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  • 1.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Model-Integrated Engineering of Smart Energy Distribution Systems2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is a method that is used to support analysis, design, independent verification, and validation inherent in the development of software and hardware systems. MBSE applications are present in many areas of our daily lives, including manufacturing, robotics, healthcare, automation, etc. However, despite their rapid and sustainable growth during the last few years, the MBSE methods themselves are quite far from perfect. There are some current problems, which resist more rapid penetration of MBSE systems in their development. One of them is the issue of interoperability between different MBSE tools since most of them are vendor-specific. Although vendor dependency has been a problem well before the conceptualization of MBSE this problem is especially actual for the MBSE due to the heterogeneity of the concepts (model, systems thinking, and systems engineering) that it is based on. Furthermore, there is currently a gap between the development of a simulation model and the development of a control system for that model. Currently, this problem is usually solved by involving two or more groups of engineers, where each of these groups works on their problems. All this costs companies additional engineering time and, as a result, development costs. Therefore, new, and more sophisticated approaches for the generation of MBSEs are needed to overcome the challenges highlighted above

    To narrow the field of study and better focus on specific problems, smart power distribution systems have been chosen as the main research object for this dissertation. Furthermore, the author uses the term Digital Twin to refer to the multilayered structure of the complex distributed automation system consisting of three layers, that is:

    – the static machine-readable information about the infrastructure of the smart energy system,

    – the simulation model layer,

    – the distributed control layer for the investigated smart energy system.

    In particular, the semi-automated approach is presented in Article C of this thesis. The proposed approach is semi-automated because it generates the MATLAB script of the simulation model rather than the model itself. To generate the model, the user needs to automatically generate it in MATLAB (a link to a detailed video describing this process is provided in Article C). IEC 61850 specification files, written in substation configuration language, are used as a starting point for further conversions.

    The IEC 61850 standard is a key component of the current dissertation. IEC 61850 is an international standard that covers different sides of smart energy distribution systems, including communication protocols for diverse equipment in a substation, including protection, control, and measurement equipment, as well as intelligent electronic devices(IEDs).

    The dissertation consists of five papers, each of which aims at a specific goal, namely:

    – Paper A touches upon interoperability problems between information architecture of different communication protocols (IEC61850/GOOSE - transformer substations, OpenADR - smart buildings, OCPP - electric vehicles), and proposes a concept for solving that problem.

    – Paper B describes the design challenges of the SIMULINK model, which is considered the modeling layer of the multi-layer structure of the Digital Twin. As an example, a model of a datacenter is evaluated, designed, and validated against real data.

    – In Paper C, an approach for information model automatic transformation from IEC61850 to OCPP is proposed. A test programming application was built, based on the proposed approach, and the generated OCPP information model was tested with the help of third-party programming tools.

    – Paper D presents a performance analysis of the BeagleBone Black as an IEC61850Merging Unit simulator. The goal is to determine how well BeagleBone Black’shardware and software performance meets the IEC61850 Merging Unit requirements.– Paper E reveals an approach for converting a MATLAB/SIMULINK model to an FPGA-in-Loop system. The goal is to make a step towards automation of the digital twin design process and discuss the various barriers to achieving it.

    Thus, the work presented in this dissertation raises questions about compatibility between different standards, the problems of converting the IEC 61850 information model to MBSE, the verification of the generated MBSE against the original IEC 61850 information model, the problems of hardware incompatibility with the target programming application, and the problems designing a Digital Twin model from SIMULINK (as an example in this thesis). 

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  • 2.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Model-Integrated Engineering of Smart Energy Distribution Systems2023Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) is a formal method that is used to support analysis, design, independent verification, and validation inherent in the development of software and hardware systems. MBSE applications are present in many areas of our daily lives, including manufacturing, robotics, healthcare, automation, etc. However, despite their rapid and sustainable growth during the last few years, the MBSE methods themselves are quite far away from perfect. There are some current problems, which resist more rapid penetration of MBSE systems in their development. One of them is that currently the majority of MBSE systems are vendor dependent and, as a result, they have poor compatibility with each other. Furthermore, currently, there is a gap between the design of a digital model and a control model of an engineering system. Currently, this problem is usually solved by involving two or more groups of engineers, where each of these groups works on their own problems. All this costs companies additional engineering time and, as a result, development costs. Therefore new, and more sophisticated approaches for the generation of MBSEs are needed in order to overwhelm the challenges highlighted above.

    In order to narrow the field of study and better concentrate on specific problems, smart power distribution systems have been chosen as the main research object for this dissertation. Thus, in this work, the author introduces Model-Integrated Systems Engineering (MISE), as the MBSE sub-discipline. Here and later in this paper, the author will refer to MISE as the main area of interest. Also, the author uses the term DigitalTwin to refer to the multilayered structure of a complex distributed automation system consisting of three layers, namely:– the static machine-readable information about the infrastructure of the smart energy system,– the simulation model layer,– the distributed control layer for the investigated smart energy system.

    In general, two new transformation approaches for automatic MISE generation are discussed in the scope of this dissertation, namely:1. Transformation of the System Configuration Design (SCD) files of an electric system(presented in IEC 61850) into the corresponding SIMULINK model.2. Transformation of specification files of electronic components into corresponding OPC UA information model.All discussed approaches are implemented in the form of a program code that is publicly available on the Internet.

    The IEC 61850 and OPC UA standards are considered key components of the current dissertation. IEC 61850 is an international standard covering different sides of smart energy distribution systems including communication protocols for diverse equipment in a substation, including protection, control, and measurement equipment, as well as intelligent electronic devices (IEDs). Information Modeling OPC UA is a platform-independent service-oriented architecture that combines the concepts of semantic modeling.

    First, the structure of the IEC 61850 standard is discussed, as well as its potential benefits for the MISE of smart power distribution systems in terms of the automatic transformation of the information model.

    Next, the architecture of the electrical system (the SCD file) of the electrical vehicle (EV) charging station (CS) is proposed as an example. The aim is to design a mechanism for the automatic transformation of MISE in two domains, namely:- Physical model of the electrical system itself,- Automatically build a communication channel between the digital replica (the model) of the electrical system and the virtual energy management system (EMS).

    Thus, this work aims to contribute to the design and virtual commissioning of Digital Twin systems, as well as to improve the interoperability between IEC 61850 compliant systems and electric vehicle charging stations (paper C explains that in more detail).

    Finally, by narrowing down the scope of the investigation to one specific electrical device, a new approach for converting integrated circuit (IC) specification files of an electric system into an OPC UA information model is discussed. The designed transformation algorithm is based on the directed graphs theory (paper D explains that in more detail). The purpose of this work is to highlight and contribute to the problems of the MISE analysis solutions. 

    In summary, the work presented in this dissertation raises questions about interoperability between different standards, the problems of converting the IEC 61850 information model into MISE, verification of the generated MISE compared to the original IEC 61850 information model, and the problems of forming an information model OPC UA.

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  • 3.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Ruchkin, Michail
    Independent researcher, Belarus.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Dubinin, Viktor
    Independent researcher, Belarus.
    Automatic Generation of Data centre Digital Twins for Virtual Commissioning of their Automation Systems2023In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 11, p. 4633-4644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data centres are becoming an increasingly important part of our society’s infrastructure. The number of data centres is growing constantly, making growing the gross level of electrical energy consumption. At the same time, the rapid spread of sophisticated electrical devices as well as other automation systems, in general, produces an opportunity for making data centres an attractive player in the constantly designing energy market. But for this, new advanced technologies must be applied to solve the problems of complexity and heterogeneity in various types of data centre design. A new concept, which is based on the automated generation of a digital twin (DT) system, is directly from its schematic representations presented in this paper. A DT is a virtual version of an object or system, designed to aid decision-making and virtual commissioning through simulation, machine learning, and reasoning. In the scope of current work, the IEC 61850 standard is chosen as a starting point for a multi-step generation of the DT combining simulation model and decentralized control logic. As a result, the designed DT “clone” of an electrical system consists of the SIMULINK model of the electrical system plus the automatically generated control application (based on the IEC 61499 standard).

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  • 4.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Berezovskaya, Yulia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vesterlund, Mattias
    ICE Data Center, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB, 97347 Luleå, Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    On Modelling of Edge Datacentre Microgrid for Participation in Smart Energy Infrastructures2022In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, E-ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 3, p. 50-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Datacentres are becoming a sizable part of the energy system and are one of the biggest consumers of the energy grid. The so-called “Green Datacentre” is capable of not only consuming but also producing power, thus becoming an important kind of prosumers in the electric grid. Green datacentres consist of a microgrid with a backup uninterrupted power supply and renewable generation, e.g., using photovoltaic panels. As such, datacentres could realistically be important participants in demand/response applications. However, this requires reconsidering their currently rigid control and automation systems and the use of simulation models for online estimation of the control actions impact. This paper presents such a microgrid simulation model modelled after a real edge datacentre. A case study consumption scenario is presented for the purpose of validating the developed microgrid model against data traces collected from the green edge datacentre. Both simulation and real-time validation tests are performed to validate the accuracy of the datacentre model. Then the model is connected to the automation environment to be used for the online impact estimation and virtual commissioning purposes.

  • 5.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Bollen, Math
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University Espoo, Finland.
    Wu, Yiming
    Vattenfall R&D, Solna, Sweden.
    Toolset Development for Modelling Sympathetic Phenomenon and its Detection by a Neural Network2023In: 2023 IEEE 2nd Industrial Electronics Society Annual On-Line Conference (ONCON), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Etherden, Nicholas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Science. Vattenfall R&D, Solna, Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Microcomputer Prototyping of IEC61850-9-2 with Performance Analysis2023In: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

  • 7.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Nordström, Lars
    Department of electric power and energy systems Electrical Engineering and Computer Science,Stockholm,Sweden.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Prototyping Multi-Protocol Communication to enable semantic interoperability for Demand response Services2021In: 2021 IEEE International Conference on Communications, Control, and Computing Technologies for Smart Grids (SmartGridComm), IEEE, 2021, p. 15-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In future demand response scenarios, a multitude of different types of resources are potentially to be used, e.g., electric vehicles, flexible residential loads, and battery storage systems. To solve the problem of real-time communication of data among the various resources, it is likely that several different communication protocols and most importantly differing semantic models, must be used. An aggregator utilizing several types of resources is therefore potentially faced with a problem of semantic interoperability. This paper addresses this challenge by presenting a testbed consisting of a microgrid model integrated with several controllers communicating with industrial grade protocols for demand response, including IEC 61850, OpenChargePoint protocol (OCPP), OpenADR and UDP. The testbed forms a basis for further development of a semantic canvas to enable forecasting, activation and clearing of heterogenous demand response resources.

  • 8.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland.
    Automatic Generation of Charging Point's Digital Twin for Virtual Commissioning of Their Automation Systems2023In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, E-ISSN 2644-1284, Vol. 4, p. 14-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wide propagation of electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure integrated into the energy distribution network poses numerous challenges for the engineering and control of the latter: the load dynamic characteristics become more unsteady, requiring more advanced control, predictions, and virtual commissioning. One step toward the automation of the design and simulation of new charging stations can be reached through the integration of the EV-specific standards and protocols with other widely spread electrical standards, thereby, improving the compatibility between standards, increasing the reuse of the intelligent work results, and promoting the development of EVs’ infrastructure. A method for virtual commissioning of electrical charging stations is proposed, implemented, and tested in a form of a software tool in which the electrical system description from the widely used IEC 61850 standard is used as an input. The designed tool builds a digital twin of the charging station that consists of its Simulink model as well as two automatically generated communication code primitives using the open charge point protocol for control and management purposes over the autogenerated model. The generated digital twin can be used for virtual commissioning purposes. The application of the method is illustrated in a case study.

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  • 9.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, 02150, Finland.
    Towards the Automatic Transformation of the SIMULINK Model into an FPGA-in-Loop System and its Real-Time Simulation2024In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information is a key component of progress. Industry 4.0, and especially the future Industry 5.0, is closely related to the topic of the Digital Twin, where virtual components interact with each other. The main advantage of such a system is that it can fully mimic the behaviour of the complicated system, including various unexpected perturbations such as noise, jitter, delays, etc. Thus, the ability to create complex models and run them in real-time is a basic need for extending the Digital Twin. One of the major problems in the development of digital twins is the increasing complexity of the models. Therefore, large processing capacities and parallel computation become critical. The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is a type of hardware that best fits this task. The FPGA-in-the-loop (FiL) can be considered as the container for running the Digital-Twin model. The transformation of a digital model into FiL is known and used by many companies at this time. However, the authors found that there are no publicly available model-to-FiL transformation methods. In this paper, the authors aim to fill this gap. We first discuss the major design challenges of a FiL system and provide recommendations to overcome them in the form of a road map. We then demonstrate a step-by-step process for converting a simple MATLAB/SIMULINK model to a FiL system using the proposed road map. Finally, we will demonstrate the validation process of the designed FiL systems and prove that they are running in real-time.

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  • 10.
    Lyu, Tuojian
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Liakh, Tatiana
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Methods of data streaming from IEC 61499 applications to Cloud storages2023In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    On interoperability of Datacentre and the Energy market in the Nordic Region2023In: 2023 IEEE 32nd International Symposium on Industrial Electronics (ISIE), IEEE, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Yang, Chen-Wei
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Galkin, Nikolai
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
    Vyatkin, Valeriy
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science. Aalto University, Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Espoo, Finland.
    Towards Interoperability of Edge Datacentre in the Energy Community with IEC 61850 Modelling2023In: IECON 2023 - 49th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Green modular datacentres are a new class of datacentres which can reduce the carbon footprints of the datacentre industry which accounts for close to 1% of total energy use worldwide. Green modular datacentres can operate as a prosumer and contribute energy to the energy grid through participation in the energy market as a part of the energy community. This paper investigates the interoperability of the datacentre in the energy community by proposing an IEC 61850 Logical Device model for a green modular datacentre. The applicability of the datacentre model is demonstrated through the re-implementation of the Energy Management System of an edge datacentre installation with the proposed IEC 61850 Logical Device model and its logical implementation in IEC 61499.

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