly variations in production and consumption at all network nodes. The studied ancillary services include both reactive and active power control. Contribution from the VPP is evaluated for balancing, to enable a producer to meet spot markets bids and avoid purchases of balancing power minimize peak load in order to reduce subscribed power and tariff to the regional 130-kV network decrease network losses the contribution from reactive power control using the power converters to reduce the reactive power flow to the overlying network. Quantification of the economic gains from each operation case is provided.

  • 30. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Project: Test bed – Energy supply for innovative mining from an environmental and energy perspective2014Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Gudmundsson, Michael
    STRI AB.
    Häger, Mats
    STRI AB.
    Stomberg, Henrik
    STRI AB.
    Experience from construction of a smart grid research, development and demonstration platform2011In: Proceedings of CIRED 21st International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED - Congrès International des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents experience from the construction of a Smart Grid Research, Development and Demonstration (RD2) platform. The first stage of the platform consists of a small solar, wind and fuel cell-plant with battery, super capacitor and hydrogen energy storage systems. Emphasis during the development of the platform has been on construction of an up-scalable control system and the AC/DC network infrastructure.

  • 32.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anders Kim
    Vattenfall Services, Motala, Sweden.
    Ysberg, Ulf
    Vattenfall Distribution, Borås, Sweden.
    Kvamme, Kjetil
    Powel A/S, Tromsö, Norway.
    Pampliega, David
    Schneider Electric, Sevilla, Spain.
    Dryden, Craig
    GE, Livingstone, Scotland, U.K.
    Enhanced LV supervision by combining data from meters, secondary substation measurements and medium voltage supervisory control and data acquisition2017In: CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, E-ISSN 2515-0855, Vol. 2017, no 1, p. 1089-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes a practical demonstration of low- and medium-voltage network monitoring through information exchange between metering, supervisory control and data acquisition and network information systems. The goal of the project is to increase observability of the network for operators and provide more information for network planners. Practical experiences and recommendations for secondary substation retrofitting are provided based on 18 installations of remote terminal units, fault locators and line sensors in 10/0.4 kV secondary substations.

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  • 33.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB, Regnbågsgatan 8b, Gothenburg, 41755, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Martin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Fernandez, Josep Maria
    CINERGIA, Pere IV 29-35, 08018 Barcelona, Spain.
    Bollen, Math
    STRI AB, Regnbågsgatan 8b, Gothenburg, 41755, Sweden.
    Converter induced resonances in microgrids due to high harmonic distortion2014In: The Renewable Energies and Power Quality Journal, ISSN 2172-038X, no 12, article id 317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the resonance introduced by adverse interaction of electronic converters. With the presence of multiple power-electronic converters, situations can occur where the harmonics are amplified due to the interaction between converters. An observation of undamped oscillation leading to instability in a microgrid is described. The term “converter induced resonances” is proposed to describe this phenomenon. The amount of distributed generation, active loads, FACTS and battery energy storage systems are expected to increase in future Smart Grids. All these resources will be interfaced with electronic converters. The potential impact of converter induced resonances in such grids is described. A coordinated design of the control systems of all converters is in practice not feasible. Each device will be independently tested to fulfil grid codes and have its own converter control implemented that can include functionality to modify voltage and /or current waveform.

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    fulltext
  • 34.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nestorovic, Benjamin
    Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isendahl, Christoffer
    E.ON Energidistribution AB, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ruwaida, Yvonne
    Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unlocking the potential of flexibility2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, article id 0718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The CoordiNet project within Horizon 2020 programme aims to demonstrate how Distribution System Operators (DSO) and Transmission System Operators (TSO) can act in a coordinated manner to procure and activate grid services in the most cost effective and reliable way. With 4 GWh of traded flexibility during winter of 2019/2020, the Swedish demo sites constitutes one of Europe's largest local flexibility markets for congestion management. The paper presents the experience from interviews with fifteen flexibility providers participating in the markets. Together they provide flexibility from a wide mix of different technologies including district heating, generation from waste disposal, aggregated consumer load, industrial heat pumps, gensets and residential housing blocks. Fifteen resource owners have made the journey to become flexibility providers. Understanding their experience and needs will help DSO develop products and business models for flexibility services as well as getting insight in the practical hurdles that hinder network customers to become a flexibility provider (FSP). The results from implementation of the platform, user interface, learnings on stakeholder interaction and initial evaluation of first two years operation of the market is also addressed.

  • 35.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Tavares de Oliveira, Tais
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    First Steps Towards a Standardised Hosting Capacity Method2021In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 931-934, article id 0727Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the requirements for a standardised hosting capacity method. It outlines the needs and requirements for a standardised methodology as well as ongoing and upcoming standardisation activities in IEEE and IEC. The paper outlines the criteria for consensus, transparency, interoperability and stability required from a standardised hosting capacity method. The use of IEC 61968/61970 Common Grid Model Exchange Specification is proposed as a basis for reproducibility and benchmarking of results across network operators, countries, regions and network design methods.

  • 36.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Department of Materials Science, Uppsala University, PO Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Tesfamichael, T
    Department of Materials Science, Uppsala University, PO Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Niklasson, G A
    Department of Materials Science, Uppsala University, PO Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wäckelgård, E
    Department of Materials Science, Uppsala University, PO Box 534, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    A theoretical feasibility study of pigments for thickness-sensitive spectrally selective paints2004In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 1115-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a model for thickness-sensitive spectrally selective paints and use it to optimize their optical properties with respect to the particle size of the pigment. Pigments were chosen from different classes of materials such as metals, low band gap insulators and semiconductors and carbon. Silicone was chosen as the binder and the paint thickness was varied from 1 to 4 µm. Scattering and absorption cross sections were derived from Mie theory for spherical particles, and the particle radii ranged between 10 and 500 nm. The reflectance was derived from a radiative transfer formulation of a four-flux model, assuming a mono-disperse particle ensemble. The integrated values for near-normal solar absorptance and thermal emittance at 100°C were calculated from the total near-normal spectral reflectance in the wavelength range 0.3–30 µm. It was found that all the pigments investigated have an optimal particle radius of about 100 nm in the case of a 1.0 µm thick paint layer and a particle volume fraction of 0.20. The optimal particle size increases slightly for thicker films. It was also found that direct, low band gap semiconductors give the best spectral selectivity. A solar absorptance of 0.91 and a thermal emittance of 0.13 were computed for PbS particles of volume fraction 0.20 in a 2.0 µm thick paint layer on aluminium.

  • 37.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Tiesmäki, Ville
    FINGRID Oyj.
    Kimsten, Gert
    Svenska Kraftnät.
    A practical approach to verification and maintenance procedures for IEC 61850 substations2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 standard defines a large smorgasbord of different information models that can be used for safe commissioning and maintenance testing. These functionalities potentially allow for safe testing with the substation still in operation.Over the past two years the Finnish and Swedish TSOs have worked together with an independent test institute and consultancy company on a series of projects to explore the possibilities with IEC 61850 and to develop new commissioning and maintenance test procedures adapted to IEC 61850 systems. The first part of the project aimed to investigate procedures that could be used for site acceptance and maintenance testing. Based on available functionality in the standard an approach was envisioned for commissioning and maintenance. In practise few of the available test, simulation and blocking indications have been consistently implemented in the first generation of IEC 61850 devices. It was therefore necessary to move to a more interoperable (but not standardised) approach described in this paper.With the 2nd edition of the IEC 61850 standard there is a basis for more efficient and standardized testing methods. The finding from the project is that only a subset of the available possibilities for testing in the IEC 61850 standard are normally implemented. More consistent implementation and use of the test related functionality is required. To obtain this, utility and system integrator engineers need to get deeper involved in the definition, implementation, interpretation and use of the various test related information models and enter into active dialogue with the manufacturers of IEDs and test equipment.

  • 38.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Virtual Power Plant for Grid Services using IEC 618502016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 437-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper assesses the communication, information and functional requirements of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs). A conceptual formulation of the interoperability requirements is presented as well as a comparative study of their fulfillment by state-of-the-art communication techniques. VPP requirements are then mapped against services and information models of IEC 61850 and CIM power utility automation standards. Proposals are given for extensions of the IEC 61850 standard to enhance the interaction between VPP controller and the distributed energy resources. Finally the methodology and concepts are applied to a specific VPP consisting of hydro and wind plants, solar PV and storage facilities. Several applications to provide grid services from the proposed VPP in an existing 50 kV grid are covered. The implementation of the VPP communication and control architecture in the SCADA of demonstration plant is also presented.

  • 39.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Weingarten, L
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Physical-hybrid simulation for in-situ evaluation of energy storage system2012In: 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2012: Berlin;14 October 2012 through17 October 2012, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for testing of a grid-size battery energy storage system and its interaction with the grid. The method uses a real installation with relatively small storage capacity which is combined with a simulation model of the grid. The storage is cycled based on measurements from the potential grid location and desired application. A scaling factor is used to relate the physical installation capacity and power ratings with the grid-size storage in the simulation model. Such a hybrid method allows evaluating grid-size storage installations without disturbing the grid. The physical behavior of the battery and control algorithm can be evaluated under realistic conditions without the need to construct a full grid-size storage installation. An experiment is described in this paper were the method is applied to an actual grid and battery storage installation

  • 40.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    STRI AB, Sweden.
    Öhlen, Carl
    STRI AB.
    IEC 61850 – for much more than substations2010In: Revue E, ISSN 1377-7254, Vol. 126, no 4-2010, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41. Etherden, Nicholas
    et al.
    Öhlen, Carl
    STRI AB.
    IEC 61850 independent multivendor interoperability testing for Scandinavian utilities2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the IEC 61850 standard for power utility automation communication is to “provide a framework to achieve interoperability between the Intelligent Electronic Devices supplied from different suppliers” [1]. Many users expect conformance tested devices to be “plug and play” with no interoperability issues. Present experience however shows that conformance testing only reduces the number of interoperability issues and additional measures are needed to ensure cooperation of multi-vendor devices. This article is about key issues involved with creating a test facility for interoperability testing of IEC 61850 devices and systems involving different vendors. A testing strategy to ensure interoperability is presented.

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  • 42.
    Ezzeddine, Kassem
    et al.
    Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, Stockholm, Sweden.
    A Topology Agnostic Estimation Method for PV Hosting Capacity of Distribution Grids2021In: 2021 IEEE Madrid PowerTech: Conference Proceedings, IEEE, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast screening method to estimate PV hosting capacity in a low voltage grid with respect to overvoltage and transformer overload is presented in this paper. The method uses the resistance of the direct path from the slack bus to customer and an assumed topology in order to avoid complete knowledge about the grid topology. Using an assumed topology an estimate of the minimum overvoltage hosting capacity is obtained for each penetration level and the transformer overload hosting capacity for any combination of customers having PV. The method is suitable for initial response to demand connection enquiries and showed good correspondence by comparison with power flow simulation using the actual grid topology. The method was implemented on four semi-rural low voltage grids and the results showed that these grids were able to handle PV infeed comparable to maximum winter load due to three-phase connections.

  • 43.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University Espoo, Finland.
    Wu, Yiming
    Vattenfall R&D, Solna, Sweden.
    Toolset Development for Modelling Sympathetic Phenomenon and its Detection by a Neural Network2023In: 2023 IEEE 2nd Industrial Electronics Society Annual On-Line Conference (ONCON), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, Solna, Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Microcomputer Prototyping of IEC61850-9-2 with Performance Analysis2023In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

  • 45.
    Honeth, Nicholas
    et al.
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Yiming, Wu
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Nordström, Lars
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model on a hybrid renewable energy system2011In: 2011 IEEE PES Trondheim PowerTech: The Power of Technology for a Sustainable Society, POWERTECH 2011; Trondheim; 19 June 2011 through 23 June 2011, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEC 61850 is the most promising standard for design of substation communication and automation systems. Recent revisions of the standard include support for modeling, and control of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). This paper presents an application of the IEC 61850-7-420 data model for DER in the implementation of a control and energy management system for a Hybrid Renewable Energy System (HRES). These systems are beginning to prove their usefulness in providing deployable electrical supply in locations where no such supply exists as well as for backup power or power quality related support functions. The motivation for applying the standard to the design process is twofold; to modularize the design according to an accepted international standard and to design for interoperability with other IEC 61850 enabled devices and SCADA systems

  • 46.
    Lu, Shengye
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Repo, Sami
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Tampere University of Technology.
    Tjäder, Jonas
    STRI AB, Ludvika.
    Kjellström, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall AB.
    IEC 61850-based Communication and Aggregation Solution for Demand-Response Application2017In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe: ISGT Europe 2016,  Ljubljana,  Slovenia,  9-12  October 2016, Piscataway, NJ, 2017, Vol. Part F126485, article id 7856283Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an IEC 61850 standard-based communication and aggregation solution for Demand-Response application, which allows end devices automatically detected, configured and integrated to the overlying Demand-Response system, thereby greatly increasing the integration efficiency, and making large scale of deployment feasible. This communication solution is dedicated to one community-wide Demand-Response application designed for a residential area near an industrial installation in Sweden. The community-wide Demand-Response application will be briefly explained in the paper, however, the main focus of this paper is the communication solution and IT system implementation for this application. The communication solution is realized by the unconventional use of IEC 61850 standard, and implemented in a hierarchical structure consisting of SCADA, communication gateway and low cost micro processor-based spatial heating controllers

  • 47.
    Mulenga, Enock
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall R & D, Vattenfall AB, Sweden.
    A review of hosting capacity quantification methods for photovoltaics in low-voltage distribution grids2020In: International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems, ISSN 0142-0615, E-ISSN 1879-3517, Vol. 115, article id 105445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A literature review is presented in this paper of the methods for quantifying the solar PV hosting capacity of low-voltage distribution grids. Three fundamentally different methods are considered: i) deterministic ii) stochastic iii) time series. The methods’ outline of applications, merits and shortfalls are summarized. The methods differ in the input data, accuracy, accuracy, computation time, consideration of uncertainties, consideration of the time-related influence and the models used. Two types of uncertainties need to be considered: certain (aleatory) uncertainties and uncertain (epistemic) uncertainties. The latter ones are only included in some of the stochastic methods.

    In most of the reviewed publications, the voltage magnitude rise and increased loading with increased risk of overvoltage and overloading (for lines, cables and transformers) were the main phenomena considered in the hosting capacity study.

    This review offers guidelines for distribution system planners on which hosting-capacity method to be used and to researchers on research gaps.

  • 48.
    Mulenga, Enock
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Adapted Stochastic PV Hosting Capacity Approach for Electric Vehicle Charging Considering Undervoltage2021In: Electricity, E-ISSN 2673-4826, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 387-402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a stochastic approach to single-phase and three-phase EV charge hosting capacity for distribution networks. The method includes the two types of uncertainties, aleatory and epistemic, and is developed from an equivalent method that was applied to solar PV hosting capacity estimation. The method is applied to two existing low-voltage networks in Northern Sweden, with six and 83 customers. The lowest background voltage and highest consumption per customer are obtained from measurements. It is shown that both have a big impact on the hosting capacity. The hosting capacity also depends strongly on the charging size, within the range of charging size expected in the near future. The large range in hosting capacity found from this study—between 0% and 100% of customers can simultaneously charge their EV car—means that such hosting capacity studies are needed for each individual distribution network. The highest hosting capacity for the illustrative distribution networks was obtained for the 3.7 kW single-phase and 11 kW three-phase EV charging power. 

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  • 49.
    Mulenga, Enock
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Distribution networks measured background voltage variations, probability distributions characterization and Solar PV hosting capacity estimations2021In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 192, article id 106979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaics in electricity distribution networks is often limited by the rise in voltage magnitude. The pre-connection voltage magnitude is an important factor that determines the hosting capacity.

    This paper studies to which extent details of the pre-connection voltage magnitude impact the hosting capacity. Extensive measurements of voltage magnitude and solar power production were obtained for a number of distribution networks with 10-minute resolution. The measured background voltage during the sunny-hours from the two-year measurements was used to obtain representative probability distribution functions. A guide for selecting the time-of-day (ToD) used is presented.

    The obtained probability distribution functions are applied to estimate the stochastic hosting capacity for a low-voltage distribution network with 83 customers. The impact of various details on the hosting capacity are studied.

    The results show that general knowledge about the range of the pre-connection voltage are essential for the hosting capacity estimation. Measurements over one year were shown to be sufficient to estimate the hosting capacity. The hosting capacity considering the entire day was underestimated by 11 % when compared to the 10 am – 2 pm sunny-hours. The proposed method is general and can be applied to other aleatory uncertainties and other types of hosting capacity studies.

  • 50.
    Mulenga, Enock
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Vattenfall R&D, Sweden.
    Overvoltage due to single-phase and three-phase connected PV and what to do about it2019In: CIRED 2019 Proceedings, AIM , 2019, article id 370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the overvoltage caused by single and three-phase connected PV to a low-voltage distribution grid. Statistics are obtained based on source-impedance data for 40 000 customers. A stochastic approach is applied to a 28-customer low-voltage network and the probability of overvoltage is assessed. It is shown that the voltage rise due to single-phase connected PV is six times the rise for three-phase connected PV.To mitigate the overvoltage, grid-reinforcement, reactive power compensation, curtailment and coordinated connection of PV can be used. It is shown that reactive compensation is not effective in LV grids due to high R/X ratio. Coordinated connection helps in reducing the overvoltages caused by single-phase PV.Policy suggestions towards three-phase PV installations and coordinated single-phase PV connections are included in the paper.

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