Change search
Refine search result
1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sensing capability of nanomodified Portland cement composites2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensing cement-based composites refer to composites that have sensing functionality that can measure several physical and chemical parameters. Sensing cement-based composites are fabricated by incorporating some functional fillers, such as conductive fibers (CFs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and graphene, into conventional concrete. The self-sensing phenomenon in a material is based on the property of an electrically conductive material to show a change in its electrical resistivity. Several factors affect the electrical resistivity of cement-based composites. These include, for example, the type of added conductive phases, their concentration, the microstructure of the surrounding binder matrix, and its composition or moisture content. Variable stress, strains, relative humidity, temperature, or crack development can all affect conductivity.

    A novel material, so-called "nanomodified Portland cement," is an in situ synthesis of carbon-based materials on untreated Portland cement particles. The synthesized method is based on the application of a chemical vapor deposition process (CVD). The nanomodified Portland cement was produced and used as a conductive filler in a sensing cement-based composite to improve the dispersion issue of the carbon-based materials, which have a hydrophobic nature and the tendency to agglomerate in the cement-based composites.

    The sensing capability of the nanomodified Portland cement composites was studied and compared with other conductive materials, revealing the percolation threshold and tunneling phenomena as possible explanations for the sensing mechanism with and without mechanical deformation.

    The achieved results of this study suggest that nanomodified Portland cement is a promising material for use in sensing cement-based composites as it exhibits high sensitivity to compressive stress and strain, humidity, and temperature. Furthermore, it has the potential to be utilized in the development of integrated monitoring systems for concrete structures.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    State of the Art on Sensing Capability of Poorly or Nonconductive Matrixes with a Special Focus on Portland Cement–Based Materials2019In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 31, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete is a well-established and the most used but also well-characterized building material in the world. However, many old and new-build structures suffer from premature failures due to extensive deterioration and decreased load-bearing capacity. Consequently, structural monitoring systems are essential to ensure safe usage of concrete structures within and beyond the designed life. Traditional monitoring systems are based on metallic sensors installed in crucial locations throughout the structure. Unfortunately, most of them have a relatively low reliability and very short life span when exposed to often very harsh environments. The ideal solution is therefore to develop a smart concrete having itself self-sensing capability. A number of studies show that conductive cementitious matrixes will undergo changes in their electrical resistivity with variations of stresses, strains or, developing microcracking. This can be used as a reliable tool to measure changes. This review provides a comprehensive overview of several non-conductive matrixes, with special focus on Portland cement based materials showing self-sensing capabilities by description of detection mechanisms, sensing capabilities, limitations and potential applications.  

  • 3.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Load Sensing Capability of Cementitious Matrixes—Nanomodified Cement Versus Carbon Nanotube Dispersion2019In: Proceedings: The 1st International Conference on Smart Materials for Sustainable Construction, SMASCO 2019 / [ed] Andrzej Cwirzen, Karin Habermehl-Cwirzen, Carina Hannu, Magdalena Rajczakowska, Ilda Tole, Thanyarat Buasiri, Ankit Kothari and Vasiola Zhaka, MDPI, 2019, Vol. 34, article id 19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cement-based matrix incorporating conductive materials such as carbon nanotubes and carbon nanofibers can have self-sensing capability. Both nanomaterials are characterized by excellent physical, mechanical and electrical properties. A disadvantage is that due to their hydrophobic nature it is very difficult to ensure uniform dispersion throughout the cementitious matrix. To overcome this problem a new nanomodified cement containing in-situ attached CNFs was developed leading to a very homogenous and conductive binder matrix. This study aimed to compare the piezoresistive responses of two types of matrixes, one based on the nanomodified cement and the second containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Several mortars were prepared containing either MWCNTs or the nanomodified cement, which partially replaced the untreated cement. The effective amount of the carbon nanomaterials was the same for both types of mixes and ranged from 0 wt.% to 0.271 wt.%, calculated by the all binder weight. Changes in the electrical properties were determined while applying compressive load. The results showed that the binders based on the nanomodified cement have significantly better load sensing capabilities and are suitable for applications in monitoring systems.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Novel humidity sensors based on nanomodified Portland cement2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, article id 8189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commonly used humidity sensors are based on metal oxides, polymers or carbon. Their sensing accuracy often deteriorates with time, especially when exposed to higher temperatures or very high humidity. An alternative solution based on the utilization of Portland cement-based mortars containing in-situ grown carbon nanofibers (CNFs) was evaluated in this study. The relationship between the electrical resistivity, CNF content and humidity were determined. The highest sensitivity was observed for samples containing 10 wt.% of the nanomodified cement which corresponded to 0.27 wt.% of CNFs. The highest calculated sensitivity was approximately 0.01024 per 1% change in relative humidity (RH). The measured electrical resistivity is a linear function of the RH in the humidity range between 11% and 97%. The percolation threshold value was estimated to be at around 7 wt.% of the nanomodified cement, corresponding to ~0.19 wt.% of CNFs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    Silesian University of Technology, The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Piezoresistive Load Sensing and Percolation Phenomena in Portland Cement Composite Modified with In-Situ Synthesized Carbon Nanofibers2019In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were directly synthesized on Portland cement particles by chemical vapor deposition. The so-produced cements contained between 2.51–2.71 wt% of CNFs; depending on the production batch. Several mortar mixes containing between 0 and 10 wt% of the modified cement were produced and the electrical properties at various ages and the load sensing capabilities determined. The percolation threshold related to the electrical conductivity was detected and corresponded to the amount of the present CNFs, 0.271, 0.189, 0.135 and 0.108 wt%. The observed threshold depended on the degree of hydration of the Portland cement. The studied mortars showed a strong piezoresistive response to the applied compressive load reaching a 17% change of the electrical resistivity at an applied load of 3.5 MPa and 90% at 26 MPa. This initial study showed that the studied material is potentially suitable for future development of novel fully integrated monitoring systems for concrete structures.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Piezoresistive response of nanomodified Portland cement under bending2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Role of Carbon Nanofiber on the Electrical Resistivity of Mortar under Compressive Load2021In: Transportation Research Record, ISSN 0361-1981, E-ISSN 2169-4052, Vol. 2675, no 9, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A nanomodified cement consisting of particles with in situ synthesized carbon nanofibers was developed to introduce a strong load-sensing capability of the hydrated binder matrix. The material was produced using chemical vapor deposition. The nanomodified cement contained 2.71 wt% of carbon nanofibers (CNFs). The electrical properties of the composite were determined. Several mortar samples were prepared by partially substituting ordinary Portland cement with 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 wt% of the nanomodified cement. Additionally an ordinary Portland cement mortar was used as reference. The results show that the strongest piezoresistive response and therefore the best load-sensing was obtained for the mortar containing the highest amount of CNFs. This mortar contained 10 wt% of nanomodified cement. The fractional change in electrical resistivity of this mortar was 82% and this mortar had a compressive strength of 28 MPa.

  • 8.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Sensing mechanisms of nanomodified Portland cement composites2024In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 151, article id 105602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortar sensors were fabricated as beams incorporating different amounts of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) synthesized in-situ on cement particles. Changes in electrical resistivity were measured and compared to recorded changes in compressive stress, temperature, and humidity. Sensing mechanisms and corresponding models were developed. The findings of the study indicate that the piezoresistive effect is influenced by the critical concentration of CNFs inside the composite matrix and the tunneling effect. In addition, water absorption and desorption, as well as the amount of chemically bound water played an important role in humidity sensing. Thermal fluctuation-induced tunneling conduction was dominant for the temperature sensitivity.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Kothari, Ankit
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Krzeminski, Lukasz
    The Institute of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, Silesian University of Technology, 44-100, Gliwice, Poland.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Monitoring temperature and hydration by mortar sensors made of nanomodified Portland cement2024In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 57, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortar beams incorporating carbon nanofibers (CNFs), which were synthesized in situ on Portland cement particles, were used to produce nanomodified Portland cement sensors (SmartCem sensors). SmartCem sensors exhibited an electrical response comparable to a thermistor with a temperature coefficient of resistivity of − 0.0152/ °C. The highest temperature sensing was obtained for the SmartCem sensor, which contained ~ 0.271 wt.% of CNFs. The calculated temperature sensitivity was approximately 11.76% higher in comparison with the mortar beam containing only unmodified Portland cement. SmartCem sensors were used to monitor the cement hydration in large-scale self-compacting concrete beams. The measurements were conducted after casting for 7 days. Additionally, commercially available thermocouple and humidity sensors were used as references. The results showed that changes in electrical resistivity measured by the SmartCem sensor were well aligned with the ongoing hydration processes.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Gulisano, Federico
    et al.
    Departamento de Ingeniería del Transporte, Territorio y Urbanismo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Apaza, Freddy Richard Apaza
    Departamento de Ingeniería del Transporte, Territorio y Urbanismo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gallego, Juan
    Departamento de Ingeniería del Transporte, Territorio y Urbanismo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
    Piezoresistive behavior of electric arc furnace slag and graphene nanoplatelets asphalt mixtures for self-sensing pavements2022In: Automation in Construction, ISSN 0926-5805, E-ISSN 1872-7891, Vol. 142, article id 104534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-sensing road pavements can autonomously monitor their stress/strain and damage states without the need for embedded sensors. This kind of multifunctional pavements could be used for the realisation of autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) systems. Moreover, it would permit to collect important traffic data for traffic-monitoring analysis and the development of Vehicle to Infrastructure Communication (V2I) tools, hence contributing to the digitalisation of the transport sector. The sensing mechanism is based on the piezoresistive effect, consisting of a change in the electrical response of the road material when subjected to stress/strain or damage. This paper aims to investigate the piezoresistive behavior of conductive asphalt mixtures with electric arc furnace slag (EAFS) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) for self-sensing application. The results showed that asphalt mixtures with EAFS as fine aggregate and 7 wt% of GNPs exhibited excellent self-sensing properties for both traffic monitoring and SHM systems.

  • 11.
    Gulisano, Federico
    et al.
    Departamento de Ingeniería del Transporte, Territorio y Urbanismo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Gallego, Juan
    Departamento de Ingeniería del Transporte, Territorio y Urbanismo, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/Profesor Aranguren 3, 28040, Madrid, Spain.
    Monitoring Road Infrastructures with Self-sensing Asphalt Pavements2023In: European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring: EWSHM 2022 / [ed] Piervincenzo Rizzo; Alberto Milazzo, Springer Nature, 2023, Vol. 1, p. 784-793Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) of road pavements is an essential task, which can help the decision-making process for timely maintenance actions. Embedded sensors are typically used to collect long-term monitoring data. However, the main drawbacks of intrusive sensors concern the risk of premature damage and the incompatibility of the sensors with the host material. Self-sensing asphalt mixtures can be used to overcome these limitations. These kinds of smart materials can autonomously monitor their strain and damage states without the need for embedded sensors. The sensing mechanism is based on the piezoresistive effect, consisting of a change in the electrical conductivity of the material when subjected to external loading. To endow the asphalt mixture with piezoresistive function, a proper amount of conductive additive should be incorporated without compromising the mechanical performance of the pavement. The present work aims to design piezoresistive asphalt mixtures for the development of SHM and traffic management systems. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were added to the asphalt mixture with this purpose, and the piezoresistive response was tested at laboratory scale. The results show that piezoresistive asphalt mixtures have excellent self-sensing properties and can be effectively used for SHM, traffic detection and weigh-in-motion applications.

  • 12.
    Kothari, Ankit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Early Age Performance of OPC-GGBFS-Concretes Containing Belite-CSA Cement Cured at Sub-Zero Temperatures2023In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study determined how replacing sodium nitrate-based antifreeze admixture (AF) with belite-calcium sulfoaluminate (belite-CSA) cement affects the early age properties of ecological concretes based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS). Concrete specimens were cured at −15 °C and treated in various ways before testing, i.e., no treatment, stored at 20 °C for 12 and 24 h. Generally, the addition of belite-CSA cement shortened the setting time due to the rapid formation of ettringite. The incorporation of 25 wt% of antifreeze admixture (AF) to the OPC-GGBFS concrete cured at −15 °C partially inhibited ice formation and enabled the continuation of hydration processes. This trend was observed for all samples, independent of the applied AF after freezing curing. On the contrary, the addition of 20 wt% of CSA failed to inhibit the ice formation and increased the risk of frost damage for concretes despite the treatment after freezing. These concrete specimens had lower hydration, lower strength, and a more porous binder matrix. The microstructure of the binder matrix was significantly affected by the amount of CSA and extreme negative curing, followed by no notable recovery post-curing at room temperature. Therefore, pre-curing at room temperature for at least 6 h has the potential to avoid frost damage. Concrete containing 25 wt% AF combined with 12 h and 24 h of curing at 20 °C after removal from freezing and prior to testing could enhance the compressive strengths of all concretes. The renewed hydration was indicated as the main influencing factor.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Kothari, Ankit
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Rajczakowska, Magdalena
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Buasiri, Thanyarat
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Habermehl-Cwirzen, Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Cwirzen, Andrzej
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.
    Eco-UHPC as Repair Material-Bond Strength, Interfacial Transition Zone and Effects of Formwork Type2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 24, article id 5778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reduced carbon footprint and longer service life of structures are major aspects of circular economy with respect to civil engineering. The aim of the research was to evaluate the interfacial bond properties between a deteriorated normal strength concrete structure and a thin overlay made of Eco-UHPC containing 50 wt% of limestone filler. Two types of formwork were used: untreated rough plywood and surface treated shuttering plywood. The normal strength concrete elements were surface scaled using water jets to obtain some degradation prior to casting of the UHPC overlay. Ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), bond test (pull-off test), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) were used for analysis. Elements repaired with the Eco-UHPC showed significantly improved mechanical properties compared to the non-deteriorated NSC sample which was used as a reference. The bond strength varied between 2 and 2.7 MPa regardless of the used formwork. The interfacial transition zone was very narrow with only slightly increased porosity. The untreated plywood, having a rough and water-absorbing surface, created a surface friction-based restraint which limited microcracking due to autogenous shrinkage. Shuttering plywood with a smooth surface enabled the development of higher tensile stress on the UHPC surface, which led to a more intensive autogenous shrinkage cracking. None of the formed microcracks penetrated through the entire thickness of the overlay and some were partly self-healed when a simple water treatment was applied. The project results showed that application of UHPC as repair material for concrete structures could elongate the lifespan and thus enhance the sustainability.

1 - 13 of 13
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf